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PACKAGING OF PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

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CONTENTS:
 PACKAGING
 FUNCTIONS OF PACKAGING
 TYPES OF PACKAGING
 COMPONENTS OF PACKAGING
 AEROSOL PACKAGING
 CONTAINER & CLOSURES
 PACKAGE TESTING
 REFERENCES

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PACKAGING
Packaging has been defined as the means economically providing :-

• Presentation

• Identification

• Protection

• Convenience

• Containment during storage

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TYPES OF PACKAGING:
1. SOLID PRODUCTS

2. SEMI-SOLID PRODUCT

3. LIQUID PRODUCTS

4. UNIT PACKS

5. CHILD RESISTANCE PACKAGING

6. TEMPER RESISTANCE PACKAGING

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1. SOLID PRODUCTS:

 Solid dosages form such as tablets and capsules are by far the most commonly used today.
 Traditionally they have been packed in bottles, originally made from glass but latterly from
various plastics.
 The walls of the container are usually amber or completely opaque to minimize the
possibility of photo degradation.
 Powder or granules have a variety of role when used as a final dosage form.
 They usually packed as single dosages in flexible sachets.

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2. SEMI-SOLID PRODUCT
 The relevant characteristics of these products for packaging purpose are that they are often too viscous
to flow but contain a sufficient amount of water to be classified as “wet ” products.

Semi solid product include creams, emulsions, gels or ointments.

Flexible tubes are frequently used to contain semi solids.

These can be made from aluminium or plastic such as polyethylene.

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3. LIQUID PRODUCTS

Traditionally glass has been the material of choice for the packaging of liquid but a
variety of plastics is now widely used providing they have little or no permeability to
the liquid

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UNIT PACKS:
Unit packs in which individual dosage are separated from each other are popular for
many type of dosage form.

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CHILD RESISTANCE PACKAGING:

Child resistance container work on one of two principle-


Certain degree of strength will be needed to open the product.
High degree of manual coordination is required

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TAMPER RESISTANCE PACKAGING:

Tamper resistance can be conferred on a pack by using a roll on closure


which has a perforated collar
Which grips on to a lip on the bottle neck & these perforation must be
broken before the cap can be unscrewed.

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COMPONENTS OF PACKAGING:
I. GLASS

II. METALS

III. RUBBERS

IV. PLASTICS

V. FIBROUS MATERIALS

VI. FOIL, FILMS &LAMINATES

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I. GLASS:
Glass is composed of sand, soda ash, limestone,& cullet.

Si, Al, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn & Ba are generally used into preparation of
glass
 ADVANTAGE:

 They are transparent.


 They have good protection power.
 They can be easily labelled.

DISADVANTAGE:

 Glass is fragile so easily broken.


 Release alkali to aqueous prerparation.

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 TYPE OF GLASS:

I. COLOURED GLASS OR AMBER GLASS

II. SULPHURED GLASS

III. BOROSILICATE GLASS

IV. TREATED SODALIME GLASS

V. REGULAR SODALIME GLASS

VI. GENERAL PURPOSE SODALIME GLASS

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PLASTICS:

These are synthetic polymers of high molecular weight.


These containers are made from following polymers :
a) POLYETHYLENE
b) POLYVINYL CHLORIDE
c) POLYSTYRENE
d) NYLON
e) POLYCARBONATE

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METALS:

 The thickest aluminium is used for rigid containers. Eg. Aerosol cans

 Intermediate thickness is steel important but the pack should be


capable of being deformed under a reasonable force. Eg. Collapsible tube
for semisolid preparations.

 Thinnest aluminium is used in flexible foils.

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RUBBERS:

 Rubbers are excellent material for forming seals so they are used
almost exclusively to form closures such as bungs for vials or in
similar application such as gasket in aerosol can
These are consist of Two types:
a) NATURAL

b) SYNTHETIC

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FIBROUS MATERIALS:
 Paper & board are used in various form for packaging of
pharmaceutical products.

They are used for preparing outer container such as cartons, boxes,
envelopes.

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FOIL, FILMS & LAMINATES
FOILS:
The most important metal for this application is aluminium.

FILMS

Cellophane is an attractive transparent film which can be colored


and printed upon so it useful as outer wrap.

LAMINATES

Laminates are used to combine the properties of individual foil and


films and strictly are made by bonding the layer with adhesive.

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AEROSOL PACKGING

Aerosol may be defined as disperse phase system in which very fine


solid particles or liquid droplets get dispersed in the gas which act as
continuous phase.
ADVANTAGE:
Absence of air prevents oxidation of the product
The application of medicaments is easier

DISADVANTAGE:

Aerosols are costly preparation


Some of the propellants are very toxic

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PARTS OF AEROSOL CONTAINER
I. CONTAINER

II. VALVE

III. ACTUATOR

IV. DIP TUBE

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 CONTAINER AND CLOSURE

CONTAINER:
 Pharmaceutical containers has been defined as a device that
holds the drugs or it may or may not be indirect contact with the
pharmaceutical preparation.
TYPES OF CONTAINERS

I. WELL CLOSED CONTAINER


II. SINGLE DOSE CONTAINER
III. MULTI DOSE CONTAINER
IV. LIGHT RESISTANCE CONTAINER
V. AIR TIGHT CONTAINER
VI. AEROSOL CONTAINER

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CLOSURE:

An effective closure must prevent the contents from escaping & allow no
substance to the container.
 TYPE OF CLOSURE:

A. PLUG TYPE
B. CROWN TYPE
C. PUSH FIT TYPE
D. SCREW TYPE

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COMMON TYPE OF PACKAGING

1) BLISTER PACKAGING

2) STRIP PACKAGING

3) BUBBLE PACKAGING

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 REFERENCES:
I. Aulton Michael E., “Aulton’s Pharmaceutics The Design and Manufacture of Medicines”, Edited by
Churchill Livingstone Elsevier limited, 3rd edition,2007,pp 626-639.

II. Lachman leon, Lieberman Herbert A., Kanig Joseph L., “The theory & practice of industrial pharmacy”
published by Varghese publishing house, bombay, 3rd edition,1991,pp 711-732.

III. Cooper and Gunn’s, “Tutorial pharmacy”, edited by S.J.Carter,Publishing by CBS publisher &distributors,
Delhi, 6th edition, 2005,pp 131-141.

IV. Mehta R.M., “Pharmaceutics- 1”Published by vallabh prakashan, delhi, 2nd edition, pp 73-93.

V. http://www.ipapharma.org/events/Stability/JBhat.pdf (15/11/09)

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THANKYOU

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QUERIES????
??????

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