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Psychology and the Brain
Biological
Foundations of
Psychology
Neurons

Brain Imaging Techniques

Structure and Function of the Brain

The Nervous System

Biological Foundations of Psychology

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The Endocrine System
Biological
Foundations of
Psychology
Genetics and Behavior
(continued)

Biological Foundations of Psychology

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Biological Foundations of Psychology > Psychology and the Brain

Psychology and the Brain


• Studying the Brain

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Biological Foundations of Psychology > Neurons

Neurons
• Introducing the Neuron
• Stages of the Action Potential
• Mechanics of the Action Potential
• Neurotransmitters
• Neural Networks

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Biological Foundations of Psychology > Brain Imaging Techniques

Brain Imaging Techniques


• Brain Imaging Techniques

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Biological Foundations of Psychology > Structure and Function of the Brain

Structure and Function of the Brain


• Development of the Human Brain
• Lower-Level Structures
• Cerebral Cortex
• Cerebral Hemispheres and Lobes of the Brain
• The Limbic System
• Neuroplasticity

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brain-35/
Biological Foundations of Psychology > The Nervous System

The Nervous System


• Introduction to the Nervous System
• The Central Nervous System (CNS)
• The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

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Biological Foundations of Psychology > The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System


• The Endocrine System
• The Endocrine System and Stress
• The Endocrine System and Hunger

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Biological Foundations of Psychology > Genetics and Behavior

Genetics and Behavior


• Chromosomes and Genes
• Gene-Environment Correlations: Nature or Nurture?
• The Influence of Genes on Behavior
• The Influence of Behavior on Genes

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Appendix
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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Key terms
• action potential A short-term change in the electrical potential that travels along a cell, such as a nerve or muscle fiber, and
allows nerves to communicate.
• action potential A short-term change in the electrical potential that travels along a cell, such as a nerve or muscle fiber, and
allows nerves to communicate.
• action potential A short-term change in the electrical potential that travels along a cell (such as a nerve or muscle fiber); the
basis of neural communication.
• action potential A short-term change in the electrical potential that travels along a cell such as a nerve or muscle fiber, and
allows nerves to communicate.
• afferent Leading toward the central nervous system.
• apoptosis The process of programmed cell death.
• autonomic nervous system The part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary activity of the heart, intestines, and
glands, including digestion, respiration, perspiration, metabolism, and blood-pressure modulation.
• autosome Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
• behavioral genetics The field of study that examines the role of genetics in animal (including human) behavior; often involves
the nature-versus-nurture debate.
• brain stem The part of the brain that connects the spinal cord to the forebrain and cerebrum.
• cell assembly Also referred to as Hebbian theory; the concept that "cells that fire together wire together," meaning neural
networks can be created through associative experience and learning.
• central nervous system In vertebrates, the part of the nervous system comprising the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

• cerebellum Part of the hindbrain in vertebrates. In humans it lies between the brainstem and the cerebrum, and plays an
important role in sensory perception, motor output, balance, and posture.
• cerebral cortex The grey, folded, outermost layer of the cerebrum responsible for higher brain processes such as sensation,
voluntary muscle movement, thought, reasoning, and memory.
• cerebrum In humans it is the largest part of the brain and is the seat of motor and sensory functions, as well as the higher
mental functions such as consciousness, thought, reason, emotion, and memory.
• cerebrum The seat of motor and sensory functions, as well as higher mental functions such as consciousness, thought, reason,
emotion, and memory.
• cerebrum In humans, the part of the brain comprising the cerebral cortex and several subcortical structures, including the
hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
• chromosome A structure in the cell nucleus that contains DNA, histone protein, and other structural proteins.
• conductivity The ability of a material to conduct electricity, heat, fluid, or sound.
• corpus callosum A wide, flat bundle of neural fibers beneath the cortex that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres
and facilitates interhemispheric communication.
• corpus callosum In mammals, a broad band of nerve fibres that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain.
• depolarization The act of depriving of polarity, or the result of such action; reduction to an unpolarized condition.
• dorsal With respect to, or concerning the side in which the backbone is located, or the analogous side of an invertebrate.
• dualism The idea that the mind and body are two separate entities which are made of separate substances but interact.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

• efferent Leading away from the central nervous system.


• eicosanoid Any of a family of naturally occurring substances derived from 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids; includes
prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids; function as hormones.
• ethology The scientific study of human and animal behavior.
• fetal alcohol syndrome Any of a spectrum of birth defects resulting from excessive alcohol consumption by the mother during
pregnancy.
• gene A unit of heredity; a segment of DNA or RNA that is transmitted from one generation to the next and that carries genetic
information such as the sequence of amino acids for a protein.
• gene A unit of heredity; a segment of DNA or RNA transmitted from one generation to the next, carrying genetic information
such as the sequence of amino acids for a protein.
• gene-environment correlation A relationship in which exposure to environmental conditions correlates with an individual's
genotype.
• genetics The branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics, particularly
chromosomes and DNA.
• gland An organ that synthesizes a substance, such as hormones or breast milk, and releases it, often into the bloodstream or
into cavities inside the body or on its outer surface.
• glial cell Non-neuronal cells that provide structure and support to neurons.
• hard problem of consciousness The question of how purely physical processes can give rise to the experience of
consciousness.
• HPA axis The body's system, comprised of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, for stress regulation.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

• hypothalamus The region of the forebrain below the thalamus, forming the basal portion of the diencephalon; regulates body
temperature and some metabolic processes, and governs the autonomic nervous system.
• innervate To supply nerves to a tissue.
• lateralization Localization of a function, such as speech, to the right or left side of the brain.
• lesion Any abnormality in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
• magnetic field A condition in the space around a magnet or electric current in which there is a detectable magnetic force and
two magnetic poles are present.
• medial Pertaining to the inside; closer to the midline.
• membrane potential The voltage across the cell membrane, with the inside relative to the outside.
• monosynaptic reflex Involves a single synapse between the sensory neuron that receives the information and the motor neuron
that responds.
• myelin A white, fatty material composed of lipids and lipoproteins that surrounds the axons of nerves and facilitates swift
communication.
• myelin A white, fatty material composed of lipids and lipoproteins that surrounds the axons of nerves and facilitates swift neural
communication.
• neural impulse The signal transmitted along a nerve fiber, either in response to a stimulus (such as touch, pain, or heat), or as
an instruction from the brain (such as causing a muscle to contract).
• neural tube An embryo's predecessor to the central nervous system.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

• neuron A cell of the nervous system that conducts nerve impulses; consisting of an axon and several dendrites. Neurons are
connected by synapses.
• neuron A cell of the nervous system, which conducts nerve impulses; consisting of an axon and several dendrites. Neurons are
connected by synapses.
• nodes of Ranvier Periodic gaps in the myelin sheath where the signal is recharged as it moves along the axon.
• parasympathetic nervous system One of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system; located between the brain and the
spinal cord; slows the heart and relaxes the muscles.
• peripheral nervous system The part of the nervous system comprising a large system of nerves that are linked to the brain and
spinal cord; this system is divided into the autonomic and somatic nervous systems.
• phenotype The observable expression of a gene.
• phrenology A pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull.
• physiological Relating to the physical and chemical phenomena involved in the function and activities of life or of living matter
(as organs, tissues, or cells).
• plastic Capable of being molded; malleable, flexible, plaint.
• plasticity The ability to change and adapt over time.
• polarity The spatial differences in the shape, structure, and function of cells. Almost all cell types exhibit some sort of polarity,
which enables them to carry out specialized functions.
• polypeptide Any polymer of (same or different) amino acids joined via peptide bonds.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

• polysynaptic reflex Involves at least one interneuron between the sensory and motor neurons.
• proprioception The sense of the position of parts of the body relative to neighbouring parts of the body.
• resting potential The nearly latent membrane potential of inactive cells.
• reuptake The reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neuron after the transmission of a neural impulse across a synapse.
• satiety The state of being pleasantly satisfied or full, as with food.
• somatic nervous system The part of the peripheral nervous system that transmits signals from the central nervous system to
skeletal muscle and from receptors of external stimuli to the central nervous system, thereby mediating sight, hearing, and
touch.
• spinal cord A thick, whitish cord of nerve tissue that is a major part of the central nervous system. It extends from the brain
stem through the spine, with nerves branching off to various parts of the body.
• Starvation The most extreme form of malnutrition; a severe deficiency in caloric energy, nutrient, and vitamin intake.
• stress The activation of the body's emergency fight-or-flight response.
• sympathetic nervous system The part of the autonomic nervous system that raises blood pressure and heart rate, constricts
blood vessels, and dilates the pupils in situations of stress.
• synapse The junction between the terminal of a neuron and either another neuron or a muscle or gland cell, over which nerve
impulses pass.
• synapse The junction between the terminal of a neuron and either another neuron or a muscle or gland cell, over which nerve
impulses pass.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

• ventral On the front side of the human body, or the corresponding surface of an animal, usually the lower surface.
• vesicle A membrane-bound compartment found in a cell.
• vesicle A membrane-bound compartment found in a cell.
• visuospatial Of or pertaining to the visual perception of spatial relationships.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

A molecular model of growth hormone


Growth hormone is used in hormone-replacement therapy in children.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

The embryonic brain


The layers of the embryonic brain. The telencephalon and diencephalon give rise to the forebrain, while the metencephalon and myelencephalon give
rise to the hindbrain.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

The central nervous system


1. Brain 2. Brain stem 3. Spinal cord

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Neuron in the central nervous system


This neuron diagram also shows the oligodendrocyte, myelin sheath, and nodes of Ranvier.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Dolly the sheep


The first successfully cloned animal. Chromosomal and genetic manipulation are controversial topics.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Himalayan rabbit
Exposure to cold temperatures activates pigment-producing genes in the rabbit's extremities.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Brain lesions
Though brain damage is deeply unfortunate, it can help researchers to understand more about the function of different parts of the brain. This image
shows the location of a brain lesion on the left hemisphere which caused the patient to experience partial paralysis on their right bicep.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Neuron & chemical synapse


This image shows electric impulses traveling between neurons; the inset shows a chemical reaction occurring at the synapse.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Hippocampus
This image shows the horned hippocampus deep within the temporal lobe.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Lobes of the brain


A diagram of the brain identifying the different lobes by color. Counterclockwise from bottom: It contains the parietal lobe (green), the occipital lobe (red),
the temporal lobe (yellow), and the frontal lobe (blue).

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Brain MRI
MRI brain scan (in the axial plane—that is, slicing from front-to-back and side-to-side through the head) showing a brain tumor at the bottom right.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

PET scanner
This is a view of the PET scanner from the outside; the radiation detectors are under the covering panel.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Sulci and gyri


As depicted in this diagram of brain structures, sulci are the "valleys" and gyri are the "peaks" in the folds of the brain.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Grey matter and white matter


A sagittal cross-section of a human brain showing the distinct layers of grey matter (the darker outer layer) and white matter (the lighter inner layer) in
the cerebrum.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

The amygdala
The figure shows the location of the amygdala from the underside (ventral view) of the human brain, with the front of the brain at the top of the image.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Neuron growth
Neurons grow throughout adolescence and then are pruned down based on the connections that get the most use.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

The reuptake process


This illustration shows the process of reuptake, in which leftover neurotransmitters are returned to vesicles in the presynaptic cell.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

An fMRI of the brain


An fMRI scan showing regions of activation (in orange) including the primary visual cortex.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is the region of the forebrain below the thalamus that forms the basal portion of the diencephalon. It regulates body temperature and
some metabolic processes, and governs the autonomic nervous system.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

The process of synaptic transmission in neurons


Neurons interact with other neurons by sending a signal, or impulse, along their axon and across a synapse to the dendrites of a neighboring neuron.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

The central nervous system


The three major components of the central nervous system: 1) the brain, 2) brain stem, and 3) spinal cord.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Human and shark brains


The shark brain diverged on the evolutionary tree from the human brain, but both still have the "old" structures of the hindbrain and midbrain dedicated to
autonomic bodily processes.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

The electrical response of a neuron to multiple synaptic inputs


Synaptic responses summate in order to bring the postsynaptic neuron to the threshold of excitation, so it can fire an action potential (represented by the
peak on the chart).

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

The nervous system


The human nervous system, including both the central nervous system (in red: brain, brain stem, and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (in
blue: all other neurons and receptors).

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Limbic system, brain stem, and spinal cord


An image of the brain showing the limbic system in relation to the brain stem and spinal cord.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Hypothalamus
An image of the brain showing the location of the hypothalamus.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Basic parts of the brain, part 1, 3-D anatomy tutorial


http://www.anatomyzone.com 3D anatomy tutorial on the basic parts of the brain using the Zygote Body Browser (http://www.zygotebody.com). This is
the FIRST part, please watch the second part as well! Join the Facebook page for updates: http://www.facebook.com/anatomyzone Follow me on twitter:
http://www.twitter.com/anatomyzone Subscribe to the channel for more videos and updates:
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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Neural networks
A neural network (or neural pathway) is the complex interface through which neurons communicate with one another.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

EEG recording
To prepare for an EEG, electrodes are placed on the face and scalp.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Action potentials
A neuron must reach a certain threshold in order to begin the depolarization step of reaching the action potential.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

The human nervous system


The nervous system of the human body, including the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) and all the nerves of the body (peripheral nervous
system).

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

The structure of a neuron


The above image shows the basic structural components of an average neuron, including the dendrite, cell body, nucleus, Node of Ranvier, myelin
sheath, Schwann cell, and axon terminal.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics


Mendel's work with pea plants demonstrated that certain traits follow particular patterns.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Human chromosome structure


Chromosomes are made up of a variety of gene sequences. By studying chromosomes and genes, scientists are able to determine the genetic basis for
many diseases.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

The limbic system


All the components of the limbic system work together to regulate some of the brain's most important processes.

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MRI of a brain lesion


Cancerous lesion (i.e., tumor) in the brain's right cerebral hemisphere from lung cancer, shown on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with
intravenous contrast.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Lobes of the brain


The brain is divided into four lobes, each of which is associated with different types of mental processes. Clockwise from left: The frontal lobe is in blue at
the front, the parietal lobe in yellow at the top, the occipital lobe in red at the back, and the temporal lobe in green on the bottom.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Broca's and Wernicke's areas


The locations of Broca's and Wernicke's areas in the brain. The Broca's area is at the back of the frontal lobe, and the Wernicke's area is roughly where
the temporal lobe and parietal lobe meet.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Multipolar and pseudounipolar neurons


This diagram shows the difference between: 1) a unipolar neuron; 2) a bipolar neuron; 3) a multipolar neuron; 4) a pseudounipolar neuron.

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Biological Foundations of Psychology

Attribution
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Biological Foundations of Psychology

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