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Organizational Structure of a TV

News Channel
A Day in a News Room
News Director/Editorial Head/Channel Head

Editorial Staff Anchor Technical Staff

Input Output Editing Graphics PCR MCR

Assignment Run-down Producer Panel Producer

Reporters On-Air Off-Air

Ticker/3D Artist/2D Artist

• A typical day in the newsroom kicks off with a morning meeting,
sometimes from the residence of the senior editors through call
conferencing, or at the early hours of the day, between 9 to 10, in the
morning in office
• The participant usually includes, Editorial Head/ Channel Head/ News
Director of the channel, Input Head, Output Head, Programming Head and
other senior officials
• Everyone picks up a copy of the prospects for the day as they go in. The
Programming Head, outlines his plan for the prime time bulletins and
other and then all engages in lively discussion about individual stories and
the key issues of the day
• Editorial head talk about the angle that he proposes to take on the lead
story, the interviews needed to conduct and other required preparations
like moving OB van, the TRP, and staying ahead in competition
• Input is one of the most important department of a news channel, which
has responsibility to gather news from different sources
• The Input team consistently remain in touch with reporters, news
bureaus, stringers etc. Also they access and analyze all the news sources,
like news agencies, daily news paper copy, video feed from national as
well international news agencies etc. Also if somebody want to give any
information to a channel they call to input
• Input gives the story idea to the output and ask them to make the news
package. They provide the information whatever required by the output
• Input also conceptualize the program based on the availability of
• Input also has the responsibility to collect the feedback from the viewers,
analyze the TRP, arrange the guests for a program and co-ordinate the
viewers call during the program
• Assignment and Input are two terms which are used interchangeably.
Some news channel has combined desk for the two while few have
different staff and different assigned work
• Input take care of “what” is required, while assignment take care of “how
it will be done”. Like suppose Input is asking a story to cover to a particular
reporter then Assignment will co-ordinate with them about camera,
cameraperson, OB van, commuting arrangement etc. to smoothly conduct
their coverage
• Usually Input and Assignment work in close co-ordination. However
editorial calls are usually Input’s responsibility while the technical handling
are Assignments responsibility
• Output is another important and relatively the largest department of a
channel, which creates news packages out of the information
• First the news feed (either send by reporters or available in stock) is
analyzed and then the information is re-written in a broadcast news
format along with the logged byte and instruction to the video editors
• The Voice Over (VO) is done by someone with required voice modulation
and ID is given to the editor
• Now editor selects a music as per story, cut the VO for any unnecessary
fumble or repetition and then insert the shots to the VO and music
• The final version may be a ABT (byte of a person), VBT (footage + byte),
Loop (Same footage playing at a regular interval) or, a News Package of
various durations
• This package is given to PCR to play during bulletin
PCR: Production Control Room
• PCR stands for “Production Control Room”. It is the place in a television
studio in which the composition of the outgoing program takes place
Production control room facilities:
• A video monitor wall, with monitors for program, preview, VTRs, cameras,
graphics and other video sources
• A vision mixer (video switcher), to control the multi-camera setup and
sources to be recorded or seen on air
• An audio mixing console
• A character generator (CG) graphics machine, to creates the bumper and
top slug, and other on-screen graphics
• Modern communication facility including a talkback, telephone line
• A device for storage of graphics or other images
• Studio camera control unit
MCR: Master Control Room
• MCR stands for Master Control Room.
• MCR basically acts as a technical hub for broadcast operation channels
and the final point before the image, sound and live action is transmitted
over-the-air from the actual set on to the TV screens.
• An important distinction between a PCR and a MCR is that the PCR takes
care of actual composition of outgoing program whereas the MCR ensures
that the program is transmitted smoothly and in continuity
• A master control room would comprise of following equipments:
A. Video monitors
B. Videotape machines (e.g:- VTR, used to record the live broadcast)
C. Video servers
D. Satellite receivers
E. Transmission equipment (Allows over-the-air transmission from
studio to TV networks)
• Voice Over (VO) are words that are spoken in a movie or television
program by a person who is not seen. In radio, voice-overs are an integral
part of the creation of the radio programme.
• Television news is often presented as a series of video clips of newsworthy
events, with voice-over describing the significance of the scenes being
presented; these are interspersed with video of the news anchors
describing stories for which video is not shown.
• The voice-over is usually read from a script and may be spoken by
someone who has good voice modulation capability or by a specialist
voice over artist.
• Voice-overs are often used to create the effect of storytelling by a narrator
• Sometimes, voice-over can be used to aid continuity in edited versions of
films, in order for the audience to gain a better understanding of what has
gone on between scenes.
• An instance when a Live Television Event is broadcast on the same day, but
not at the exact same time as its occurrence is called D-Live (Deferred
Live). It usually happens due to lack of time-slot or, some urgent news
• A live broadcast generally refers to various types of media broadcast
without a significant delay in real-time, as events happen, in the present
• Uplink & Downlink is a two-way communication.

• The communication going from a satellite to ground is called downlink,

and when it is going from ground to a satellite it is called uplink.

• When an uplink is being received by the communication satellite at the

same time a downlink is being received by earth station.
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