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Introduction to Learning
Learning

Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

Cognitive Approaches to Learning

Biological Basis of Learning

Learning

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Psychology in Education
Learning
(continued)

Learning

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Learning > Introduction to Learning

Introduction to Learning
• Defining Learning

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Learning > Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning
• Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning: Pavlov
• Applications of Classical Conditioning to Human Behavior

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Learning > Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning
• Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning: Thorndike's Law of Effect
• Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning: Skinner
• Shaping
• Reinforcement and Punishment
• Schedules of Reinforcement

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Learning > Cognitive Approaches to Learning

Cognitive Approaches to Learning


• Latent Learning
• Bandura and Observational Learning
• Kohler and Insight Learning

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Learning > Biological Basis of Learning

Biological Basis of Learning


• Habituation, Sensitization, and Potentiation

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Learning > Psychology in Education

Psychology in Education
• Applications of Psychological Theories to the Life of a Student
• Learning Disabilities and Special Education

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Appendix
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Learning

Key terms
• Albert Bandura (1925–present) A psychologist and learning theorist who first proposed social learning theory and can be
credited for first noting observational learning.
• Albert Bandura (1925–present) A psychologist and learning theorist who first proposed social learning theory and can be
credited for first having noted observational learning.
• aversive Tending to repel, causing avoidance (of a situation, a behavior, an item, etc.).
• axon A nerve fiber that is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, and which conducts nerve impulses away from the body of
the cell to a synapse.
• B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) An American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher known for his work
on operant conditioning.
• behavior modification The act of altering actions and reactions to stimuli through positive and negative reinforcement or
punishment.
• behavior therapy An approach to psychotherapy that focuses on a set of methods designed to reinforce desired behaviors and
eliminate undesired behaviors, without concerning itself with the psychoanalytic state of the subject.
• behaviorism An approach to psychology that focuses strictly on observable behavior; this theory assumes that behavior is
determined by a person's environment.
• behaviorism An approach to psychology focusing on behavior, denying any independent significance for the mind and
assuming that behavior is determined by the environment.
• cognitivism The view that mental function can be understood as the internal manipulation of symbols according to a set of rules.
• condition To shape the behavior of an individual or animal.
• conditioning The process of modifying behavior.

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Learning

• constructivism A psychological epistemology that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from their
experiences.
• dendrite A slender projection of a nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses from a synapse to the body of the cell.
• extinction When a behavior ceases because it is no longer reinforced.
• Hans Eysench (1916–1997) A German psychologist who is best known for his work on intelligence and personality.
• heuristic An experience-based technique for problem solving, learning, and discovery that yields a solution that is not
guaranteed to be optimal.
• impairment A deterioration or weakening; a disability or handicap; an inefficient part or factor.
• insight Acute observation and deduction; penetration; discernment; perception.
• intelligence quotient A score derived from one of several different standardized tests attempting to measure intelligence.
• interval A period of time.
• Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) A Russian physiologist known for his theories of classical conditioning.
• John B. Watson (1878–1958) An American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, and is
known for his controversial "Little Albert" experiment.
• kinesthesia Also known as proprioception or static position sense; the perception of the position, posture, and movement of the
body.

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Learning

• latency The delay between a stimulus and the response it triggers in an organism.
• latent learning A form of acquiring knowledge or skill that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without
obvious reinforcement, to be applied later.
• Law of Effect A law developed by Edward L. Thorndike that states, "responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular
situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less
likely to occur again in that situation."
• neurotransmitter Any substance, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, responsible for sending nerve signals across a synapse
between two neurons.
• observational learning Learning that occurs as a function of seeing, retaining, and, in the case of imitation learning, replicating
novel behavior executed by other people.
• paradigm An example serving as a model or pattern; a template, as for an experiment.
• phonological Of or relating to the study of the way sounds function in languages, including syllable structure, stress, accent,
intonation, and which sounds are distinctive units within a language.
• punishment The act or process of imposing and/or applying a sanction for an undesired behavior when conditioning toward a
desired behavior.
• ratio A number representing a comparison between two things.
• reinforcement The process whereby a behavior with desirable consequences is rewarded and comes to be repeated.
• shaping A method of positive reinforcement of behavior patterns in operant conditioning.
• social learning A cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct
instruction.

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Learning

• stimuli In psychology, any energy patterns (e.g., light or sound) that are registered by the senses.
• successive approximation An increasingly accurate estimate of a response desired by a trainer.
• superstition A belief, not based on reason or scientific knowledge, that future events may be influenced by one's behavior in
some magical or mystical way.
• synapse The junction between the terminal of a neuron and either another neuron or a muscle or gland cell, over which nerve
impulses pass.
• trial and error The process of finding a solution to a problem by trying many possible solutions and learning from mistakes until
a way is found.
• vicarious punishment Occurs when a person avoids the behavior of someone who has been punished for that behavior.
• vicarious reinforcement Occurs when a person imitates the behavior of someone who has been reinforced for that behavior.

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Learning

Thorndike's puzzle box


This image shows an example of Thorndike's puzzle box alongside a graph demonstrating the learning of a cat within the box. As the number of trials
increased, the cats were able to escape more quickly by learning.

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Learning

Classical conditioning
Before conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus (food) produces an unconditioned response (salivation), and a neutral stimulus (bell) does not have an
effect. During conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus (food) is presented repeatedly just after the presentation of the neutral stimulus (bell). After
conditioning, the neutral stimulus alone produces a conditioned response (salivation), thus becoming a conditioned stimulus.

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Learning

Simple reinforcement-schedule responses


The four reinforcement schedules yield different response patterns. The variable-ratio schedule is unpredictable and yields high and steady response
rates, with little if any pause after reinforcement (e.g., gambling). A fixed-ratio schedule is predictable and produces a high response rate, with a short
pause after reinforcement (e.g., eyeglass sales). The variable-interval schedule is unpredictable and produces a moderate, steady response rate (e.g.,
fishing). The fixed-interval schedule yields a scallop-shaped response pattern, reflecting a significant pause after reinforcement (e.g., hourly
employment).

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Learning

Neural communication
This image shows the way two neurons communicate by the release of the neurotransmitter from the axon, across the synapse, and into the dendrite of
another neuron.

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Learning

Habituation to stress
Habituation involves responding to stimuli and stress less over time—after our body's initial natural resistance to the stimuli.

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Learning

The Little Albert experiment


Through stimulus generalization, Little Albert came to fear furry things, including Watson in a Santa Claus mask.

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Learning

Ivan Pavlov
Pavlov is known for his studies in classical conditioning, which have been influential in understanding learning.

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Learning

The structure of a neuron


Communication between neurons occurs when the neurotransmitter is released from the axon on one neuron, travels across the synapse, and is taken
in by the dendrite on an adjacent neuron.

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Learning

Law of effect
Initially, cats displayed a variety of behaviors inside the box. Over successive trials, actions that were helpful in escaping the box and receiving the food
reward were replicated and repeated at a higher rate.

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Learning

B. F. Skinner
Skinner was responsible for defining the segment of behaviorism known as operant conditioning—a process by which an organism learns from its
physical environment.

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Learning

A child with autism stacking cans


Although many children with ASD display normal intelligence, they often require special support due to other symptoms of the disorder.

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Learning

Brain
The brains of children with learning disabilities function differently than those of typical children.

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Learning

Dog show
Dog training often uses the shaping method of operant conditioning.

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Learning

Psychology in the life of a student


How we learn and incorporate information is directly influenced by psychology.

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Learning

Crows learning through insight


In another experiment, a crow creatively learns to bend a wire to get food out of a jar.

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Learning

Chimpanzees solving problems


Watch this video to see an experiment much like those conducted by Wolfgang Köhler.

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Learning

Chain Task in Insight Learning Solved


This task can be solved once the insight that a chain link can be broken is achieved. This is an example of insightful problem solving.

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Learning

Operant conditioning
In the context of operant conditioning, whether you are reinforcing or punishing a behavior, "positive" always means you are adding a stimulus (not
necessarily a good one), and "negative" always means you are removing a stimulus (not necessarily a bad one. See the blue text and yellow text above,
which represent positive and negative, respectively. Similarly, reinforcement always means you are increasing (or maintaining) the level of a behavior,
and punishment always means you are decreasing the level of a behavior. See the green and red backgrounds above, which represent reinforcement
and punishment, respectively.

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Catherine McCarthy. "Original figure by Catherine McCarthy. Licensed CC BY-SA 4.0." CC BY-SA 3.0 View on Boundless.com
Learning

Bobo-doll experiment (Bandura)


The Bobo-doll experiment was conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961 and studied patterns of behavior associated with aggression. Bandura hoped that
the experiment would prove that aggression can be explained, at least in part, by social learning theory. The theory of social learning states that behavior
such as aggression is learned through observing and imitating others.

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Learning

A white laboratory rat


Animals are used in laboratory experiments to translate in vitro findings.

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Learning

A Diagram of Operant Conditioning


This diagram explains the types of reinforcement and punishment methods (positive and negative) with examples of each.

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Learning

Chain Task in Insight Learning


Here is an example for an Insight Problem: Knut is given four pieces of a chain; each made up of three links. The task is to link it all up to a closed loop
and he has only 15 cents. To open a link costs 2, to close a link costs 3 cents. What should Knut do?

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Learning

Edward Tolman
Edward Tolman was a behavioral psychologist who first demonstrated latent learning in rats. While he was a behaviorist in method, his work with latent
learning disproved the behaviorist idea that learning was solely a product of conditioning.

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Learning

Observational Learning
Bandura demonstrated that children would attack the "bobo doll" (seen here) after viewing adults hitting the doll.

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Learning

Classical Conditioning
Pavlov demonstrated classical conditioning in dogs by conditioning dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell.

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Learning

Operant Conditoning
Skinner created a "skinner" box in order to research operant conditioning in rats. Through his experiments he demonstrated that behavior can be
influenced by rewards and punishments.

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Learning

Attribution
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• Wiktionary. "behaviorism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/behaviorism
• Wiktionary. "constructivism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/constructivism
• Wiktionary. "kinesthesia." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/kinesthesia
• Wikipedia. "Educational psychology." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educational_psychology
• Wikibooks. "Teaching Elementary School Health Education/Growth and Development/I Will Develop My Learning Style." CC
BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Teaching_Elementary_School_Health_Education/Growth_and_Development/I_Will_Develop_My_L
earning_Style
• Wikibooks. "Contemporary Educational Psychology/Behaviorism: Changes in What Students Do." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Contemporary_Educational_Psychology/Behaviorism:_Changes_in_What_Students_Do
• OpenStax CNX. "OpenStax College, Psychology. July 23, 2015." CC BY 4.0 http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-
2cefd46e68cc@4.100:33/Psychology
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//psychology/definition/albert-bandura
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//psychology/definition/skinner
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//psychology/definition/ivan-pavlov
• Wikia. "Introduction to Operant conditioning - Psychology Wiki." CC BY-SA
http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Introduction_to_Operant_conditioning
• Wikia. "Observational learning - Psychology Wiki." CC BY http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Observational_learning
• Wikia. "Bobo doll experiment - Psychology Wiki." CC BY http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Bobo_Doll_experiment
• Wikia. "Skinner Box - Psychology Wiki." CC BY http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Skinner_Box
• Wikia. "B. F. Skinner - Psychology Wiki." CC BY-SA http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/B._F._Skinner
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Learning

• OpenStax CNX. "Kelvin Seifert, The Learning Process: Major Theories and Models of Learning. October 26, 2013." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m38002/latest/
• OpenStax CNX. "Fred Mednick, Course 1, Chapter 4 - Theories of and Approaches to Learning. October 26, 2013." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m13286/latest/
• OpenStax CNX. "OpenStax College, Psychology. July 23, 2015." CC BY 4.0 http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-
2cefd46e68cc@4.100:34/Psychology
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//psychology/definition/hans-eysench
• Wiktionary. "behaviorism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/behaviorism
• Wiktionary. "condition." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/condition
• Wikipedia. "behavior therapy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/behavior%20therapy
• Wikipedia. "Ivan Pavlov." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Pavlov%23Legacy
• Wikipedia. "Flooding (psychology)." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flooding_(psychology)
• Wikia. "Ivan Pavlov - Psychology Wiki." CC BY-SA http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Ivan_Pavlov
• OpenStax CNX. "OpenStax College, Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior. October 26, 2013." CC
BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44879/latest/
• OpenStax CNX. "Kelvin Seifert, The Learning Process: Major Theories and Models of Learning. October 26, 2013." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m38002/latest/
• Wikipedia. "Classical Conditioning." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning
• OpenStax CNX. "OpenStax College, Psychology. July 23, 2015." CC BY 4.0 http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-
2cefd46e68cc@4.100:34/Psychology
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//psychology/definition/john-b-watson
• Wiktionary. "conditioning." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/conditioning
• Wikia. "Classical Conditioning - Psychology Wiki." CC BY http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Classical_Conditioning
• OpenStax CNX. "Kelvin Seifert, The Learning Process: Major Theories and Models of Learning. October 26, 2013." CC BY 3.0
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http://cnx.org/content/m38002/latest/
Learning

• OpenStax CNX. "OpenStax College, Psychology. July 23, 2015." CC BY 4.0 http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-
2cefd46e68cc@4.100:35/Psychology
• Wikipedia. "Law of Effect." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law%20of%20Effect
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//psychology/definition/behavior-modification
• Wikipedia. "Law of Effect." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_Effect
• Wikibooks. "Animal Behavior/Operant Conditioning." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Animal_Behavior/Operant_Conditioning
• Wikibooks. "Learning Theorists." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Learning_Theorists%23Edward_Thorndike
• OpenStax CNX. "OpenStax College, Psychology. July 23, 2015." CC BY 4.0 http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-
2cefd46e68cc@4.100:35/Psychology
• Wiktionary. "superstition." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/superstition
• Wiktionary. "aversive." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/aversive
• Wiktionary. "punishment." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/punishment
• Wikipedia. "B.F. Skinner." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.F._Skinner
• Wikibooks. "Applied History of Psychology/Learning Theories." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Applied_History_of_Psychology/Learning_Theories%23B.F.Skinner.281904-1990.29
• Wikibooks. "Learning Theorists." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Learning_Theorists%23B.F._Skinner
• Wikibooks. "Animal Behavior/Operant Conditioning." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Animal_Behavior/Operant_Conditioning
• Wikipedia. "B.F. Skinner." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.F._Skinner
• OpenStax CNX. "OpenStax College, Psychology. July 24, 2015." CC BY 4.0 http://cnx.org/contents/4abf04bf-93a0-45c3-9cbc-
2cefd46e68cc@4.100:35/Psychology
• Wikipedia. "successive approximation." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/successive%20approximation
• Wiktionary. "paradigm." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/paradigm
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Learning

• Wikipedia. "Shaping (psychology)." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaping_(psychology)


• Wikibooks. "IB Psychology/Perspectives/Learning." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/IB_Psychology/Perspectives/Learning%23Operant_conditioning
• Wikibooks. "Animal Behavior/Learning." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Animal_Behavior/Learning%23Operant_Conditioning
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