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Basics of Compressors
Webinar - 19 Jan, 2017
1. Introduction

2. Compressor classification

3. Positive displacement compressors

4. Centrifugal compressors

5. Conclusions
1 Introduction

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What is a chiller?

A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-


compression or absorption refrigeration cycle. This liquid can then
be circulated through a heat exchanger to cool air or equipment as
required. As a necessary byproduct, refrigeration creates waste
heat that must be exhausted to ambient or, for greater efficiency,
recovered for heating purposes. Concerns in design and selection
of chillers include performance, efficiency, maintenance, and
product life cycle environmental impact.

Source: Wikipedia

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Introduction

Main components in a chiller working on vapour-compression


cycle:

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2 Compressor classification

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Compressor types.

Reciprocating
Positive
Displacement
Rotary
Compressors

Dynamic Centrifugal

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Compressor types.

Compressors

Hermetic Semi-Hermetic Open Drive

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Hermetic compressors.

HERMETIC

• Permanently sealed
• Motor cooled by refrigerant gas
• Not easy to service or repair

Examples:
• Swing compressor
• Scroll compressor

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Semi-hermetic compressors.

SEMI-HERMETIC

• Motor and compressor inside common


enclosure
• Many service access points

Examples:
• Reciprocating compressor
• Screw compressor

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Open drive compressors.

OPEN DRIVE

• Compressor and motor are separated


• Different motor types can be selected

Examples:
• Screw compressor for use with ammonia

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3 Positive displacement

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3.1. Positive displacement compressors: basics.

𝑽
𝑷𝟐 = 𝑷𝟑 ∗ ( 𝟑ൗ𝑽 )𝒌
𝟐

Where: p3 = discharge pressure


p2 = suction pressure
V3 = compressor volume at the end of the compression
V2 = compressor volume at the beginning of the compression
k = constant

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3.1. Positive displacement compressors: basics.

Compressor Compressor
graphs envelope

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Compressor types.

Reciprocating
Positive
Displacement
Rotary
Compressors

Dynamic Centrifugal

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3.2. Reciprocating compressors

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3.2. Reciprocating compressors

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3.2. Reciprocating compressors

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3.2. Reciprocating compressors

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3.2. Reciprocating compressors

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3.2. Reciprocating compressors

Advantages Drawbacks
• Suitable for water- and air-cooled • High level of maintenance: a lot of
applications moving parts
• Low cost when applied in low capacities
• Simple controls

• High noise and vibration levels


• Less interesting for large capacities

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3.3. Rotary compressors

Rolling piston

Reciprocating Sliding vane


Positive
Displacement
Rotary Swing
Compressors

Dynamic Centrifugal Scroll

Screw

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3.3.1. Rolling piston and sliding vane rotary compressors

Rolling piston compressors Sliding vane type

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3.3.1. Rolling piston and sliding vane rotary compressors

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3.3.2. Swing compressor

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3.3.3. Rotary compressors - Scroll compressors

Orbiting scroll

Swing Link

Fixed Scroll

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3.3.3. Rotary compressors - Scroll compressors

SUCTION COMPRESSION DISCHARGE

Fixed
Discharge pipe Discharge Valve
Orbiting

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3.3.3. Rotary compressors - Scroll compressors
Swing scroll Fixed scroll

Intake finishes
[Compression starts]
Intake starts

Discharge port Compression finishes


[Discharge starts]

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3.3.4. Rotary compressors - Screw compressors

“Single Screw” “Twin Screw”


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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors

Spheroidal
Main screw cast iron

Teeth re-enforced
Gate rotor
with special
composite material

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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors

SUCTION COMPRESSION DISCHARGE

Upper Lower
compression compression
cycle cycle

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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors

Balanced thrusts

Radial thrusts Axial thrusts

Suction Suction
pressure pressure

Both radial and axial thrusts are naturally balanced on


Daikin single-screw compressor.
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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors: sliding vane capacity control

Synchronic capacity control A-synchronic capacity control

0% 50% 100% 0% 50% 100%

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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors: Inverter capacity control

The compressor speed varies depending


on the changing frequency applied. Power Input Screw Compressor
110% non-inverter driven
Chiller unit power input @ part loads is 100%

considerably lower with INVERTER DRIVEN 90%


COMPRESSOR. 80%
73%
70%
Lower power input at part loads means 60% -32%
higher ESEER 50%
Screw Compressor
40%
INVERTER driven
That results in lower running costs 30%
and 20%
a more eco-friendly solution 10%

0%
0% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 110%
10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Compressor Load
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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors: capacity control

Inverter capacity control

Reduced mechanical stress Lower noise level at part loads

No inrush current High power factor

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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors: Variable Volume Ratio

VSuction
Volume Ratiok =
VDischarge

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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors: Variable Volume Ratio

P = Vk

PDischarge ≅ PCondensing
Volume Ratiok =
PSuction
𝐶
With k = 𝑝ൗ𝐶𝑣 = isentropic exponent or specific heat ratio
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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors: Variable Volume Ratio

IDEAL CASE
PDischarge ≅ PCondensing

fixed REAL CASE variable


VR PDischarge ≠ PCondensing

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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors: Variable Volume Ratio

fixed REAL CASE variable


VR PDischarge ≠ PCondensing
𝑷𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆 < 𝑷𝑪𝒐𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝑷𝑫𝒊𝒔𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆 > 𝑷𝑪𝒐𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒏𝒈
Refrigerant flows back from Refrigerant is compressed more
condenser to compressor than needed to move it to condenser
Under compression Over compression

Efficiency loss

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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors: Variable Volume Ratio

fixed REAL CASE variable


VR PDischarge ≠ PCondensing
What is Daikin solution to
overcome this issue?

variable DAIKIN Solution variable


VR PDischarge ≅ PCondensing

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3.3.4.1. Single screw compressors: Variable Volume Ratio

CONDENSER Variable Volume Ratio (VVR) means


that VR can change by moving of sliding
COOLING
COOLING
HEATING valves. VVR changes the point at which the
gas leaves the compressor, and therefore
P B changes the pressures at discharge which is
always optimal at any condition.
Pd = Pc DAIKIN VVR
ALWAYS OPTIMAL CONDITIONS
Variable A
POINT A POINT B
Ps
V
Vd Vs
Variable

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3.3.4.2. Twin Screw compressors

Female rotor

Male rotor

4 lobes / 6 flutes

5 lobes / 7 flutes
Sliding valve Different configurations

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3.3.4.2. Twin Screw compressors

SUCTION COMPRESSION DISCHARGE

Refrigerant gas is compressed ONLY in the upper side of the two rotors

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3.3.4.2. Twin Screw compressors

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3.3.4.2. Twin Screw compressors

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4 Centrifugal compressors

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Compressor types.

Reciprocating
Positive
Displacement
Rotary
Compressors

Dynamic Centrifugal

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4.1. Basics of Dynamic compressors.

𝒑𝟐 − 𝒑𝟏 = (𝝆𝟐 𝑼𝟐 𝟐 − 𝝆𝟏 𝑼𝟐 𝟏 )/2g

With: p1 = suction (inlet) pressure


p2 = discharge (outlet) pressure
ρ1 = inlet gas density
ρ2 = discharge gas density
U1 = inlet velocity
U2 = discharge velocity
g = gravitational constant

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Basics of Dynamic compressors: Centrifugal Chillers

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Basics of Dynamic compressors: Centrifugal Chillers

Open type impeller Shrouded type impeller

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Basics of Dynamic compressors: Centrifugal Chillers

𝑣𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑙

𝑣𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

𝑣𝑇𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙

Refrigerant
gas Rotation

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Basics of Dynamic compressors: Centrifugal Chillers

Capacity control system

Unloading is achieved through a reduction of the


refrigerant flow.
This reduction is carried out by partially closing the
movable vanes on the compressor suction

Capacity
unloading system
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Basics of Dynamic compressors: Centrifugal Chillers

Capacity control system

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Basics of Dynamic compressors: Centrifugal Chillers

Capacity control system

.
D C

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Basics of Dynamic compressors: Centrifugal Chillers

Capacity control system

Moveable discharge unloader piston travels inward allowing to keep sufficient gas speed even
in strongly unloaded conditions and extending unit working range.
Improves stability at extremely light loads and reduces surge potential
Compressor unloading down to 10% (dual compressors down to 5%) without hot gas bypass

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Oil free Centrifugal compressors with Magnetic Bearings

- Advantages:
- High Energy Efficiency (VFD
control).
- Low noise levels
- Soft start
- Small

- Draw backs:
- Operating range
- Only possible for mid-sized
chillers.
- Trouble shooting

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5 Conclusions

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Conclusions

It is very important

1. To understand the application:


• What is the compressor supposed to do?
2. To find out the details:
• refrigerant, suction and discharge pressures, capacity, capacity
control method, …

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Thank you