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# TWO-PORT NETWORKS

One-port network

I
+ Linear
V network
 I

## - Current entering the port = current leaving the port

TWO-PORT NETWORK- Definition

Two-port network

I1 I2

+ Linear +
Input port V1 V2 Output port
network
 
I1 I2

## - Two pairs of terminal : two-port

- Current entering a port = current leaving a port
- V1,V2, I1 and I2 are related using two-port network parameters

## - In SEE 1023 we will study on four sets of these parameters

Hybrid parameters Transmission parameters
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Why ?

## - Typically found in communications, control systems, electronics

- used in modeling, designing and analysis

## - Know how to model two-port network will help in the analysis of

larger network
- two-port network treated as ‘black box’
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Impedance parameters (z parameters)

V1  z11I1  z12I2
V2  z21I1  z22I2

##  V1  z11 z12  I1 

 V   z  I 
 2   21 z 22   2 

## Parameters can be determined by calculations or measurement

TWO-PORT NETWORK
Impedance parameters (z parameters)

V1  z11I1  z12I2
V2  z21I1  z22I2

## z11 and z21

Output port : open
I2 = 0
I1 I2
Input port : Apply voltage source
+
V1
V1 V1  z11I1 z11 
V2 I1 I
2 0

V2
V2  z21I1 z 21 
I1 I2  0
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Impedance parameters (z parameters)

V1  z11I1  z12I2
V2  z21I1  z22I2

## z12 and z22

Input port : opened
I1 = 0
I1=0 I2
Output port : Apply voltage source
+
V1
V1 V2 V1  z12I2 z12 
V1 I2 I 0
1

V2
V2  z22I2 z 22 
I2 I1  0
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Impedance parameters (z parameters)

V1  z11I1  z12I2
V2  z21I1  z22I2

## Equivalent circuit based on these equations:

I1 I2
z11 z22
+ +
I2 z12 + + I1z 21
V1   V1

 
TWO-PORT NETWORK
ammeter
Impedance parameters (z parameters)

V1  z11I1  z12I2
V2  z21I1  z22I2

## • Voltage source and ideal ammeter connected to the

ports are interchangeable

I I
V Reciprocal Reciprocal
network A A network V
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Impedance parameters (z parameters)

V1  z11I1  z12I2
V2  z21I1  z22I2

## • Voltage source and ideal ammeter connected to the

ports are interchangeable

• z12 = z21

## • Can be replaced with T-equivalent circuit:

Z11-z12 Z22-z12
+ +
V1 Z12 V2
 
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Impedance parameters (z parameters)

V1  z11I1  z12I2
V2  z21I1  z22I2

## Network with mirror-like symmetry: SYMMETRICAL

z11 = z22
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Impedance parameters (z parameters)

V1  z11I1  z12I2
V2  z21I1  z22I2

## If the two-port network is reciprocal and symmetrical, only 2

parameters need to be determined
TWO-PORT NETWORK

I1  y11V1  y12 V2
I2  y21V1  y22 V2

## I1   y11 y12   V1 

I   y  V 
 2   21 y 22   2 

## Parameters can be determined by calculations or measurement

TWO-PORT NETWORK

I1  y11V1  y12 V2
I2  y21V1  y22 V2

## y11 and y21

Output port : shorted
V2 = 0
I1 I2
Input port : Apply current source
+ +
I1
I1  y11V1 y11 
V1 V2 = 0 V1 V2  0

 
I2
I2  y21V1 y 21 
V1 V2 0
TWO-PORT NETWORK

I1  y11V1  y12 V2
I2  y21V1  y22 V2

## y12 and y22

Input port : shorted
V1 = 0
I1 I2
Output port : Apply current source
+ +
I1
I1  y12 V2 y12 
V1=0 V2 V2 V1  0

 
I2
I2  y22 V2 y 22 
V2 V1  0
TWO-PORT NETWORK

I1  y11V1  y12 V2
I2  y21V1  y22 V2

## Equivalent circuit based on these equations:

I1 I2

+ y12 V2 y21V1 +
y11 y22
V1 V2

 
TWO-PORT NETWORK

I1  y11V1  y12 V2
I2  y21V1  y22 V2

## • Current source and ideal voltmeter connected to the

ports are interchangeable

• y12 = y21
• Can be replaced with -equivalent circuit:
-y12
+ +
V1 y11+ y12 y22+ y12 V2
 
TWO-PORT NETWORK

I1  y11V1  y12 V2
I2  y21V1  y22 V2

## Network with mirror-like symmetry: SYMMETRICAL :

y11 = y22
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

V1  h11I1  h12 V2
I2  h21I1  h22 V2

## V1  h11 h12   I1 

 I   h  V 
 2   21 22   2 
h

## Some two port network cannot be expressed in terms z or y

parameters but can be expressed in terms of h parameters

## Parameters can be determined by calculations or measurement

TWO-PORT NETWORK
Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

V1  h11I1  h12 V2
I2  h21I1  h22 V2

## h11 and h21

Output port : shorted
V2 = 0
I1 I2
Input port : Apply current source
+ +
V1
V1  h11I1 h11  ()
V1 V2 = 0 I1 V2  0

 
I2
I2  h21I1 h21 
I1 V2  0
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

V1  h11I1  h12 V2
I2  h21I1  h22 V2

## h12 and h22

Input port : opened
I1 = 0
I1=0 I2
Output port : Apply voltage source
+
V1
V2 V1  h12 V2 h12 
V1 V2 I1 0

I2
I2  h22 V2 h22  (S)
V2 I1 0
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

V1  h11I1  h12 V2
I2  h21I1  h22 V2

## Equivalent circuit based on these equations:

I1 h11 I2

+ +
+ h22
V1 V2

h11V2 h21I1
 
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

V1  h11I1  h12 V2
I2  h21I1  h22 V2

## • Current source and ideal voltmeter connected to the

ports are interchangeable

• h12 = -h21
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Hybrid parameters (h parameters)

V1  h11I1  h12 V2
I2  h21I1  h22 V2

## Network with mirror-like symmetry: SYMMETRICAL :

h11h22 – h12h21 = 1
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Transmission parameters (t parameters)

V1  AV2  BI2
I1  CV2  DI2

V1  A B  V2 
 I   C D  I 
 1   2 

## Used to express the sending end voltage an current in terms

of receiving end voltage and current
I1 -I2

+ Linear +
sending end V1 V2 receiving end
network
 
I1 I2
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Transmission parameters (h parameters)

V1  AV2  BI2
I1  CV2  DI2
Output port : opened I2 = 0
V1 I1
V1  AV2 A I1  CV2 C
V2 I2  0
V2 I2 0

## Output port : shorted V2 = 0

V1 I1
V1  BI2 B I1  DI2 D
I2 V2  0
I2 V2  0

## For SYMMETRICAL network, A = D

TWO-PORT NETWORK
Relationships between parameters

## If a two-port network can be presented by different set of parameters, then

there exists relationships between parameters.

##  V1  z11 z12  I1 

 V   z  
 2   21 z22  I2 

1
I1   z11 z12   V1 
I   z   
 2   21 z 22   V2 

We know that
I1   y11 y12   V1 
I   y  V 
 2   21 y 22   2 

1
 y11 y12   z11 z12 
y 
y 22  z 21 z 22 

Therefore
 21
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Relationships between parameters

 z 22  z12 
 z z11  where z  z11z22  z12 z21
  21

z
z z z z11
Therefore, y11  22 y12   12 y 21   21 y 22 
z z z z

## e.g. on page 869 of Alexander/Sadiku

1
 z11 z12 
z 
 21 z 22 
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Relationships between parameters
TWO-PORT NETWORK
Interconnection of networks

## • Simplify the analysis /synthesis

• Simplify the design

## Parameters of interconnected two-port networks can be obtained easily:

depending on the type of parameters and type of connections:

• Series: z parameters

• Parallel: y parameters

TWO-PORT NETWORK
Interconnection of networks

Series: z parameters

I1a I2a
+ +
+ za + I1 I2
V1a V2a
  + +
V1 z V2
V1 V2  
I1b I2b
+ +
 V1b zb V2b

 

## [z] = [za] + [zb]

TWO-PORT NETWORK
Interconnection of networks

Parallel: y parameters

I1a I2a
+ +
ya
I1 V1a V2a I2 I1 I2
 
+ + + +
V2 V1 y V2
V1 I1b I2b
   
+ +
V1b yb V2b
 

## [y] = [ya] + [yb]

TWO-PORT NETWORK
Interconnection of networks

+ + + + + +
ta V2a V1b tb
V1 V1a V2b V2
     

I1 -I2
+ +
V1 t V2
 

[t] = [ta][tb]