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Operating systems.

Ivan Steven Restrepo Díaz

Carlos Mario Zuluaga Suárez
The computer science as it is known today,
arose in the wake of World War II, in the decade
of the 40. In those years there was not even the
concept of "Operating System" and programmers
interacted directly with the hardware of the
computers working in machine language (that is,
in binary, programming only with 0s and 1s)

History of The concept of Operating System arose in the

operating 50s. The first operating system in history was
created in 1956 for an IBM 704 computer, and
systems basically all it did was start the execution of a
program when the previous one ended.
¿What is an
Operative System?

An operating system (OS)
is the program that, after
being initially loaded on the
computer by a boot
program, manages all other
programs on a computer.
The other programs are
called applications or
application programs.
Application programs use
the operating system
making requests for
services through a defined
application program
interface (API).
¿What are operating
systems for?

In principle, an operating
system is used to
administer and manage a
computerized equipment
and the various peripheral
devices that compose it or
that are installed attached
to it. An operating system,
also in its software
environment, is designed to
allow the user to perform
their main activities.
Operating system functions

In reality it is a set of programs that does two fundamental things.
One of them is to organize and manage the hardware of the
equipment: internal parts and peripherals. Everything can work
perfectly, but without an operating system we can not use it. In
the late 1940s, when there were no operating systems, the
programmers put the hardware into operation by constantly
repeating a series of very laborious steps. To automate the
process, operating systems were created.
Parts that make up the operating system.

 Kernel:

• Core or kernel is a software that is a fundamental part of the operating

system, and is defined as the part that runs in privileged mode (also known
as kernel mode). It is the main responsible for providing the different
programs with secure access to computer hardware or in basic form, is
responsible for managing resources, through system call services. As there
are many programs and access to hardware is limited, it is also
responsible for deciding which program can make use of a hardware
device and for how long, which is known as multiplexing. Accessing the
hardware directly can be really complex, so the kernels usually implement
a series of hardware abstractions. This allows complexity to be hidden, and
provides a clean and uniform interface to the underlying hardware, which
makes it easier for the programmer to use.

Device driver:
• It is called device driver, driver, or simply controller to the
software that is responsible for allowing a system to interact with
a peripheral. Often, the driver is in charge of establishing an
interface for the use of recently installed hardware. In short, it
provides instructions to the computer regarding how to
communicate with the new device. A driver is not always
necessary for the use of new hardware, but installation is almost
always recommended to avoid future problems.

User interface:
• It is known as a user interface to the medium that allows a
person to communicate with a machine. The interface is
composed of the points of contact between a user and the team.
In the interaction with the computer, therefore, one can
distinguish between the hardware interface (mouse, screen,
keyboard), the software interface (Windows, Linux) and the
hardware-software interface (the set that allows the man
understand the binary code and that the machine can read
human instruction).
¿What operating systems are there?
 At the server, desktop or laptop level, some
operating systems can be:
• Windows 7/8/10, Server
• OSX (MacOS)
• Linux Ubuntu
• Linux Fedora
• Linux CentOS
• Chrome OS
• Linux Red Hat
• Linux SUSE
• Solaris
• Open Solaris
• Linus Debian

For mobile devices we can find:
• iOS
• Android
• Windows Phone
• BlackBerry OS
• Firefox OS
• Symbian OS