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Solutions for Questions used in Lectures

Solid Processing 3-1 Particle characterization

Example:
Calculate the equivalent volume sphere diameter xv, equivalent surface sphere diameter xs,
and equivalent surface to volume sphere diameter xsv for a cuboid of side lengths 1,3,5 and
cylinder of diameter 3 and length 1.

For the cuboid:


The volume of the cuboid = 1 3 5 = 15
The surface area of the cuboid = 2 (1 3) + 2 (3 5) + 2 (1 5) = 46
 x 3v
(i) So Vsphere = = 15
6
So xv = 3.06
1
(ii) Asphere =  x 2s = 46

So x s = 3.82
A sphere x 2s 6 46
(iii)  3  3.07
Vsphere x v x sv 15

So x sv 1.95

For the cylinder R = 3/2, H=1 


The volume of the cylinder =  1 = 7.07

 
The surface area of the cylinder = 2
 + 2  1  23.55

 x 3v
(i) Vsphere = = 7.07
6
So xv = 2.38

(ii) Asphere = x s = 23.55


2

x s  2.74

A sphere x 2s 6 23.55 x sv 1.80


(iii)  3  3.33 So
Vsphere x v x sv 7 . 07 2

Example
Convert the cumulative surface distribution described by the following equation to a cumulative
volume distribution given that Fv(45) = 1:
x 2
Fs = ( )
45
From:
fs(x) = ksx2fN(x) and fv(x) = kvx3fN(x)
kv
obtain: fv(x) = x fs ( x )
kS
x
kv dFs
Fv ( x )  ( ) x fs ( x )dx and fs ( x ) 
0
ks dx

d x 2 2x
fs ( x ) ( ) 
dx 45 ( 45)2
assuming kv and ks are independent of x and plugging fs(x) into the integral obtain:

2 x3 k v kv
Fv ( x )  ( ) which using Fv(45)=1 gives  0.0333
3 ( 45 )2 k s ks

Fv(x) = 1.096 10-5 x3


3

Note:  f ( x )dx  1 since the sum of fractions must equal 1 and this can be used to find ks,v,m
0

Caution: since assumption concerning constancy of shape, density are made in relating different
kinds of distributions, errors can propagate in converting one distribution to another, thus it is
better to choose if possible the measurement method giving the required distribution from the start.
Example
Based on the microscopic particle size analysis shown in the table below find the
number length mean diameter, the number surface mean diameter and the number volume
mean diameter.

particle size interval middle size d frequency of occurrence n nd nd2 nd3

1-1.4 1.2 2 2.4 2.9 3.5


1.4-2.0 1.7 5 8.5 14.5 24.6
2.0-2.8 2.4 14 34 81 194
Totals 21 44.9 98.4 222.1

xNL (  i i )  2.1
Nx
number length mean diameter
Ni
 Ni xi2 0.5
number surface mean diameter x NS ( )  2.16
 i
N

 Ni xi3 0.333
number volume mean diameter x NV ( )  2.20
 i
N
5
Solid Processing 3-2 Particle Size Production

Example

A material consisting originally of 25 mm particles is crushed to an average size of 7 mm and


requires 20 kJ/kg for this size reduction. Determine the energy required to crush the material
from 25 mm to 3.5 mm assuming (a) Rittinger’s postulate, (b) Kick’s postulate, (c) Bond’s
postulate.

6
1 1
(a) E  CR [  ] Rittingers postulate
x 2 x1

1 1
20 CR [  ] gives CR = 194.4 (kJ mm)/kg
7 25
hence: E 194.4[ 1  1 ]  47.8kJ / kg
3.5 25
x1
(b) E  Ck ln( ) Kick’s postulate
x2
7
20  Ck ln( ) gives Ck = 15.7 kJ/kg
25
3.5
hence: E  15.7 ln( )  30.9kJ / kg
25

(c) E  CB [
10 10
0.5
 0.5
] Bonds postulate
( x2 ) ( x1)
10 10
20  CB [ 0.5
 0.5
] gives CB = 11.2 (kJ (mm)0.5)/kg
(7 ) (25 )
10 10
hence: E  11.2[ 0.5
 0.5
]37.5 kJ / kg
(3.5) (25) 7
Example
Values of breakage distribution function b(i,j) and specific rates of breakage Sj for a particular
material in a ball mill are shown in Table 1. To test the validity of these values, a sample of the
material with the size distribution indicated in Table 2 is to be ground in a ball mill. Use the
information in these tables to predict the size distribution of the product after one minute in the
mill. Note: Sj values in the table are based on one minute grinding time. 8
Table 1

Size interval (mm) 212-150 150-106 106-75 75-53 53-37 37-0

Interval No. 1 2 3 4 5 6
Sj 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.35 0.3 0
b(1,j) 0 0 0 0 0 0
b(2,j) 0.32 0 0 0 0 0
b(3,j) 0.3 0.4 0 0 0 0
b(4,j) 0.14 0.2 0.5 0 0 0
b(5,j) 0.12 0.2 0.25 0.6 0 0
b(6,j) 0.12 0.2 0.25 0.4 1.0 0

Table 2

Interval No. (j) 1 2 3 4 5 6


Fraction 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.06 0.04 0

change of fraction in interval 1


dy1
 0  S1 y1  0  0.7 0.2  0.14 so new y1 = 0.2 – 0.14 = 0.06
dt
change of fraction in interval 2
dy2
 b(2,1)S1y1  S2 y 2  (0.32 0.7 0.2)(0.6 0.4)   0.1952
dt 9
so new y2 = 0.4 – 0.1952 = 0.2048
change of fraction in interval 3
dy3
 [b(3,1)S1y1  b(3,2)S2 y 2 ]  S3 y3  [(0.3 0.7 0.2)](0.4 0.6 0.4)]  (0.5 0.3)   0.012
dt
so new y3 = 0.3-0.012=0.288
change of fraction in interval 4
dy4
 [b( 4,1)S1y1  b( 4,2)S2 y 2  b( 4,3)S3 y3 ]  S4 y 4
dt
= [(0.14 0.7 0.2) + (0.2 0.6 0.4) + (0.5 0.5 0.3)]- 0.35 0.06 = 0.1216
so new y4 = 0.06 + 0.1216 = 0.1816
change of fraction in interval 5
dy5
 [b(5,1)S1y1  b(5,2)S2 y 2  b(5,3)S3 y3  b(5,4)S4 y 4 ]  S5 y5
dt

=[(0.12 0.7 0.2) + (0.2 0.6 0.4) + (0.25 0.5 0.3) + (0.6 0.35 0.06)]- 0.3 0.04 = 0.1029
so new y5 = 0.1029 + 0.04 = 0.1429

change of fraction in interval 6

dy6
 [b(6,1)S1y1  b(6,2)S2 y2  b(6,3)S3 y3  b(6,4)S4 y 4  b(6,5)S5 y5 ]  S6 y6
dt 10
= [(0.12 0.7 0.2) + (0.2 0.6 0.4) + (0.25 0.5 0.3) + (0.4 0.35 0.06) + (1 0.3 0.04)] – 0 = 0.1227

so new y6 = 0 + 0.1227 = 0.1227

check:
sum of predicted product interval mass fractions = y1 + y2 + y3 + y + y5 + y6 = 1.0

Interval No. (j) 1 2 3 4 5 6


Fraction 0.06 0.2048 0.288 0.1816 0.1429 0.1227

Thus with a set of S and b values for a given feed material, the product size distribution after a
given time in a mill may be determined.

11
Example Solid Proc 3 - 3 Solid in fluid
Calculate the upper limit of the diameter of a spherical particle which has a density
rp = 2000 kg/m3 falling with a terminal velocity UT through air given that Stokes law holds and
the single particle Reynolds number is Rep  0.3. Repeat the calculation for the case where the
particle is falling through water.

data: rair = 1.2 kg/m3; rwater= 1000 kg/m3; mair = 1.84 10-5 Pa s; mwater= 0.001 Pa s

The upper limit of particle diameter in the Stokes regime is governed by the upper limit of single
particle Reynolds number:

xUrf
Rep  = 0.3
m
x 2 (rp  rf )g
In the Stokes regime the terminal velocity is given by: UT 
18m
solving these two equations for xmax we have

18 m 2 m2
xmax (0.3 g(r r )r )0.333  0.82( g(r r )r )0.333
p f f p f f

plugging in the density of the particle and the values of the density and viscosity
for air obtain: xmax through air: 42.7 mm
plugging in the density of the particle and the values of the density and viscosity
for water obtain: xmax through water: 82.1 mm 12
Example
A sphere of density 2500 kg/m3 falls freely under gravity in a fluid of density 700 kg/m3 and
viscosity 0.5 10-3 Pa s. Given that the terminal velocity of the sphere is 0.15 m/s, calculate its
diameter. What would be the edge length of a cube of the same material falling in the same
fluid at the same terminal velocity?

To calculate size x, for a given UT:

CD 4gmrp rf )

Rep 3U3Tr2f

CD 4 (9.81) ( 0.5 10 3 )  2500 700 ) 3


  7.12 10
Rep 3 (0.15 )3 ( 700 )2

log(CD) = log (7.12 10-3) + 1 log(Rep)

For plotting the relationship:

Rep CD
100 0.712
1000 7.12
10000 71.2

13
These values can now be plotted on the standard drag curves for particles of different sphericity.
For the first part of this problem we are examining a sphere so want the Y=1 curve.
Drag curves for particles of different sphericities
10 4
Drag coefficient, CD

1000

100
Y = 0.125
10 Y = 0.22
8
6
4 Y = 0.6
2 Y  0.80
1 Y  1.0

0.1
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10 4 105 106
0.4 Single particle Reynolds number, Rep (Rep: equiv. volume d)
0.2 0.60.8
x vUrf
which gives then an Rep = 130 and through:Rep  = 130, obtain xv = 619 mm
m 14
For a cube having the same terminal velocity under the same conditions, the same CD vs Rep
applies but need to use the standard drag curve for a cube.

surface area of sphere of equal volume to theparticle


Sphericity: Ycube 
surface area of theparticle

cube of edge length a has V = a3 and S.A. = 6a2

If xv is the diameter of a sphere having the same volume as the cube, then:

x 3v (6)0.333 a
 a3 and xv 
6 ( )0.333

(6)0.333 a 2
[ ]
( )0.333
therefore Ycube  2
 0.806
6a

so looking at our drag curve plots again:

15
Drag curves for particles of different sphericities
Drag coefficient, CD 104

1000

100
Y = 0.125
10 Y = 0.22
8
6
4 Y = 0.6
2 Y  0.80
1 Y  1.0

0.1
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10 4 105 106
0.4 Single particle Reynolds number, Rep (Rep: equiv. volume d)
0.2 0.60.8

Find Rep = 310 and since Rep uses the equivalent volume sphere diameter:

310 (0.5 10 3 )  x 3v
xv  1.48 10 3 so Vparticle  1.66 10 9 m3
0.15 700 6
and the edge length of the cube a = (1.66 10-9 m3)0.333 = 1.18 10-3 m 16
Example

A sphere of diameter 10 mm and density 7700 kg/m3 falls under gravity at terminal conditions
through a liquid of density 900 kg/m3 in a tube of diameter 12 mm. The measured terminal
velocity of the particle is 1.6 mm/s. Calculate the viscosity of the fluid. Stokes law applies.

Convert measured terminal velocity to the equivalent velocity which would be achieved by
the sphere in a fluid of infinite extent:

x
fw (1  )2.25 Rep  0.3; x  0.97 (x/D) = (10/12) = 0.833
D D

UT
00  1 56.34 so the terminal velocity for the particle in a fluid of infinite extent
UT x 2.25
D (1 D )

UT  UT (56.34)  0.0901m / s
00 D
x2 (rp  rf )g (10 10 3 )2 (7700  900 ) 9.81
Stokes regime terminal velocity given by: UT00  
18m 18 m
so: m = 4.11 Pa s
x U rf
Check for Stokes law validity: Rep  m
 0.197 which is less than 0.3
17
Example
A height-time curve for the sedimentation of a suspension, of initial suspension concentration 0.1,
in a vertical cylindrical vessel is shown in figure 1.
Determine:

a) the velocity of the interface between clear liquid and suspension of concentration 0.1.
b) the velocity of the interface between clear liquid and a suspension of concentration 0.175
c) the velocity at which a layer of concentration 0.175 propagates upwards from the base of the
vessel.
d) the final sediment concentration

40
Height of interface of suspension

30
with clear liquid (cm)

20

10

0
0 25 50 75 100 125
18
Time from start of test (s)
a) Since the initial suspension is 0.1, the velocity required is that of the AB interface given
by the slope of the straight line portion of the height-time curve.
40
Height of interface of suspension
-1.333 cm/s
30
with clear liquid (cm)

20

10

0
0 25 50 75 100 125
Time from start of test (s)
20  40
Slope =  1.333 cm / s
15  0
b) We must first find the point corresponding to the point at which a suspension of
concentration 0.175 interfaces with the clear suspension. From:
C h CB h0
C B 0 we obtain h1  22.85
h1 C 19
A line drawn through the point t=0, h= h1=22.85, tangent to the height time curve locates the
point containing the time at which a suspension of concentration 0.175 interfaces with the clear
suspension:

40

30

h1 = 22.85
20
h=15
10

t=26
0
0 25 50 75 100 125

the slope of the curve at this point is


15  22.85
the downward velocity of this interface :  0.302cm / s
26  0
c) From (b) after 26 seconds the layer of concentration 0.175 has just reached the clear liquid
interface and has travelled a distance of 15 cm from the base of the vessel in this time.
h 15
Therefore the upward propagation velocity of this layer is:   0.577 20
t 26
d) The value of the final sediment height h is found by drawing a tangent to the part of the curve
corresponding to the final sediment and projecting it to the h-axis:

40

30

20

10
hs=10

0
0 25 50 75 100 125

CB h0 0.1 40
Having found hs we now use C    0.4
hs 10

21
Example
A suspension in water of uniformly sized spheres (diameter 150 mm, density 1140 kg/m3) has
a solids concentration of 25% by volume. The suspension settles to a bed of solids concentration
of 55% by volume. Calculate:

a) the rate at which the water/suspension interface settles.

b) the rate at which the sediment/suspension interface rises. (assume water properties: density,
1000 kg/m3; viscosity, 0.001 Pa s)

a) Solids concentration of initial suspension, CB = 0.25


The velocity of the interface between the initial suspension B and clear liquid A can be
UpA CA  UpB CB
obtained through: Uint, AB  (see p51)
CA  CB
CA = 0 so:

Uint,AB = UpB

UpB is the hindered velocity of particles relative to the vessel wall in batch settling and

is given by: Up = UTen (See p 48-49)


For the case where Stokes law applies n=4.65 and the single particle terminal velocity is given by:
22
x 2 (rp  rf )g 9.81(150 10 6 )2 (1140  1000 )
UT   1.717 10 3 m / s
18m 18 0.001
x vUrf
to check whether Stokes law assumption was valid: Rep 
m
(150 10 3 ) 1.717 10 3 1000
Rep   0.258 which is <0.3, the limiting value for Stokes law
0.001
The voidage of the initial suspension, eB = 1 – CB = 0.75 so:

UpB = 1.717 10-3 0.754.65 = 0.45 10-3 m/s; i.e,. the AB interface is moving downwards with a
velocity of 0.45 mm/s

b) We can employ the same equation again, for the velocity between the initial suspension B
and the sediment S. Thus:
UpB CB  UpS CS
Uint,BS  with CB = 0.25 and CS = 0.55
CB  CS and the velocity of sediment UpS = 0

UpB 0.25  0
Uint,BS   0.833 U pB from (a) UpB = 0.45 mm/s so Uint,BS = -0.375 mm/s
0.25  0.55
so the BS interface is moving upwards with a velocity of 0.375 mm/s.
23
Example Solid proc 3 - 4 filtartion
Water flows through 3.6 kg of glass particles of density 2590 kg/m3 forming a packed bed of
depth 0.475 m and diameter 0.0757 m. The variation in frictional pressure drop across the bed
with water flowrate in the range 200-1200 cm3/min is shown in columns 1 and 2 table 1. The
viscosity of water is m=0.001 Pa s

a) Demonstrate that the flow is laminar

b) Estimate the mean surface-volume diameter of the particles

c)Show that the Reynolds number indeed verifies laminar flow even at the highest velocity
examined here
Table 1
Water flowrate Pressure drop
(cm3/min) (mm Hg)
200 5.5
400 12.0
500 14.5
700 20.5
1000 29.5
1200 36.5

a) We will use Erguns equation so we will first need the superficial velocities. We also
should have compatible units so we transform (mm Hg) to Pascal (Pa). 24
3
200 cm ( 1m )3( 1min )
U min 100 cm 60 sec  7.41 10  4 m
s
( 0.0757 )2m2
2
5.5mmHg
P(Pa)  760 mmHg 101325 Pa  734Pa

Table 2

Water flowrate Pressure drop U Pressure drop


(cm3/min) (mm Hg) (m/s 104) (Pa)
200 5.5 7.41 734
400 12.0 14.81 1600
500 14.5 18.52 1935
700 20.5 25.92 2735
1000 29.5 37.00 3936
1200 36.5 44.40 4870

if the flow is laminar, the pressure gradient across the packed bed should increase linearly
with superficial velocity (for constant voidage and fluid viscosity).

p m U (1  e)2
Under laminar conditions Erguns equation reduces to :  150 2
H x sv e3 25
m H (1  e )2
For H, m, e constant –p vs U should give a straight line with slope = 150 2
x sv e3
5000
Pressure drop (Pa)

4000

3000 m H (1  e )2
150 2 1 . 12 10 6
Pa . s / m
2000 x sv e 3

1000

0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Superficial fluid velocity (m/s 10000)
volume of particles
b) Mass of particles = volume of bed [ ] density of particles
volume of bed
3.6
Mass of particles = AH[1-e]rp so e    1  0.3497
0.0757 2
0.475  ) 2590
2
so substituting the known and established values for e, H and m into

m H (1  e )2
150 2  1 . 12 10 6
Pa . s / m and solving for x sv  792 mm
x sv e 3

xUrf
c) Re*  5.4 for U  44.4 which is indeed less than the limiting value of 10
m(1  e) for a laminar flow even at the maximum velocity 26
Example
The reactor of a catalytic reformer contains spherical catalyst particles of diameter 1.46 mm.
The packed volume of the reactor is to be 3.4 m3 and the void fraction is 0.25. The reactor
feed is a gas of density 30 kg/m3 and viscosity 2 10-5 Pa s flowing at a rate of 11320 m3/h.
The gas properties may be assumed constant. The pressure loss through the reactor is
restricted to 68.95 kPa. Calculate the cross-sectional area for flow and the bed depth.
Need to describe the relationship between gas velocity and pressure drop across the
packed bed.
p m U (1  e)2 rf U2 (1  e)
 150 2  1.75
H x sv e 3
x sv e 3

with m = 2 10-5 Pa s, rf=30kg/m3, xsv=1.46 10-3 m, -p=68.95 kPa and e= 0.25

p 2 10 5 U (1  0.25 )2 30 U2 (1  0.25 )
 150  3 2 3
1.75 3
H (1.46 10 ) (0.25 ) 1.46 10 3 (0.25 )

68.95 103
which gives:  50666 U 1.726 10 6 U2
H
11320
Reactor volume: V = A H = 3.4 m3 Gas volumetric flowrate, Q = U A =  3.144 m3 / s
3600
Substituting gives: 0.681 H2 + 21.467 H3 = 1.0

H = 0.35 m so A = 9.71 m2 27
Example
A leaf filter has an area of 0.5 m2 and operates at a constant pressure drop of 500 kPa. The
following test results were obtained for a slurry in water which gave rise to a filter cake regarded
as incompressible.

Volume of filtrate collected (m3) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Time (s) 140 360 660 1040 1500

Calculate:
(a) the time needed to collect 0.8 m3 of filtrate at a constant pressure drop of 700 kPa.

(b) the time required to wash the resulting cake with 0.3 m3 of water at a pressure drop of 400 kPa

(a) For filtration at constant pressure drop we can use:


t rc  m rc  m
 V  Veq
V 2 A 2 ( p) A ( p)
2

which when plotting t/V vs V will give a straight line


rc  m rc  m
with slope and y-intercept Veq 28
2 A ( p)
2
A ( p)
2
so transforming the given data into the form required for plotting:

V(m3) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

t/V(s/m3) 1400 1800 2200 2600 3000

3000
2500
rc  m
slope = = 4000 s/m6
2000
2 A ( p)
2

1500 rc  m
t/V

y-intercept = Veq= 1000 s/m3


1000 A ( p)
2

500 which with A = 0.5 m2 and –p = 500 103 Pa

0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 gives rc  m  10 9 Pa s / m2 and Veq = 0.125 m3
Volume of filtrate passed, V

thus our equation becomes:


t  0.5 109 (4V 1) which applies to the filtration of the
V (p) same slurry in the same filter at any
pressure drop
thus the time required to pass 0.8 m3 of filtrate at a pressure drop of 700 kPa is:
29
t = 3000 s (50 min).
(b) During filtration for constant pressure drop the increase in cake thickness (H)
needs to be counterbalanced by a decrease in the volumetric flowrate as
seen by –P = rc m U H. During washing the thickness is constant so a change in
pressure drop is now proportional to a change in volumetric flowrate. Thus if we find the
volumetric flowrate at the end of the filtration we can then find the volumetric flowrate
at any other pressure drop during washing where H is constant and consequently the time
needed to pass a certain volume of wash water through.
The volumetric flowrate at the end of filtration can be found from

1 dV ( p)A rc  m  109 Pa s / m2
 where V = 0.8 m3 A = 0.5 m2
A dt rc m ( V  Veq ) 3
Veq = 0.125 m –p = 700 103 Pa

dV
which gives: 1.89 10  4 m3
s
for the filtration rate at the end of the filtration period
dt
dV
As discussed above while washing   p so
dt
3 3
400 103 -4 400 103 
flowrate at (400 10 Pa) = flowrate at (700 10 Pa) = 1.89 10 1.08 10-4 m3/s
700 103 700 103

so the time to pass 0.3m3 at this volumetric rate = 2778 s = 46.3 min

30
Example
Tests on a cyclone give the results shown below

Size range x (mm) 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30

Feed size 10 15 25 30 15 5
analysis, m(g)

Coarse product size 0.1 3.53 18.0 27.3 14.63 5.0


analysis, mc (g)

(a) From these results determine the total efficiency of the cyclone

(b) Plot the grade efficiency curve and hence show that the x50 cut size is 10 mm

(c) The dimensionless constants describing this cyclone are: Eu = 384 and Stk 50 = 1 10-3.
Determine the diameter and number of cyclones to be operated in parallel to achieve this cut size
when handling 10 m3/s of a gas of density 1.2 kg/m3 and viscosity 18.4 10-6 Pa s, laden with
dust of particle density 2500 kg/m3. The available pressure drop is 1200 Pa.

(d) What is the actual cut size of your design?

31
(a) Mass of feed, M = 10 + 15 + 25 + 30 + 15 + 5 = 100 g
Mass of coarse product, Mc = 0.1 + 3.53 + 18.0 + 27.3 + 14.63 + 5.0 = 68.56 g
Total efficiency: ET  Mc  0.6856 (or 68.56%)
M
dF dF
Mc ( c ) ( c)
(b) G( x )  dx  E dx here, we can use the data provided to us directly
dF T
dF to obtain G(x)
M( ) ( )
dx dx
mc
G(x) =
m

Size range x (mm) 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30

G(x) 0.01 0.235 0.721 0.909 0.975 1.00

1.0

0.8

0.6
G(x)

0.4

0.2

0.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 32
Particle size x (mm)
dF
we can also calculate the size distributions of the feed (mass fraction of feed of size x)
dx
dFc
and coarse product (mass fraction of coarse product of size x),
dx

Size range, x (mm) 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30

dFc/dx 0.00146 0.0515 0.263 0.398 0.2134 0.0729

dF/dx 0.1 0.15 0.25 0.30 0.15 0.05

and verify the calculated G(x) values; ex:


dFc
0.263
G( x )  ET dx 0.6856 0.721
dF 0.25
dx
2 p 0.5 2 1200 0.5
(c)   ( ) ( )  2.282 m / s
Eurf 384 1.2
If we have n cyclones in parallel and assuming equal distribution of the gas between
cyclones, then the flowrate to each cyclone q = Q/n

D ( 4 Q )0.5 ( 4 10 )0.5  2.362


n  n  2.282 (n)0.5 33
2
x50 rp 
using now: Stk 50 
18 m D
(10 10  6 )2 2500 2.282
10 3  giving n = 1.88
2.362
18 18.4 10  6 ( 0.5 )
(n)
2.362 2.362
so 2 cyclones are required each having diameter: D ( 0.5
)  ( 0.5
)  1.67m
(n) (2)
(d) The actual cut size is calculated by inputing the established D and number of cyclones into:
10 3 18 18.4 10  6 1.67 0.5
2
x50 rp 
so actual cut size x 50 ( ) 9.85 10  6 m (Stk 50  )
2500 2.282 18 m D

So in summary 2 cyclones required (characterized by Eu = 384 and Stk50 = 10-3)


of diameter 1.67 m and operating at a pressure drop of 1200 Pa with cut size of 9.85 mm.

Example
Calculate the terminal radial velocity of a particle (rp = 1050 kg/m3; 60 mm in diameter) in
air at 260 Celcius (m = 2.7 10-5 kg/(m s); rf = 0.658 kg/m3) orbiting in a cyclone at r = 0.225
at a tangential velocity of 2 m/s.

18 m r x 2 (rp  rf ) U2 (60 10 6 )2 (1050  0.658 ) (2)2


x 
2
Ur or Ur   0.138m / s
(rp  rf ) U2
18m r 18 2.7 10 5 0.225

34
Example Solid proc 3 -5 mixing
A random mixture consists of two components A and B in proportions 60% and 40% by mass
respectively. The particles are spherical and A and B have particle densities 500 and 700 kg/m3
respectively. The cumulative mass distribution of the two components are shown in Table I.

Table I

Size x (mm) 2057 1676 1405 1204 1003 853 699 599 500 422
FA(x) 1.00 0.80 0.50 0.32 0.19 0.12 0.07 0.04 0.02 0

FB(x) 1.00 0.88 0.68 0.44 0.21 0.08 0

If samples of 1 g are withdrawn from the mixture, what is the expected value for the standard
deviation of the composition of the samples?
The expression for the standard deviation of a randomly mixed 2-component system is given by:

p(1  p) 0.5
R ( )
n
where p and (1-p) are the proportions of the two components in the mixture with n particles in
each sample
We know p and 1-p, (0.6 and 0.4) but need to find n, the number of particles in each sample.
35
So need to first find the number of particles per unit mass of A and B, then add them up and
multiply by the mass of the sampling (0.001 kg).

So we need to find the mass of particles in each size range dm.

This will allow us to find the number of particles in each size range through:

[mass of particles in each size range] = [number of particles in each size range] [mass of one particle]
rp  x 3
dm = dn
6
rp = particle density
x = arithmetic mean of adjacent sieve sizes

so for example between sizes 1676 and 1405 mm we have:

mean size of x = 1676 + 1405 = 1540.5


2
F = mass fraction less than size x = mass in a certain size range that is less than x
total mass
for dm: have by unit mass -
0.80 A particles have sizes < 1676 and 0.50 A particles have sizes < 1405
so 0.30 of A particles have sizes 1676>x>1405

36
rp  x3 500  (1540 .5 10 6 )3 kg A
  9.571 10 7
6 6 particle A
kg A
0.3
kg total A particles
so dn =  0.313 10 6
kg A kg total
9.571 10 7
A particle
so generating the data for A and B for all the size distributions, obtain Table II for A and Table III
for B particles:

Table II A particles
Mean size of range x (mm) dm dn

1866.5 0.20 0.117 106


1540.5 0.30 0.313 106
1304.5 0.18 0.310 106
1103.5 0.13 0.370 106
928 0.07 0.335 106
776 0.05 0.409 106
649 0.03 0.419 106
549.5 0.02 0.460 106
461 0.02 0.780 106
Totals 1.00 3.513 106
37
Table III B particles
Mean size of range x (mm) dm dn
1866.5 0 0
1540.5 0 0
1304.5 0.12 0.148 106
1103.5 0.20 0.406 106
928 0.24 0.819 106
776 0.23 1.343 106
649 0.13 1.298 106
549.5 0.08 1.316 106
461 0 0
Totals 1.00 5.33 106

so we have
nA = 3.513 106 particles/kg, nB = 5.33 106 particles/kg

and in the 1g samples that are being withdrawn:

n = 0.001 kg (3.513 106 0.6 + 5.33 106 0.4) = 4240 particles

p(1  p) 0.5 0.6(0.4) 0.5


thus, the standard deviation is: R ( ) ( )  0.0075
n 4240
38
Example Solid proc 3 -6 Movement and storage
A cylindrical hopper of diameter 1 m is filled to a depth of 4m with solids resulting in a bulk
density of 6000 kg/m3. The wall friction factor between the solids and the wall is 0.5 and the
ratio of horizontal to applied stress is 0.5 and this value does not vary with depth.
The stress at the top free surface is 105 Pa. What are the horizontal and vertical stresses at the
base of the hopper?

D = 1m
H=4m
rB = 6000 kg/m3
4m w k 4m w k
mw = 0.5 DrB g  {( )}H  {( )}H
v  [1  e D ] v0 e
D
k = 0.5 4m w k
v0 = 105 Pa
kg m 4 0.5 0.5 4 0.5 0.5
1m 6000 3 9.81 2  {( )} 4m  {( )} 4 m
v  m s [1  e 1m
]  10 Pa e
5 1m
4 0.5 0.5
kg
58660
v  m s2 [1 e 4 ]  105Pa e 4  59416 Pa
1
39
h = 0.5 59416 Pa = 29708 Pa
Example
A dilute phase pneumatic pipe transports 900 kg/hr of sand of particle density 2500 kg/m3 and
mean spherical particle size 100 mm using air having a superficial gas velocity of
14.82 m/s. The pipe diameter is 78 mm. You may take the friction factor for the gas as 0.005.

(a) What is the pressure drop across the pipe if it has a length of 30 meters and is horizontal?

(b) What is the pressure across the pipe if it has length of 10 meters and is vertical? For this part
You may assume that all the initial acceleration of the solids and the gas has already taken place
in a previous pipe section.

(a) p1  p2 0.5 e rf U2  0.5(1 e)rp Up


2 F L FpwL rpL(1 e)gsinr Le gsin
fw f
f
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

Gas acceleration and particle acceleration should be considered here so 1 and 2 remain.
Term 3 in the dilute regime we can use the fanning friction equation.

For term 4 we employ Hinkle’s correlation

Terms 5 and 6 are 0 since  = 0


2 L
2 fg rf U2 LH 2 fp rp (1 eH)UpH H
pH 0.5 eH rf U2  0.5(1 eH)rp U2  fs 
fH pH D D
40
H = values specific to the horizontal pipe
to use this equation need: eH, UfH and UpH

Using Hinkles expression:

UpH Ufs (1  0.0638 x 0.3 rp0.5 ) = 14.82 (1- 0.0638 0.0631 50) = 11.84 m/s
Mp
From continuity: Particle mass flux = G  rp (1  eH )UpH
G A
so eH 1   0.9982
rp UpH
U
and UfH  e fs  14.82 14.85m / s
H 0.9982
Still need the friction factor fp which we can again obtain using Hinkles expressions:

3rf D U  UpH 2
fp  CD [ fH ]
8 rp x UpH
The only unknown left above in order to obtain fp is CD which we can obtain at the relative
velocity (UfH – UpH) by either using one of the approximate correlations or from the appropriate
CD vs Re chart

Rep<1: CD = 24/Rep
1<Rep<500: CD  18.5 Rep0.6
500<Rep<2 105 CD = 0.44 41
rf (UfH  UpH )x
so: Rep  Which using:rfair = 1.2 kg/m3 and mair = 18.4 10-6 Pa s
m
Rep = 19.63

so CD  18.5 (19.63 )0.6  3.1

3 1.2 0.078 14.85  11.84 2


fp  6
3.1[ ]  0.0281
8 2500 100 10 11.84

pH 0.5 0.9982 1.2 (14.85 )2  0.5(1  0.9982 ) 2500 (11.84 )2

2 0.005 1.2 (14.82)2 30 2 0.0281 2500 (1  0.9982 ) (11.84 )2 30


 
0.078 0.078
 PH = 15097 Pa

(b) p1  p2 0.5 e rf U2f  0.5(1  e )rp Up2 FfwL Fpw L rpL(1  e )gsin   rf Le gsin 
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

Initial acceleration of solids and gas has already taken place so 1 and 2 are 0
The fanning friction factor can be used to calculate the pressure loss due to gas-to-wall friction term 3
For term 4 the modified Konno Saito correlation is used 42
For vertical transport  is 90 degrees in terms 5 and 6
2 fg rf U2 L v
pv  fs  0.057GLv ( g )0.5  rp (1 ev )gLv  r ev gLv
D D f
v= values specific to the vertical sections

To evaluate this equation need to find ev

Since we are in the dilute regime the slip velocity Urel = Ufv - Upv will be equal to the single particle
terminal velocity UT. Moreover noting that the gas superficial velocity is the same in both the
horizontal and vertical pipe sections we have:

Ufs
Upv   UT
ev
and continuity or mass balance requires for the mass flowrate:

G = rp(1-ev)Upv

combining these two equations gives:


G
e2v UT  [UT  Ufs  ]e v  Ufs  0
rp
so UT will allow us to find ev which will then allow us to find pv
4 x3rf (rp  rf )g
Can use the relationship CD Rep2  since we do not know the flow regime
3m 2 43
4 x 3
rf (rp  rf )g 4 (100 10 6 )3 (1.2) (2500  1.2) 9.81
CD Rep 
2
 6 2
 116
3m 2
3 (18.4 10 )
Rep CD
0.2 2900
1 116
10 1.16
Drag curves for particles of different sphericities
104
.
Drag coefficient, CD

1000

100 .
Y = 0.125

8 10 . Y = 0.22
6
4 Y = 0.6
2
1
Rep = 3.39
. Y  0.80
Y  1.0

0.1
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 104 105 106 44
0.4 0.8 Single particle Reynolds number, Re (Re : equiv. volume d)
0.2 0.6 p p
(100 10  6 ) UT 1.2
Rep  6
 3.39
18.4 10
so UT = 0.52 m/s
G
e2v UT  [UT  Ufs  ]e v  Ufs  0
rp

52.35
e2v 0.52  [0.52  14.82  ]e v  14.82  0
2500
eV = 0.9985

2 fg rf U2fsL v g
pv   0.057GLv ( )0.5  rp (1  ev )gLv  rf ev gLv
D D

2 0.005 1.2 (14.82)210 9.81 0.5


pv  0.057 52.35 10( )
0.078 0.078
 2500 (1  0.9985 )9.81 10  1.2 0.9985 9.81 10  1158 Pa

45