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In the name of God

Steam Injection Enhanced Oil Recovery

Course Instructor :

Dr. Behnam Sedaei

Introduced by:
Yusef Haghshenas

Hamed Mousanejad Kermani

Mohammad Javad Derakhshan

Date: 15th December 2016


Steam injection technology, introduced in the 1970.

It is the type of thermal EOR method are generally applicable to heavy ,

viscous crudes, and involve the introduction of thermal energy or steam
into the reservoir to raise the temperature of the oil and reduce its
viscosity, increase in permeability.
Steam flooding

Injected into a number of injection wells continuously.

Heavy Oil produced by stimulation before flooding is started-flow
steam drives the mobilized oil toward the producers.

1.Condensing Zone
2.Saturated-Steam Zone
3.Transition Zone
4.Displacement Zone
 Viscosity change
 Relative permeability change
 Thermal expansion
 Vaporization / condensation
 Steam distillation
 Catalytic and thermal cracking
 Light hydrocarbon and / or CO2 dissolution
 Swelling because of Light hydrocarbon and / or CO2 dissolution

 Cost of operation

 Simple process

 High recovery factor compare to water flooding

 Oil saturations must be quite high and the pay zone should be more
than 20 ft thick to minimize heat losses to adjacent formations.
 Lighter, less viscous crude oils can be steam flooded but normally
will not be if the reservoir will respond to an ordinary water flood.
 Steam flooding is primarily applicable to viscous oils in massive,
high permeability sandstones or unconsolidated sands.
 Steam flooding is not normally used in carbonate reservoirs.
 Heat loss of the steam.
 The distance of the Injection and production well should be enough
for heat to spread in the reservoir.
 Carbon dioxide emission.
 Energy source for steam generation.
 Steam override and premature breakthrough.
Goals of researches

 Increasing recovery factor

 Decreasing steam oil ratio
 Decreasing heat loss
 Decreasing water cuts
 Decreasing the requirement for energy
 Decreasing the cost of operation (cost of steam generation)
Cyclic steam stimulation

 essentially a single well operation, with the same well used for
injection and production.
 oil production rate and the total oil production in the second cycle is
less than that in the first, and declines in subsequent cycles.
 effective over a short radial distance from the well.
 Recovery factor about 20-25 % of the Original Oil in Place (OOIP).
 Disadvantage that the cost to inject steam is high.
Cyclic steam stimulation
Steam assisted gravity drainage
( SAGD )
Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage is an enhanced oil recovery
technology for producing heavy crude oil and bitumen. It is an
advanced form of steam stimulation in which a pair of horizontal wells
is drilled into the oil reservoir, one a few meters above the other. High
pressure steam is continuously injected into the upper wellbore to heat
the oil and reduce its viscosity, causing the heated oil to drain into the
lower wellbore, where it is pumped out
Steam assisted gravity drainage
( SAGD )
Steam injection

Heat generated at the surface:

Steam Drive (Steam flooding)

 Steam Cyclic Steam Stimulation ( huff-and-puff )
Steam assisted gravity drainage ( SAGD )
Water injection after steam flooding

 Economic production of oil.

 Reducing the consumption of the fuel.

 Prevent the oil from coming back to swept areas.

 Spread the heat in reservoir and sweep the areas that steam round
Water alternating steam process
Water alternating steam process,
WASP, is a technique designed to
overcome the problems associated
with steam injection. It involves
injection of alternating steam and
water slugs for more than one cycle,
in order to improve the injection front
because, due to their nature, injected
fluids run through different areas of
the field that have not been contacted
and that have considerable amounts of
hydrocarbons. The technique was
evaluated by numerical simulation on
a heavy oil reservoir located in the
MiddleThe technique was evaluated
Water alternating steam process
Enhancing heavy oil recovery by
steam-air combination flooding
Air is the most common gas and furthermore, the low cost of the collection
of air makes air an available addictive gas.
Mechanism of steam-air combination flooding:
 Air can enhance the drainage energy of oil
Compared with other gas such as CO2 , natural gas, fuel gas and so on, air
has a much greater compressibility coefficient. Even in a higher
temperature, the compressibility coefficient of air is still high. So air
contains more energy and if reservoir pressure drops, more oil will be
 Air can enhance the heat utilization factor of steam flooding
Air has a low coefficient of heat conductivity, which is only 0.0288W/m. K.
When air is co-injected with steam, air will occupy the upper location of the
reservoir and thus prevent heat from conducting to the cap rock. Therefore,
the bottom of the reservoir can better heated by injected steam and more
oil will be produced and heat utilization efficiency will be increased.
Enhancing heavy oil recovery by steam-
air combination flooding
Enhancing heavy oil recovery by steam-
air combination flooding
Solvent-aided steam flooding

The formation of the solvent channel led to oil-solvent mixing at the

periphery of the channel as well as heat transfer to oil beyond the
channel, which leads to better recovery performance. In the the
presence of a bottom water zone, the optimized steam injection
pressure optimization strategy was found to perform poorly. However,
the optimized solvent-aided strategy achieved superior economics. With
solvent injection, the presence of the bottom ater zone enhanced
mixing of solvent and oil yielding better oil recovery performance.
Solvent-aided steam flooding

With out bottom water

Solvent-aided steam flooding
Solvent-aided steam flooding

With bottom water

Solvent-aided steam flooding
Improving SAGD performance
combining with css
The SAGD and CSS process were combined together to benefit advantages
of both methods. When the wells are shut-in to soak, infectivity of steam
during SAGD process will increase .So the chamber can extend more easily
to drain the oil toward production wells. The production performance of
this method is compared to conventional SAGD and CSS process.
Simulation results show that with the same steam injection rate, this new
method has more oil recovery than conventional SAGD, due to better
development of steam chamber into reservoir. Also as a result of lower
steam-oil-ratio the production cost is reduced.
Improving SAGD performance
combining with css
Improving SAGD performance
combining with css
Expanding solvent Steam assisted
gravity drainage (ES-SAGD)
The Expanding Solvent-SAGD (ES-SAGD), is aimed at improving and
extending SAGD performance by solvent addition to steam. The
improvements include higher and faster drainage rates, lower energy
and water requirements and reduced green house gas (GHG)

In the ES-SAGD process, the solvent or solvent mixture additive, whose

vaporization thermodynamic behavior is similar, or close, to that of
water thermodynamic behavior for a given reservoir condition is
considered the most appropriate.
Expanding solvent Steam assisted
gravity drainage (ES-SAGD)
Expanding solvent Steam assisted
gravity drainage (ES-SAGD)

Case 2

Case 3
Expanding solvent Steam assisted
gravity drainage (ES-SAGD)
Expanding solvent Steam assisted
gravity drainage (ES-SAGD)
Convective SAGD process

In steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process, accumulation of

non-condensable gases at the edges of the steam chamber creates a
resistance to heat transfer between hot steam and cold bitumen, thus
slowing down growth of the steam chamber. Efficient removal of these
gases from the steam chamber can substantially accelerate the
recovery process.

Typical practice in SAGD is to use steam splitters and strive for a

relatively uniform pressure in the horizontal part of the well, which
allows for even distribution of injected steam into the reservoir. In
convective SAGD process, a significant pressure gradient is deliberately
created along the horizontal length of the injector well by tailoring the
well completion design.
Convective SAGD process
Convective SAGD process
Convective SAGD process
Vertical single well SAGD
producers (SW-SAGD)
Shallow-field experiments demonstrated thatvertical planes could be injected on
azimuth in weakly cemented formations (Hocking 1996). Continuous permeable
planes filled with an iron proppant—in some cases, kilometers in length—have been
constructed using this technology for groundwater remediation at numerous sites
(Hocking and Wells 2002). More recently, shallow-field experiments have
demonstrated that multi-azimuthpermeable planes can be installed from a single
well in weakly cemented formations (Hocking et al. 2008). The technology is not
limited by depth, but is limited to formation strength, being that it is applicable only
in weakly cemented formations. This process has now been extended to depths
greater than 500 m (Hocking et al. 2011a & 2013) and is proposed as a new
thermally enhanced well-completion system for heavy-oil and bitumen recovery in
unconsolidated sands where conventional thermal recovery methods, such as SAGD
and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) have limitations because of geological issues.
Vertical single well SAGD (SW-
Vertical single well SAGD (SW-
The end
 Jian Yang, Xiangfang Li, Darong Xu, Yiqun Yan, Jing Li, and Sidong Fang, China
University of Petroleum; Baorui Zhang, Promotion Association for Special Equipment
Safety and Energy Saving, Research of Enhancing Heavy Oil Recovery By Steam-Air
Combination Flooding, 20 –22 October 2015
 David W. Zhao, Jacky Wang, and Ian D. Gates, Department of Chemical and Petroleum
Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Solvent-Aided
Steam-Flooding StrategyOptimization in Thin Heavy Oil Reservoirs, 26–28 March 2013.
 G. Hocking, SPE, GeoSierra LLC; D. A. Walters, SPE, Taurus Reservoir Solutions Ltd,
Vertical Single-Well SAGD with Multiple Producers, 11–13 June 2013.
 M. C. Ariza, A. Perez, A. X. Rodriguez Castelblanco, and S. F. Munoz Navarro,
Universidad Industrial de Santander, Water Alternating Steam Process WASP
Simulation Study in a Colombian Heavy Oil, 13–15 June 2016.
 Arun Sood, Cenovus Energy, Convective SAGD Process, 7–9 June 2016.
 E. Ghanbari, S. Mighani, E. Shaabani and R. Alipour Yeganeh Marand, Amirkabir
University of Technology, Improving SAGD Performance Combining with CSS, 7–9
February 2012.
 T.N. Nasr and O.R. Ayodele, Alberta Research Council, New Hybrid Steam-Solvent
Processes for the Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen, 5–8 November 2006.
 B.W. Orr, SPE, Nexen; P. Srivastava, SPE, V. Sadetsky, SPE, B.J. Stefan,SPE, Baker
Hughes, Reducing Steam Oil Ratio in Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage, 19–21 October