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Department of Technical Education

Andhra Pradesh
Name : K. Sujatha
Designation : Sr. Lecturer in Civil Engineering
Branch : Civil Engineering
Institution : AANM & VVRSR Polytechnic,
Gudlavalleru
Semester : VI SEM
subject : ENVIRONMENTALENGINEERING II
Subject code : C 605
Topic : Sewerage systems and Appurtenances
Duration : 50minutes
Sub topic : Shapes of sewers, merits and demerits
Teaching Aids : Diagrams
Revised by : G.Appa Rao
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OBJECTIVES

On completion of this period you would be able


to

• State the factors influencing selection of shapes of


sewers

• List various shapes of sewers used

• List merits and demerits of each shape


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RECAP
What is a sewer ?
• The underground conduits which are used for the
disposal of sewage are called sewers
• The sewer depending on the function served by them
may be a
• Lateral sewer
• Branch sewer
• Main sewer
• Intercepting sewer
• Outfall sewer

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Factors influencing selection of shape of
sewers
• Efficiency of flow depends on Hydraulic mean depth
• Maintenance of self cleaning velocity during
minimum flow

• Ease in construction & maintenance


• Resistance to internal pressure
• Structural stability
• Cost of sewer

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SHAPES OF SEWERS

• Various shapes used in sewer construction are


1. Circular section

2. Rectangular section

3. Semi elliptical section

4. Horse shoe section

5. Basket handle section

6. Egg shape / Ovoid section

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CIRCULAR SECTION

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CIRCULAR SECTION contd..

• Circular shape is the most economical section for


sewers

• It is suitable up to diameter 1.5 m

• It is constructed with either reinforced concrete or

masonry

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CIRCULAR SECTION contd..
Merits
1. It gives maximum hydraulic mean depth for given
area, when running full or half full

2. Maximum velocity can be maintained compared to


other sections, thus preventing deposition of solids

3. Easy to construct and economical

4. Suitable for separate sewerage system where


discharge is almost constant

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CIRCULAR SECTION contd..

Demerits
1. Construction may be difficult in case of masonry
sewers

2. Performance is poor in combined system due to


low DWF and consequent low velocity

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RECTANGULAR SECTION

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RECTANGULAR SECTION contd..

• These sewers are constructed with either concrete or


masonry

• This is also known as ‘Box Type’ section

Merits
1. Economical in construction

2. Easy to construct

3. Can be used for temporary storage during high tide


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RECTANGULAR SECTION contd..

Demerits

1. Hydraulic mean depth is low for small discharges,

hence self cleaning velocity can’t be developed

2. Cannot effectively take the load of over burden

when width is large

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SEMI ELLIPTICAL SECTION

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SEMI ELLIPTICAL SECTION contd..

• These sewers are constructed with either concrete or


masonry
• They are suitable for soft soils
Merits
1. They are suitable for soft soils
2. Structurally more stable because of arch action
3. Thickness of masonry or concrete below springing line
is less
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SEMI ELLIPTICAL SECTION contd..

Demerits

1. At low depths of sewage, self cleaning velocity

can’t be developed

2. Difficult to construct

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HORSE SHOE SECTION

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HORSE SHOE SECTION contd..

• It has flat shape on the top with sides inclined or


vertical
• Invert may be circular or paraboloid
Merits
1. They are suitable for large sewers with heavy
discharge
2. Suitable when available head room for the
construction is limited
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HORSE SHOE SECTION contd..

Demerits

1. Low velocities when discharge is small

2. Difficult to construct

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BASKET HANDLE SECTION

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BASKET HANDLE SECTION contd..

• The shape resembles a basket handle


• This can be constructed in R.C.C.

Merits
1. Self cleaning velocity can be developed even for small
discharges

2. Section can function efficiently for large discharges

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BASKET HANDLE SECTION contd..

Demerits

1. Costly and uneconomical

2. Difficult to construct

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EGG SHAPED SECTION

Standard ovoid New ovoid


form form
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EGG SHAPED SECTION contd..
• There are two types namely
A. Standard egg shape
B. New ovoid shape
• They are constructed with R.C.C. or masonry

Merits
1. Self cleaning velocity available at small discharges also
2. Suitable for combined sewerage system as well as
separate system
3. Possess excellent hydraulic properties compared to any
other section
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EGG SHAPED SECTION contd..

Demerits
1. Construction is difficult

2. Less stable than circular sections and require


special invert blocks

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SUMMARY
Merits of different shapes of sewers
1. Circular – economical, gives max hydraulic mean
depth, ease in construction
2. Rectangular – economical, easy to construct
3. Semi elliptical – structurally more stable, less masonry
4. Horse shoe – handle heavy discharges, suitable under
limited head room
5. Basket handle – more self cleaning velocity, efficient
functioning in case of large discharges
6. Egg shaped – more self cleaning velocity, excellent
hydraulic properties
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SUMMARY contd..
Demerits of different shapes of sewers
1.Circular – poor performance in combined system,
difficult to construct in case of masonry
circular sewers
2.Rectangular – low hydraulic mean depth, for large widths
cannot withstand heavy loads

3.Semi elliptical – less velocity, difficult to construct

4.Horse shoe – low velocities, difficult to construct

5.Basket handle – difficult to construct, costly

6.Egg shaped – less stable, difficult to construct


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QUIZ

1. The sewer which is suitable for laying in soft


soils is

a) Circular

b) Egg shaped

c) New ovoid

d) Semi elliptical

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QUIZ contd..

2. The sewer shape suitable when available


head room is limited is

a) Circular

b) Elliptical

c) Horse shoe

d) Ovoid

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Frequently asked questions

1. List any two merits and two demerits of circular


sewers

2. List any two merits and two demerits of rectangular


sewers

3. Draw the sketches of standard egg shape and new


ovoid shape sewers and list any two merits and
two demerits

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