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Unit II

System Analysis and Design

System Analysis and Design

System Analysis :
The act, process, or profession of studying an activity.
System Design:
Systems design is the process of defining the architecture,
modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy
specified requirements.
System Analysis role:
A systems analyst is a person who uses analysis and design
techniques to solve business problems using information
System Development Life Cycle
Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE)
 CASE tool is used for software development activities.

 CASE help in development, Verification, Maintenance and generation of


 CASE can be used to automate some functions of Software Engineering.

 As market demands are changing at a much faster pace that before,

development of new products needs to be faster so as to replace old product
with new ones. So, in order to speed up the software system building process,
CASE is introduced.
Reasons of Using CASE Tools:
1. To increase analyst productivity
2. Facilitate communication analyst and user
3. Providing continuity
4. Reduce the cost as they automate many repetitive manual tasks.
5. Reduce development time
6. Create good quality documentation

Characteristics of CASE Tools

1. Standard Methodology
2. Flexibility
3. Strong Integrations -> Integration for all stages of software development
4. Integration with Testing Software - > For Testing
5. Support for Reverse Engineering -> complex model from existing code
6. Online Help - > offer online tutorials
Different Classes of Tools in SDLC ( Software Development Life Cycle)
Advantage of CASE Tools:

1.The Process system has an effective and longer operation life

2.The produced system fulfils the user’s requirements more efficiently
3.Requirement of the produced system is very low
4. More flexible system are produced.

Disadvantage of CASE Tools

1. Customisation is difficult
2. Trained maintenance staffs are needed
3. Difficulty is encountered while using with present system
Structured Analysis Tools:
1. System Flow Charts
2. Decision Table
3. Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
4. Entity Relationship (ER Diagram)

System Flow Charts:

 A flowchart is a pictorial representation of the sequence of operations in system.

 Flowchart is the most common method of describing procedure in a computer-
based system.
 A flowchart is the plan to be followed when a program is written. It act like a
roadmap for a programmer, It’s proceeding from the starting point to the final
point in a logical manner.
Flow Chart Symbols:
Flow Chart Symbols:
Example of Flow Chart:
Advantage of Flow Charts:
 Communication
 Proper Documentation
 Proper Debugging
 Efficient Program Maintenance

Disadvantage of Flow Charts:

 Complex Logic
 Alternation and Modification
 Reproduction
 Time-Consuming
 Alteration and Modification
Decision Table:
 The Matrix representation regarding the logic of decision is termed as ‘Decision
 The possible conditions for the decision and the resulting actions are specified
in the decision table.
Advantage of Decision Table:
 Make a clear structure of decision
 Decision-making is smooth and uninterrupted
 Manager and analyst can interact comfortably
 It is easy to prepare , alter or update
 Usage is easy

Disadvantage of Decision Table:

 An extra burden is forced
 The flow cannot be illustrated
 Cannot be translated effortlessly
 Not possible to mention each and every substitute
Data Flow Diagram (DFD):
The graphical representation of data “flow” through an information system is
referred to as a data-flow diagram (DFD). It is used in effective analysis and
understanding any system.
Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Example :
Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Rules :

1. Process
2. Data Source -> Data must be moved by a process from one data store to
3. Source
4. Data Flow
1. Early Implementation
2. Study Independence
3. Analysis
4. Reduces Coast
1.Absence of Control
2.Highly Subjective
Entity Relationship (ER) Diagram

The E-R Diagram(ERD) or data schema map or data map is additional method in
which data and their organization is captured. This captured the entities and
attributes and the inter-relationship between entities.

The interrelationship of the data schema are characterized by the picture in the

The Relationship exists between the table (relation) and ER Diagram.

Objectives of ERD
1. Straightforward Relational Representation
2. Easy Conversion of ER to other Data Model
3. Graphical Representation for Better Understanding
Notation for Entity Relationship (ER) Diagram
Components of Entity Relationship (ER) Diagram

2. Attributes
3. Relationships
a. One -to -One (1:1)
b. One- to - Many (1:M)
c. Many – to – Many (M:N)