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Presented by-

Jay Pokia
Rohan Shah
Nikhil Prajapati
Amish Sharma

 Chasis- Mild steel
 DC geared motors- 100 rpm (x2)
 Tires of 70mm diameter (x2)
 Set of wires (at least 3m long)
 DPDT switches (x2)
 Case for DPDT switches
 12 Volts, 1.2 Amp. hour battery
This project is based on robotics. The branch of technology that
deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of
robots. It relies on the concepts of how the gear motor works,
functioning of the DPDT switches and some crucial information
about the batteries. This project makes us understand the above
stated topics in depth.
With the help of it, we will be able to know the internal
design and specialty of a gear motor. The functioning of DPDT
switches and esteemed information about motors and batteries
makes it more interesting.
We have connected +ve terminal of the motor to the 1 st end of a
DPDT switch 3rd end to the +ve terminal of the battery. The –ve
terminal of the battery is connected to 4 th end of a DPDT switch
and 2nd end to the –ve terminal of a motor in series. This completes
our first circuit. Due to this, the shaft of motor will rotate in
clockwise direction, if the switch is pressed in forward direction.
To rotate the shaft in counter-clockwise direction, 1 st
end of a DPDT switch is connected to its diagonally opposite 6 th
end and similarly 2nd is connected to the 5 th end keeping the rest of
the above connections as same. This will result in the change in
polarity of a motor and thus, it will rotate in anticlockwise direction.
But this is all about one motor which can run one tier at a time.
To make the another tier run, the ends are connected in
the same fashion. We are having only battery which runs both the
motors at a time. To achieve this condition, the two DPDT switches
are connected in parallel so that voltage drop across both the
motors remains the same. For this, 3 rd end of first DPDT switch is
connected to 3rd end of second DPDT switch and same is the case
for 4th end. This completes our whole circuit.
As a result, the two motors can run manually as the
user wants at the same applied voltage.

For better understanding of how the robocar works, connections part
must be clear.
When the switch is in closed condition, the current is allowed to
flow from +ve terminal of a battery to the switch and then to the +ve
terminal of a motor via resistance of motor to –ve terminal of a motor
and finally passes to –ve terminal of a battery through the switch. In
this way, the circuit gets closed resulting in motion of shaft of a
For reverse movement of a motor, the switch needs to pressed
in backward direction. Due to this, the polarity of the motor is changed
because 1st-6th and 2nd-5th (ends of a DPDT).
Chasis is material made up of
mild steel and it consists of
holes of mili diameters. The
holes are provided so that
wires can be passed through it
easily and connected further to
rest of the components of the
circuit. It is also used to
connect the motor sideways for
its smooth movement.
A gear motor is a specific type of
electrical motor that is designed to DC geared motor
produce high torque while
maintaining a low horsepower, or
low speed, motor output.
Gear motors are primarily
used to reduce speed in a series
of gears, which in turn creates
more torque. This is accomplished
by an integrated series of gears or
a gear box being attached to the
main motor rotor and shaft via a
second reduction shaft. The
second shaft is then connected to
the series of gears or gearbox to
create what is known as a series
of reduction gears.
Circuit diagram
This switch is equal to
two SPDT switches, it
means two separate
circuits, connecting two
inputs of each circuit to
one of two outputs. The
switch position controls
the number of ways and
from the two contacts
each contact can be

When it is in ON-ON mode or

ON-OFF-ON mode they work
like two discrete SPDT
switches worked by the
similar actuator. At a time only
two loads can be ON. A DPDT
switch can be used in any
application that needs an
open & closed wiring system.
If the +VE enters at connection B & the switch is fixed to the top
most position, then the connection A becomes +ve and the motor
will rotate in one direction. If the switch is set to the lowest position,
the power supply is inverted and connection D becomes +ve then
the motor will rotate in the opposite direction. In the middle
position, the power supply is not linked to the motor and it does not
rotate. This kind of switch is mainly used in several motor
controllers where speed of that motor is to be inverted .

For this project, 12 Volts, 1.2 Amp. hour battery fits the best. By
using 1.2 amp hour battery, I mean to say that it can supply 1.2
ampere for 1 hour until the battery runs out of energy.
Ampere hour is defined as a measure of capacity and it’s a
way to estimate the amount of energy that a battery can hold and
undoubtedly, it is far more different from ampere. As ampere is
defined as no. of electrons flowing through a certain point per
One most crucial reason why this battery used is-
according to energy conservation, we have
𝑉 = 𝐾t . 𝜔
we can see that 𝜔 ∝ 𝑉, therefore to increase angular
velocity high voltage is required. Moreover, 𝜔 varies linearly with Γ
and 𝜄.

Mobile robots are mobile in nature. They are used in
industrial activities for logistics and warehousing distribution,
painting and de-painting, assembly, coating and dispensing and
inspection applications. In addition, they are used in service
segments including defense, medical and healthcare, field
applications and for domestic and entertainment applications
The robotics industry has witnessed grants and funds
from local governments to obtain an edge over others in the
competitive environment. Integration of mobile robots with mobile
technologies, other smart products, and appliances is further
expected to boost the sales of mobile robots in domestic
application segment.

Thank you