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Horizontal Drilling

Adi Novriansyah
(Taken From PETE 34)
Horizontal Drilling

• Why Drill Horizontal Wells?


• Relative Production Rates
• Relative Costs
• Types of Horizontal Wells
• Drilling Problems & Solutions
• How Popular is Horizontal Drilling?
• Examples

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Why Drill Horizontal Wells?

• Increase Reserves

• Increase Production Rates

• Control Water Production

• Control Gas Production

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Why Drill Horizontal Wells?

• Control Sand Production

• Produce From Thin Reservoirs

• Connect Vertical Fractures


• Produce Methane from Coal Seams

• Increase Injectivity
• - (steam, water, polymers, etc.)

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Production Rates
Oryx - Austin Chalk

Vertical Horizontal Horizontal/Vertical


Well Well Production Ratio
B/D B/D

12 507 42

15 215 14

5 107 21

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Production Rates

Drilled 7 wells from 1986 to 1989.


Drilled ~ 85 wells in 1990

Vertical Well Drilling Cost: 235 $/ft


Horizontal Well Drilling Cost: 520-282 $/ft
Cost Ratio: 2.2-1.2

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Drilling Costs
Austin Chalk (1993)

Vertical well ~ $500,000


Recompletion as Horizontal Well ~ $375,000
New Horizontal Well ~
$1,000,000-2,000,000
~ $100+/ft to
$150/ft
{these numbers are rough estimates only}
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Rospo Mare - Italy

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Prudhoe Bay

Vertical Well: 3000 - 4000 B/D


Horizontal Well: 10,000 - 12,000 B/D
Production Ratio: 3-4
Vertical Well: 235 $/ft
Horizontal Well: 520 - 282 $/ft
Cost Ratio: 2.2-1.2

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Long Radius (~1,000-3,000 ft) {~2-6 deg/100 ft}

Medium Radius (140~700 ft) {~8-40 deg/100 ft}

Short Radius (~20-40 ft)


{~1.5-3 deg/ft}

<1,000 ft ~5,000 ft ~8,000 ft


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New Drilling Technology

Measurement While Drilling (MWD)


Directional Surverying and Control
Indentification of Markers (identify zones)

Top Drive
Drill with 90-ft stands instead of 30-ft joints
Circulate while pulling drillpipe out of hole
Rotate drillpipe while pulling out of hole

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New Drilling Technology

Mud Motors
Drill without rotating pipe
Change hole direction while
drilling
Steerable systems

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Potential Problems in Horizontal Drilling

• Running equipment in and out of hole


• drillstring, casing, cables

• Preventing/Remedying differential
sticking

• Excessive torque

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Potential Problems in Horizontal Drilling

• Cleaning the hole and preventing cuttings


from settling along the hole bottom

• Controlling weight on bit to achieve and


maintain directional control

• Cementing casing or liner


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Summary

• Horizontal wells may produce at 3-5 times the


rate of vertical wells in the same area
(… as much as 20 times higher in special
cases).

• Horizontal wells typically cost 1.5-3 times as


much as vertical wells in the same area.

• Horizontal wells are often very attractive in


formations with extensive vertical fractures.

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Summary

• The use of horizontal wells has been


growing - worldwide.
• Horizontal wells has increased our
recoverable reserves.
• In the U.S. one rig in ten is drilling
horizontal wells. (1994) (1998)
• Today ~ one rig in fifteen is drilling
horizontal wells. (2001)
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Long - Radius Wells

• Used for achieving large horizontal


displacements from platforms or drilling pads
• Used for achieving very long horizontal sections
(to 6,000 ft +)

Build Rate: ~ 2-6 degrees/100 ft


Build Radius: ~ 1,000-3,000 ft
Length of Horiz. Section: 1,000 - 8,000 ft (1995)

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Method:

• Use conventional directional drilling


technology

• Use rigid bottom hole assemblies,


motors & bent subs, stabilizers

• or Use Navigation drilling systems with


“steerable” drilling motors
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Medium - Radius Wells

Build Rate: ~ 8 - 20 degrees/100 ft


(up to 40 deg/100 ft in some
cases)

Build Radius: ~ 300 - 700 ft

Length of Horiz. Section: 1,000-6,000 ft


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Method:

• Use modified long-radius drilling technology


• Use different motors for Angle Build and
Angle Hold sections.
• Use a “Tangent Section” between the two
build sections
• Use compressive service drillpipe through
the curve if Build Rate > 15 deg./100 ft.
(CS drillpipe has integral wear knots
every ~ 10 ft)
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Short-Radius Wells

Build Rate: ~ 1 - 3 degrees/ft

Build Radius: ~ 20 - 40 ft

Length of Horiz. Section: 200 - 1,000 ft

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Method:

 Two downhole motor designs are available


 Drill vertical “rathole” to identify horizon
 Build angle with special curve-drilling
assembly with a non-rotating shell that
gives curvature to the tool
 After building angle to horizontal, use a
special angle-hold assembly: this
consists of two undergauge stabilizers
behind the bit, and flexible drillpipe.

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Horizontal Well Pair

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Horizontal Well Pair

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Vertical Injection Wells and
Horizontal Production Well

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