Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26

RAPE MYTHS AND BELIEFS

WHAT IS A MYTH?

 MYTHS PRESENT A REALITY THAT


SEEMS PLAUSABLE.

 HOWEVER, THE VERY CONCEPT


MYTH IMPLIES AN UNTRUTH AND
AN ALTERNATIVE REALITY
HOW DOES ONE DEFINE
RAPE MYTH?

• BURT DEFINES RAPE MYTH AS:


1. PREJUDICAL
2. STEREOTYPED, OR
3. FALSE BELIEFS ABOUT
4. RAPE, RAPE VICTIMS, AND RAPISTS
(BURT, 1980:217 [JOURNAL OF Personality and Social psychology, Vol 38, no2 pg 217-230])
HOW WOULD I DEFINE RAPE
MYTH?

A NOTION BASED MORE ON


UNCRITICALLY HELD LONG
STANDING BELIEFS (TRADITION)
THAN ON DEMOSTRATABLE FACTS.
ILL FOUNDED BELIEFS BASED ON
MISINFORMATION AND
UNINFORMED PERCEPTIONS
HOW BEST TO APPROACH
MYTHS
• RAPE MYTHS ARE BELIEFS ABOUT SEXUAL ASSAULT THAT
ARE WROUGHT WITH PROBLEMS. SOME MYTHS ARE JUST
COMPLETELY AND BLATANTLY UNTRUE. HOWEVER, WHAT
OFTEN HAPPENS IS THAT BELIEFS SURROUNDING CERTAIN
CIRCUMSTANCES, SITUATIONS, AND CHARACTERISTICS OF
INDIVIDUALS CONNECTED TO RAPE ARE APPLIED TO ALL
CASES AND SITUATIONS UNCRITICALLY.
• THE BEST WAY TO APPROACH RAPE MYTHS ARE TO
CONFRONT THEM HONESTLY AND FRANKLY. DON'T DENY
THE EXISTENCE OF MYTHS AND DON'T DISMISS ONE
UNGROUNDED STATEMENT WITH ANOTHER.
Identified Rape Myths (1)
 A VICTIM SERVICES STUDY FOUND THAT
 SUPPORT FROM EMOTIONAL AND PRACTICAL SUPPORT
FAMILY MEMBERS OFFERED BY FAMILY AND FRIENDS DOES NOT
NECESSARILY SPEED THE RECOVERY OF
IS ESSENTIAL TO RAPE VICTIMS. HOWEVER, WHEN THE
PEOPLE THAT A VICTIM RELIES ON BEHAVE
THE VICTIM'S IN UN SUPPORTIVE OR NEGATIVE WAYS, THE
VICTIM FACES A LONGER, MORE DIFFICULT
RECOVERY. RECOVERY PROCESS. THESE NEGATIVE
BEHAVIORS INCLUDE WORRYING MORE
ABOUT ONESELF THAT THE VICTIM,
BLAMING THE VICTIM, WITHDRAWING FROM
THE VICTIM OR BEHAVING IN A HOSTILE
MANNER, AND ATTACHING A STIGMA TO THE
RAPE AND DEMANDING SECRECY FROM THE
VICTIM.
Identified Rape Myths (2)
 A VICTIM SHOULD  ALL VICTIMS SHOULD BE
OFFERED THE OPPORTUNITY
BE DISCOURAGED TO TALK ABOUT THE
FROM DWELLING ASSAULT WITH THOSE
ON THE RAPE. SHE PERSONALLY CLOSE TO
SHOULD "FORGET THEM & KNOWLEDGEABLE
PROFESSIONALS. VICTIMS
IT". WHO ARE NOT ALLOWED TO
TALK ABOUT THE RAPE HAVE
A MUCH MORE DIFFICULT
TIME RECOVERING FORM IT.
Identified Rape Myths (3)
 MEN CAN'T BE  THERE WERE
RAPED. APPROXIMATELY 20,000
SEXUAL ASSAULTS OF
MALES AGES 12 AND
OVER IN THE UNITED
STATES IN 1991. (BUREAU
OF JUSTICE STATISTICS,
1992)
Identified Rape Myths (4)
 WOMEN OFTEN  ACCORDING TO FBI
MAKE FALSE CRIME STATISTICS, LESS
REPORTS OF RAPE. THAN 2 PERCENT OF THE
REPORTED RAPE CASES
ARE FOUND TO BE FALSE.
THERE ARE NO MORE
FALSE REPORTS OF RAPE
THAN THERE ARE OF ANY
OTHER CRIME.
Identified Rape Myths (5)
 ONLY "BAD"  NO OTHER CRIME VICTIM IS LOOKED
UPON WITH THE DEGREE OF SUSPICION
WOMEN GET AND DOUBT AS A VICTIM OF RAPE. WHY?
RAPED. IF WE BELIEVE THE VICTIM WAS
RESPONSIBLE (SHE PUT HERSELF IN AN
UNSAFE POSITION, SUCH AS BEING OUT
LATE AT NIGHT, DRINKING ALCOHOL,
DRESSING IN A CERTAIN WAY, OR
"LEADING ON" THE RAPIST), THEN WE
ARE ABLE TO FEEL SAFER. BUT, WITHOUT
CONSENT, NO MEANS NO, NO MATTER
WHAT THE SITUATION OR
CIRCUMSTANCES.
Identified Rape Myths (6)
 RAPE ONLY  RAPE CAN AND DOES
OCCURS OUTSIDE OCCUR ANYTIME AND
AND AT NIGHT. ANYPLACE. MANY RAPES
OCCUR DURING THE DAY
AND IN THE VICTIMS'
HOMES.
Identified Rape Myths (7)
 SEXUAL ASSAULT  BY SOME ESTIMATES,
USUALLY OCCURS OVER 70% OF RAPE
BETWEEN VICTIMS KNOW THEIR
STRANGERS. ATTACKERS. THE RAPIST
MAY BE A RELATIVE,
FRIEND, CO-WORKER,
DATE OR OTHER
ACQUAINTANCE.
Identified Rape Myths (8)
 NO WOMAN OR  IN 1991, 14% OF THE RAPES
REPORTED TO THE ORANGE COUNTY
MAN CAN BE RAPE CRISIS CENTER INVOLVED THE
USE OF A WEAPON. 74% INVOLVED
RAPED AGAINST PHYSICAL FORCE AND/OR THREATS
HER OR HIS WILL. OF FORCE. WOMEN ARE OFTEN
PHYSICALLY WEAKER THAN MEN
ANY PERSON AND ARE NOT TAUGHT TO DEFEND
COULD PREVENT THEMSELVES OR TO BE PHYSICALLY
AGGRESSIVE. FURTHERMORE, SOME
RAPE IF HE OR SHE WOMEN ARE NOT WILLING TO HURT
REALLY WANTED ANOTHER PERSON, ESPECIALLY IF
THE OFFENDER IS SOMEONE THEY
TO. KNOW.
Identified Rape Myths (9)
 ONLY YOUNG,  WOMEN, AND MEN, OF
PRETTY ALL AGES HAVE BEEN
WOMEN ARE VICTIMS OF RAPE
ASSAULTED. RANGING FROM.
INFANCY TO OLD AGE,
AND APPEARANCE IS
SELDOM A
CONSIDERATION.
Identified Rape Myths (10)
 WOMEN  DRESS IS A RESULT OF
ENCOURAGE CULTURALLY
RAPE BY THE PRODUCED STYLE.
WAY THEY ANY CLOTHING STYLE
DRESS. SEEMS TO BE DEFINED
AS PROVOCATIVE.
Identified Rape Myths (11)
 MOST RAPES  THE MAJORITY OF
INVOLVE RAPES ARE SAME
BLACK MEN RACE; SOMEWHERE
RAPING WHITE AROUND 3 TO 4%
WOMEN. ARE NOT SAME
RACE.
Identified Rape Myths (12)
 WOMEN INCITE  RESEARCH HAS FOUND THAT
THE VAST MAJORITY OF
MEN TO RAPE. RAPES ARE PLANNED. RAPE
IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF
THE RAPIST ALONE. WOMEN,
CHILDREN AND MEN OF
EVERY AGE, PHYSICAL TYPE
AND DEMEANOR ARE RAPED.
OPPORTUNITY IS THE MOST
IMPORTANT FACTOR
DETERMINING WHEN A
GIVEN RAPIST WILL RAPE.
Identified Rape Myths (13)
 WOMEN "CRY"  ONLY ABOUT TWO PERCENT
OF REPORTED RAPE AND
RAPE. RELATED SEX OFFENCES ARE
FALSE (APPROXIMATELY THE
SAME RATE OF FALSE
REPORTS FOR OTHER
CRIMES).
 ALTHOUGH MANY CASES
ARE DROPPED, THIS SHOULD
NOT BE CONFUSED WITH
FALSE REPORTING.
Identified Rape Myths (14)
 SEXUAL ASSAULT  BY SOME ESTIMATES,
USUALLY OCCURS OVER 70% OF RAPE
BETWEEN VICTIMS KNOW THEIR
STRANGERS. ATTACKERS. THE RAPIST
MAY BE A RELATIVE,
FRIEND, CO-WORKER,
DATE OR OTHER
ACQUAINTANCE.
Identified Rape Myths (15)
 RAPE IS SEX.  RAPE IS EXPERIENCED BY THE
VICTIMS AS AN ACT OF VIOLENCE.
1 OUT OF EVERY 8 ADULT WOMEN
HAS BEEN A VICTIM OF FORCIBLE
RAPE. (NATIONAL VICTIM CENTER AND CRIME VICTIMS
RESEARCH AND TREATMENT CENTER, 1992) WHILE

SEXUAL ATTRACTION MAY BE


INFLUENTIAL, POWER, CONTROL
AND ANGER ARE THE PRIMARY
MOTIVES. MOST RAPISTS HAVE
ACCESS TO A SEXUAL PARTNER.
Identified Rape Myths (16)
 RAPE IS AN  RAPE IS A PREMEDITATED
IMPULSIVE, ACT OF VIOLENCE, NOT A
UNCONTROLLABLE SPONTANEOUS ACT OF
ACT OF SEXUAL PASSION. 71% OF RAPES ARE
GRATIFICATION. MOST PLANNED IN ADVANCE. 60%
RAPE ARE OF CONVICTED RAPISTS
SPONTANEOUS ACTS WERE MARRIED OR HAD
OF PASSION WHERE REGULAR SEXUAL PARTNERS
THE ASSAILANT AT THE TIME OF THE
CANNOT CONTROL ASSAULT.
HIM/HERSELF.
Identified Rape Myths (17)
 RAPE IS A CRIME  RAPE IS AN ACT OF
OF PASSION. VIOLENCE, NOT PASSION.
IT IS AN ATTEMPT TO
HURT AND HUMILIATE,
USING SEX AS THE
WEAPON.
Identified Rape Myths (18)
 THERE IS A "RIGHT  SINCE RAPE IS LIFE-
WAY" TO RESPOND THREATENING AND EACH
RAPIST HAS HIS OWN
TO A RAPE
PATTERN, THE BEST THING A
SITUATION. VICTIM CAN DO IS FOLLOW
HER INSTINCTS AND
OBSERVE ANY CUES FROM
THE RAPIST. IF THE VICTIM
ESCAPES ALIVE SHE HAS
DONE THE RIGHT THING.
WHY DO MYTHS ABOUT RAPE
EXIST?
HISTORICAL RELATIONSHIPS
LAW
REINFORCEMENT THROUGH CULTURE
GO UNCHALLENGED OR TAKEN AS TRUTH
INSTITUTIONAL OR STRUCTURAL
ARRANGEMENTS (E.G. JOB MARKET)
PATRIARCHY
MISRREPRESENTATION OF
RAPE SERVE WHAT PURPOSE?

PROVIDES GENERAL INFORMATION


ABOUT RAPE TO MEMBERS OF A
CULTURE
WHO IS MORE LIKELY TO BE
VICTIMIZED
WHO IS THE OFFENDER LIKELY TO
BE
MISRREPRESENTATION OF
RAPE SERVE WHAT PURPOSE?
BEHAVIORS OR SITUATIONS THAT
ARE DEEMED INAPPROPRIATE OR
APPROPRIATE SEX
CONTINUED EXISTENCE OF SOCIAL
RELATIONSHIPS – SOCIAL ORDER AS
IS
DOMINATE/SUBORDINATE POWER
RELAIONSHIP IS RREINFORCED