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SALMONELLOS

IS
Daisy Ursino
FAST FACTS
➤ An American scientist named Daniel E. Salmon is credited
with the discovery of the Salmonella family of bacteria in the
late 1800s. Since then, scientists have identified more than
2,500 types of Salmonella bacteria
➤ About 50,000 cases of salmonellosis are reported in the
United States each year and about a third of those are in kids
4 years old or younger.
WHAT IS
SALMON
ELLA?
SALMONELLA (SALMONELLOSIS)
A gram negative, rod-shaped bacilli that can affect the
gastrointestinal system
In severe cases salmonella can spread to the blood, the bones,
or even to the fluid around the brain
Salmonella can be found in the intestines of humans and animals
and are excreted in feces.

Salmonella under microscope - Sheba Academic Medical Center


SPECIES
➤ Salmonella Enterica

This difference
➤ Salmonella Bongori in infections is
the result of
➤ Salmonella Typhimurium differences in
their genetic
➤ Salmonella Typhi makeup.
WHO?
People of all age groups are susceptible to salmonella.
➤ Elderly
➤ Young children and babies
➤ Immune system problems
➤ Pregnant Women

In these higher risk groups, Salmonella is more likely to invade beyond the
gastrointestinal tract and cause bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream). From
there, the bacteria can spread deeper into the body and cause more serious
diseases, like meningitis.
HOW?
Directly
Contact with infected animals or their environments
HOW?
Indirectly
Contamination
SALMO
NELLA
ENTERI
CA
Food travels through the
esophagus and into the In the stomach most
stomach bacteria die but in some
cases bacteria survive
and enter the small
intestine
Small intestine
Bacteria has
structures that look
like tails called
flagella
Bacteria attaches itself to the epithelium cell

Endotoxins trigger the


release of cytokines
which lead to
apoptosis
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gpLUQza4uWw
SYMPTOMS
Symptoms take anywhere from 12 to
72 hours to appear
Once symptoms are present illness
lasts 7 to 11 days

➤ Fever
➤ Diarrhea
➤ Nausea
➤ Vomiting
➤ Abdominal cramps
➤ Chills
➤ Headaches
DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT
Visit doctor
Take a stool sample

➤ Rest ➤ Rest
➤ Drink Lots of Fluids ➤ Fluids (IV)
➤ Anti-diarrheal ➤ Anti-
diarrheal
➤ Antibiotics
PREVENTION
Proper Hygiene
Wash your hands
Cautious with pets
Avoid cross-contamination
Proper storage
FOUR C’S OF FOOD SAFETY
Cleaning:
➤ Hands: hot soapy water with agitation for 20 seconds
➤ Sanitize cutting boards and sponges
➤ Wash fruits and vegetables under cold running water and scrub

Combating Contamination:
➤ Keep raw meat, poultry, fish separate from other foods during preparation, storage,
and transport
➤ Don't use meat marinades as serving sauce
➤ Use separate knives and cutting boards, clean dish towels
FOUR C’S OF FOOD SAFETY
Cooking:
➤ Cook foods thoroughly
➤ Raw meats, poultry, fish can cause illness
➤ Color not reliable indicator (Meat may look brown but be undercooked)(Cooked chicken
may still look pink)
➤ Measure internal temperature

Chilling:
➤ Chill foods at a low enough temperature -Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40°F and
140°F
➤ Keep hot foods hot: above 140°F
➤ Keep cold foods below 40°F: food shouldn't be left out more than two hours
➤ Keep leftovers no more than four days in refrigerator, raw meats two days
➤ Freezer temperature: at or below 0°F
SOURCES
➤ Giannella, Ralph A. "Salmonella." Medical Microbiology. 4th
edition. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 01 Jan. 1996. Web.
20 July 2017.
➤ Government of Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada.
"Institutional links." Salmonella enterica spp. - Pathogen
Safety Data Sheets. N.p., 18 Feb. 2011. Web. 20 July 2017.
➤ "Salmonellosis." KidsHealth. Ed. Rupal Christine Gupta. The
Nemours Foundation, Aug. 2014. Web. 20 July 2017.
THANK YOU