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SPONGE: Complete the perfect square trinomial and factor.

1) x + 8x +
2

2) m + 18m +
2

3) y2 - 12y +

4) k - 11k +
2

5) t 2 - 21t +

Check! Complete the perfect square trinomial and factor.

1) x + 8x + 16 = ( x + 4)
2 2

2) m + 18m + 81 = (m + 9)
2 2

3) y - 12y + 36 = ( y - 6)
2 2

2
121 æ 11 ö
4) k - 11k +
2
= çk - ÷
4 è 2ø
2
441 æ 21 ö
5) t - 21t +
2
= çt - ÷
4 è 2ø 
Copy Vocabulary…..no pics.
1.Center- the middle point, as the point within a circle
equally distant from all points of the circumference or surface
2. Diameter-a straight line passing through the center of a
circle or sphere and meeting the circumference or surface at
each end.
3. Radius- a straight line extending from the center of a circle
or sphere to the circumference or surface: The radius of a
circle is half the diameter.
4. Chord- line segment between two points on a given curve.
5. Secant line- a secant of a curve is a line that (locally)
intersects two points on the curve.
6. Tangent line- is the straight line that "just touches" the
curve at that point.
7. Point of Tangency- The point where the tangent touches
the curve is the point of tangency.
Must know……
Unit 6: Four conic sections:
A plane intersecting a double cone will generate:
• Circles
• Parabolas
• Ellipses
• Hyperbolas

Parabola Circle Ellipse Hyperbola


Break over….
More Vocabulary to know.
• Conic section - the intersection of a plane
and double-napped cone.
• Locus- a collection of points satisfying a
geometric property.
• Circle- a set of all point (x,y) in a plane
that are equidistant from a fixed point called
the “center”
I. The standard form of the equation of a circle
with its center at the origin is

x y r
2 2 2

r is the radius of the circle so if we take the square


root of the right hand side, we'll know how big the
radius is.
Notice that both the x and y terms are squared. Linear
equations don’t have either the x or y terms squared.
Parabolas have only the x term was squared (or only the
y term, but NOT both).
EX1. Let's look at the equation x  y 9
2 2

This is r2 so
r=3
The center of the circle is at the origin and the radius is 3.
Let's graph this circle.

Count out 3 in all Center at (0, 0)


directions since
that is the radius

-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
EX2. You try . Graphing the example

Ex. 2 Given x2 + y2 = 25
Center is (0, 0)
Radius = 25  5
EX3. If the center of the circle is NOT at the origin then
the equation for the standard form of a circle looks like
this:
x  h    y  k 
2 2 2
r
The center of the circle is at (h, k). This is r2 so r = 4

x  3   y  1
2 2
 16
Find the center and radius and graph this circle.
The center of the circle is at (h, k) which is (3,1).

The radius is 4

- - - - - - - 12345678
7 6 5 4 3 2 10
( x  h)  ( y  k )  r
2 2 2

IDENTIFY THE CENTER AND RADIUS, THEN


SKETCH.

center (3,3)
radius = 2
EXAMPLE 5 Graph an equation of a circle

Graph y2 = – x2 + 36. Identify the radius of the circle.

STEP 1 – Rewrite the equation in standard form


By adding “– x2 “ to both sides of y2 = – x2 + we have
the standard form x2 + y2 = 36.
STEP 2

Identify the center and radius. From the equation, the


graph is a circle centered at the origin with radius
r = 36 = 6.
Step 3
Finally, draw the circle. First plot several convenient points tha
are 6 units from the origin, such as (0, 6), (6, 0), (0, –6), and (–6, 0).
EXAMPLE 5 Graph an equation of a circle
solution…
STEP 3
EXAMPLE 6.. Your turn. Graph the equation of circle with
center (h. k)
Graph (x – 2)2 + (y + 3) 2 = 9.
SOLUTION
STEP 1
Compare the given equation to the
standard form of an equation of a
circle. You can see that the graph is
a circle with center at (h, k) = (2, –3)
and radius r = 9 = 3.
EX7. YOUR TURN

1. Graph (x + 1)2 + (y – 3) 2 = 4.

SOLUTION

circle with center at (h, k) = (– 1, 3) and radius r = 2


EX. 8 Identify the center and radius and sketch the graph:

x  4   y  3
2 2
 25
Remember the center values end up being the opposite sign of what
is with the x and y and the right hand side is the radius squared.

So the center is at (-4, 3) and the radius is 5.

- - - - - - - 012345678
765432 1
Part 2- Writing the equations
EXAMPLE 1 Write an equation of a circle

Use the standard form with r = 29 to write an


equation of the circle at the origin.

x2 + y2 = r2 Standard form

x2 + y2 = ( 29 )2 Substitute 29 for r

x2 + y2 = 29 Simplify
EXAMPLE 2 YOUR TURN

Find an equation of the circle with center at (0, 0) and radius 7.

Let's sub in center and radius values in the standard form

x  0h   y  k0 
2 2
 7r 2

x  y  49
2 2
EXAMPLE 3 Now…..when given a point on the circle (you
must include the point)!!!
Ex. 3. Given a point (2, –5) lies on a circle whose
center is the origin. Write the standard form of the
equation of the circle.
SOLUTION
Because the point (2, –5) lies on the circle, the circle’s
radius r must be the distance between the center (0, 0)
and (2, –5). Therefore, use the distance formula to find r.

r = (2 – 0)2 + (–5 – 0)2 = 4 + 25 = 29


Example 4 Find an equation of the circle with center at (0, 0) that
passes through the point (-1, -4).

Since the center is at (0, 0) we'll have x y r


2 2 2

Option 2: Find the radius by substitution! Note: Only


because the center is at the origin! The point (-1, -4) is
on the circle so should work when we plug it in the
equation:

 1   4
2 2
r 2
 1 16  17
Subbing this in for r2 we have:

x  y  17
2 2
EX5. YOUR TURN.

1. Write the standard form of the equation of the circle


that passes through (5, –1) and whose center is the
origin.

SOLUTION
x2 + y2 = 26
EXAMPLE 6 : Given a center and radius!
Find an equation of the circle with center at (-2, 5) and radius 6

Subbing in the values in standard form we have:


x -2h   y  k5 
2 2
 6r
2

 x  2    y  5
2 2
 36
EX7. Find an equation of the circle with center at (8, 2) and
passes through the point (8, 0). Given a center and point!

Notice there’s no radius given. Therefore, subbing in the


center values in standard form we 1st have

x  8h   y  k2 
2 2
r 2

Since it passes through the point (8, 0) we can plug this


point in for x and y to find r2.

8  8  0  2
2 2
r 2
4
 x  8   y  2 
2 2
4
PART 3

Goal: Write the equations of circles in


standard form and identify the center and
radius.
REVIEW COMPLETING THE
SQUARE before part 3. 
Complete the perfect square trinomial and factor.

1) x + 8x + 16 = ( x + 4)
2 2

2) m + 18m + 81 = (m + 9)
2 2

3) y - 12y + 36 = ( y - 6)
2 2

2
121 æ 11 ö
4) k - 11k +
2
= çk - ÷
4 è 2ø
2
441 æ 21 ö
5) t - 21t +
2
= çt - ÷
4 è 2ø 
PART3: Ex1. What if …we had started with it like this, we'd
have to complete the square on both the x's and y's to get in
standard form. DO YOU REMEMBER HOW??
x  y  4 x  8 y  16  0
2 2

Move constant
Group x terms and a place Group y terms and a place
to the other side
to complete the square to complete the square

x  4 x  ____  y  8 y  ____
2
4 2
16  16  ___
4  ___
16

Complete the square

Write factored and wahlah! back in standard form.

x  2   y  4
2 2
4
EX2 . Find the center and radius of the circle:
x  y  6x  4 y  3  0
2 2

We have to complete the square on both the x's and y's to get in
standard form.

Move constant
Group x terms and a place Group y terms and a place to the other side
to complete the square to complete the square

x  6 x  ____  y  4 y  ____
2
9 2
4  3  ___
9  ___
4
Write factored for standard form.

x  3   y  2
2 2
 16
So the center is at (-3, 2) and the radius is 4.
Ex3. You try
x2 + y2 + 6x – 12y – 9 = 0
Find the center and radius of the equation by completing the square:
x 2 + y2 + 6x – 12y – 9 = 0
Arrange
similar x2 + 6x + y2 – 12y – 9 = 0 Isolate the
variables +9+9 terms with
together variables
Complete the square x2 + 6x + y2 – 12y = 9
twice
(x2 + 6x + 9) + (y2 – 12y + 36 ) =9+ 9 + 36

(x + 3)2 + (y – 6)2 = 54
2 2
1  1 
 3  9   12    6   36
2 2
 6 
2  2 
Center: (-3, 6) Radius: 54  9 6 3 6