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Introduction: Supersonic

September 30, 1935
 Leading Aerodynamicists from all corners of the world
gathered on Rome, Italy
 Theodre Von Karman & Eastman Jacobs from US; Ludwig
Prandtl & Adolf Busemann from Germany; Jakob Ackeret from
Switzerland; GI Taylor from England; Arturo Crocco & Enrico
Pistolesi from Italy

 Fifth Volta Conference, w/ topic “High Velocities in Aviation”

 Centered on the effects of “Compressibility” at high speed
subsonic (variable density) -

 Jet engine had not yet been developed -

September 30, 1935
 Topics Discussed:
 Flight at High Subsonic, Supersonic, & even Hypersonic
 Wind tunnel test results for compressibility effects on standard NACA
airfoils at high subsonic speed -
 Photographs showing shock waves inside nozzles & on various
 Design of Supersonic Wind Tunnels
 First concept of a Swept Wing -

 1 year later
 Swept wing was classified by the German Luftwaffe as military secret
 First operational jet (Me 262)
Brief Review of
Why review thermodynamics?
1. Another pivotal aspect of high-speed compressible flow is
energy, in addition to variable density
 Thermodynamics: branch of physics concerned w/ the
conversion of different forms of energy
 High-speed flow = High energy flow
2. Ex. Consider a flow of air at SSLC moving twice the speed
of sound; Internal energy of 1 kg of air is 2.07x10^5 J; KE
is 2.31x10^5 J.
 When flow velocity is decreased, some KE is lost & reappears as
increase in Internal Energy, hence increasing the temperature of
1.) Perfect Gas
 Gas
 Collection of particles (molecules, atoms,
ions, electrons, etc.) in random motion
 Due to the electronic structure of these
particles, a force field pervades the space
around them
 Force field due to one particle reaches
out & interacts w/ neighboring particles &
vice versa – Intermolecular Forces
1.) Perfect Gas
 Perfect Gas
 Particles of the gas are far enough apart
 Intermolecular forces is small, hence, can be neglected

 P-ρ-T Relations for a Perfect Gas – Equation of State


 For many compressible flow applications:

 Assumed to be a perfect gas
 Gas particles, on the average, more than 10 molecular diameters
Activity #1
2.) Internal Energy and Enthalpy
 Internal Energy
 Sum of the energies of all the molecules in a finite volume of a
 Energy of a given molecule = Translational + Rotational + Vibrational +

 Specific Internal Energy (e)

 Internal energy per unit mass of gas
2.) Internal Energy and Enthalpy -
 Specific Enthalpy (h)
 Total energy in a system due to pressure & temperature per unit
mass in a system
Cv = specific heat at constant volume
Cp = specific heat at constant pressure

 For a large # of practical compressible flow problems: Assumed

to be Calorically Perfect
 Calorically Perfect :
-temperatures are moderate (less than 1000K)
-specific heats are constant
2.) Internal Energy and Enthalpy
 Finding Cp and Cv through R and k:

• R = gas constant
• R = 287 J/kg-K = 1716 ft-lb/slug-R

• k = specific heat ratio

• k = 1.4 (for dry air)
Activity #2
 Find Cp (specific heat at constant pressure) and Cv (specific
heat at constant volume), e (specific internal energy), and h
(specific enthalpy) for Air at SSLC in SI-unit.
3.) 1st Law of Thermodynamics

 Heat Added and Work Done on the system cause a Change

in Energy
3.) 1st Law of Thermodynamics
 For a given de (change in energy), there are an infinite # of
ways by w/c (i) heat can be added and (ii) work done on the
system. But we are primarily concerned w/ Three types of
1. Adiabatic
2. Reversible
3. Isentropic

 For a Reversible process:

Note: from
4.) Entropy and the 2nd Law of
 Disorder or Randomness
 Energy in a system that is no longer available for doing
mechanical work
 Tells us in what direction a process will take place
a) Entropy of the system plus its surrounding INCREASES
b) Entropy of the system plus its surrounding STAYS THE SAME

s = entropy of the system

T = system Temperature
4.) Entropy and the 2nd Law of
 If the process is Adiabatic:

 Entropy Change for a Calorically Perfect Gas between Two


(i) from ds = dq/T
(ii) from h = e + pv
Activity #3
5.) Isentropic Relations
 Isentropic:
 both Adiabatic and Reversible
 dq = 0
 ds = 0

(i) from last equations
(Entropy Change for a
Calorically Perfect Gas
between Two States)
5.) Isentropic Relations
 Why is Isentropic Relations important?
 Large # of practical compressible flow problems can be assumed
5.) Isentropic Relations
For example, consider a flow over an airfoil:

1. Regions adjacent to the airfoil surface, boundary layers are formed

wherein the dissipative mechanisms of viscosity thermal conduction,
and diffusion are strong.
2. Fluid elements moving outside the boundary layer, dissipative effects
are very small and can be neglected
3. Flow outside the boundary layer is Adiabatic (No heat is being
transferred to or from the fluid element)
4. Fluid elements outside the boundary layer are experiencing an
isentropic flow
5. In majority of practical applications, boundary layer adjacent to the
surface is THIN compared w/ the entire flow field (Large regions of the
flow can be assumed Isentropic)
Activity #4
 Example:
1.) Compressibility
 Compressibility
 Amount by w/c a substance can be compressed
 Fractional change in volume of the fluid element per unit change
in pressure

 All substances are compressible to some greater or lesser

extent; that when you squeeze them, their density will change

 Mach Number
 Most convenient index to gage whether a gas flow can be
considered incompressible
 Incompressible: M < 0.3
 Compressible: M > 0.3
V = local flow velocity
a = local speed of sound
Example: Compressibility
 Consider air at a pressure of 0.2 atm. Calculate the values of
Ʈs. Express your answer in SI units.
Activity #5
Governing Equations for
Inviscid, Compressible
1.) RECALL: Governing Equations
for Inviscid, Incompressible Flow
 ρ (Density) is assumed Constant

 Primary dependent variables:

1. P (Pressure)
2. V (Velocity)

 Basic Equations:
1. Continuity
2. Momentum
3. Laplace
4. Bernoulli’s
2.) Governing Equations for
Inviscid, Compressible Flow
 ρ (Density) is Variable and Unknown

 Primary dependent variables:

1. P (Pressure)
2. V (Velocity)
3. ρ (Density)
4. T (Temperature)
5. e (Internal Energy)
2.) Governing Equations for
Inviscid, Compressible Flow
 Basic Equations:
1. Continuity
2. Momentum
3. Energy

 Assuming Calorically Perfect Gas

4. Equation of State
5. Internal Energy
Activity #6
Total (Stagnation)
 Total (Stagnation) Pressure
 Pressure existing at a point (or points) in the flow where V = 0
Activity #7
Some Aspects of
Supersonic Flow: Shock
 Shock Wave
 Extremely thin region (typically 10^-5 cm)
 Across, flow properties can change drastically
 Usually at an oblique angle to the flow, however, there are many
cases where we are interested in a shock wave Normal to the
 Explosive compression process (Pressure increases almost
discontinuously across a shock)
 Flow across is Adiabatic
Several Photographs of Shock
Summary of Equations
Equation of State; Specific Volume 1st Law of Thermodynamics;
Work Done ON the System

Specific Enthalpy; Specific Internal Energy

Entropy (2nd Law of Thermodynamics)

Gas Constant; Specific Heat; Specific Heat Ratio
Summary of Equations
Isentropic Relations

Mach # Continuity

Energy Equation