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Sub Synchronous Resonance

FACTS CONTROLLERS
The resonance between a series-capacitor-
compensated electric system and the mechanical
spring-mass system of a turbine-generator at sub
synchronous frequencies, that is, at frequencies that
are less than the synchronous frequency.

Beginning about 1950, series capacitors were installed


in long alternating-current transmission lines [250 km
(150 mi) or more] to cancel part of the inherent
inductive reactance of the line.

Until 1971, up to 70% of the 60-Hz inductive reactance


was cancelled by series capacitors in some long lines
with little concern for side effects.
In 1970, and again in 1971, a turbine-generator at the Mohave
Power Plant in southern Nevada experienced shaft damage that
required several months of repairs on each occasion.

A switching events that placed the turbine-generator so that it


was radial on a series-compensated transmission line. The shaft
damage was due to Torsional oscillations between the two ends
of the generator-exciter shaft.

Shortly after the second event, it was determined that the


Torsional oscillations were caused by Torsional interaction,
which is a type of sub synchronous resonance (SSR).

There are two other types of sub synchronous resonance, the


induction generator effect and torque amplification.

There has been one reported incidence of the induction


generator effect type of SSR related to a wind farm in Texas in
2009, but there has been no reported incidence of torque
amplification.
• Resonance is caused by the interaction between the
series inductance, contributed by the lines,
transformers, and generators, and the combined
shunt capacitance, contributed by line charging,
power-factor-correction capacitors, and SVCs.
• This resonant mode is a feature of all transmission
networks; it is not specific to series-compensated
lines.
• The typical frequency range of this mode is 80–100
Hz; the exact value for a system is dependent on the
network contingency.
• For instance, during intense power swings the SVCs
tend to become more capacitive and the resonant
frequency decreases. A very high impedance is
offered by the network at this shunt-resonant-mode
(pole) frequency.
Effect of Synchronous Machine Modeling IGE
Analysis
Effect of Degree of Compensation or Xc (PU)
IGE Analysis
Torsional Interaction
Effect of Xc in (PU)
Torsional Interaction
Effect of Xc in (PU) continued
Eigen value Oscillatory
Stability Notation
Type Behaviour
All Real and + Unstable None Unstable Node
All Real and - Stable None Stable Node
Mixed + & - Real Unstable None Unstable saddle point
+a + bi Unstable Undamped Unstable spiral
-a + bi Stable Damped Stable spriral
0 + bi Unstable Undamped Circle
Repeated values Depends on orthogonality of eigenvectors
Rostamkolai et al (1990), have carried out a detailed study of TI with
SVC in connection with the planning for the installation of a SVC at
Chester. The studies are based on damping torque analysis. They
considered a simple two area system connected by a tie line.
Each area has a generator operating in parallel with an external
source (infinite bus). The SVC is located at the midpoint of the tie
line. The major conclusions based on the study are given below.

The Torsional interactions are primarily due to the voltage


regulation function of SVC. The phase locking scheme for the
generation of firing pulses had no influence.

The adverse TI occurred with the generating unit in the sending


area.

The level of adverse interaction increased with (a) increased


generator output

increased tie line power flow

increased capacitive reactive power output from svc

decreased system strength in the sending area system


To evaluate the Torsional interactions with the voltage regulator of a svc, a
single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system shown in Figure is studied.

In this system, a svc is connected at the midpoint of a 400 kV, 600 km long
line for voltage regulation and improvement of power transfer. To
examine, the effectiveness of svc, the contingency condition of outage of
a line is considered. The generator is supplying 800 MW power and svc
output is 220 MVAR. The system frequency 50 Hz.
It is observed that PSS while improving the damping of mode zero,
destabilizes other Torsional modes (particularly modes 1 and 2). The
mode five is unaffected due to its high inertia.
MITIGATION OF SSR WITH TCSC

The operation of TCSC using constant reactance control (XTcsc > Xc)
using vernier mode or SVR is sufficient in most of the cases to avoid
Torsional interaction which is a serious problem with fixed series
compensation. This feature of TCSC is due to the following characteristics
(of TCSC ).

For the same compensation level that results in fer = fo - fm (where fer
and fm are the electrical resonance, and the critical Torsional mode
frequency ) with a fixed series compensation, a TCSC avoids the
resonance condition by detuning ( which results from different frequency
response characteristics than a fixed series capacitor).

The reactance of a TCSC and fixed capacitor may be identical at the


fundamental frequency, their impedances are vastly different at sub
synchronous frequencies).