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Subject:-Welding Technology(2ME704/2)

Prepared by :- Jha Saketkumar P.

Enrolment No.:-14012141012. Guide By:-Prof. D.H. Patel
Pipe Welding 1
Table of Content

 Introduction.
 Pipe Welding Position.
 Edge Preparation of Pipe.
 Pipe Welding Tips and Procedures.
 Testing of Pipe Welding.
 Process Issues.
 Parameter Issues.
 Reference.

Pipe Welding
 pipe welding is required to join cylindrical metal tubes using either SMAW
GMAW ,GTAW, FCAW welding processes.
 The pipe welding positions and techniques are often quite uncomfortable,
especially if the pipe is fixed and access is restricted.
 As pipe welding is so difficult, welders who excel at this skill tend to earn
higher salaries than those employed to use other welding techniques. As a
result, the 6G pipe welding certification is one of the most sought-after
certifications in the industry
 If a welding joint does not use a tacked backing plate, it’s known as open root
welding, which is the most common process used while pipe welding. This is
particularly difficult because you’ll essentially be welding across a gap (albeit
a small one) so it’s important to use the right technique so that you don’t
make a mess of the whole job.
 It’s a good idea to start by tack welding your materials together, as this will
hold them in place securely, allowing you to take time and care over welding
properly. Cut out and feather your tacks, as this will reduce the amount of
defects in the final weld.
Pipe Welding
 Whenever you start and stop pipe welding, always do so on the side wall –
never in the gap. Start the arc, wait for the weld pool to form, then slowly and
gently move across the open root to the other side. Slowly zigzag your way
along the open root for the first section of the pipe until you have to change
your position.
 Think of the pipe in terms of a clock face, and divide it up into sections. Start at
the 12 o’clock position, and work round to 3 o’clock, then stop and make sure
you’re comfortable and prepared for the next section, and repeat this process
until you’ve completed the entire weld. As you go, make sure you tie in all your
tacks properly – and if you have to do several passes, stagger these tie-ins rather
than keeping them all at the same point around the pipe.
 Pipe welding often uses quite thick, heavy duty materials, and the open root
nature of the welds means that penetration can be poor if not done properly.
Leaving poorly penetrated welds on tough, industrial pipe welding jobs can be
disastrous. You’ll need to ensure that you achieve full penetration, but given that
it’s unlikely that you’ll be able to weld from the inside of the pipe as well as the
outside, you can combat this potential problem by using a groove weld.

Pipe Welding
 There is a system of letters and numbers which acts as a code to indicate which joint
type and position to use.
 Fillet welds do exist with pipe welding, but they’re very uncommon: they’re
indicated by the letter F. Far more common are groove welds, which you can
identify with the letter G.
 There are four main pipe welding positions, numbered 1, 2, 5 and 6.
 Positions

• 1G • 1F
• 2G • 2F
• 5G • 4F
• 6G • 5F

Pipe Welding
 1G Position  2G Position

 Pipe Axis Vertical,

Weld is Horizontal,
Pipe is considered in
a “fixed” position.
 Always use a split
 Pipe rotated, Electrode is always at the top bead technique
 Either a split bead or weave technique  Always work from
may be used the bottom up.

5G Position 6G Position
• Pipe axis is fixed in
position at a 45 degree
incline. The position
includes flat,
• Axis of the Pipe is Horizontal, The weld horizontal, vertical,
in vertical. and overhead welds.
• Progression may be up or down. • A split bead technique
• A weave bead is best used. is best used.
Pipe Welding 6
1F Position 2F Position

• Pipe is rotated. The pipe

• Fixed
axis is at a 45 degree
incline. Welding is to
occur at the top of the • Best to use a
pipe. split bead
• Split bead or weave
technique may be used.

4F Position 5F Position

• Not Rotated.
Progression may be
up or down.
• Split beads or
weaves can be used
on 5F-up welds,
split beads are best
A split bead technique is best used used on 5F-down
Pipe Welding 7

Edge Preparation of Pipe


Different type of Edge of Pipe pipe-bevel-end-for-butt-welding

Pipe Welding
Pipe Welding Tips and Procedures.
 Lets get right to it...
 If you can't make a single pass then go with multi-layer beads. The rule of thumb is to use one
layer of beads for each one eighth inch wall thickness of the pipe.
 A common welding technique using the SMAW process is to weave your layer beads. But you
should always lay a bead over a cleaned weld to avoid slag being deposited in the filler material.
 The most common type of joint used for welding together pipe is a butt joint. Very simply, you
take two pipes and put them together and now you have a butt joint to weld.
 But if you are welding thicker walled pipe then you are going to bevel a V or U butt joint. Singles

 When you find that you have to weld flanges to your pipe you'll probably use a fillet weld whether
the flange is a threaded or slip on.
 But if you use a fillet weld on a flange you will probably have to weld both sides of it. It's is also
possible that you may do a fillet weld on one side and a beveled one on the other.

Pipe Welding

 You can also use a single fillet when welding screw couplings on pipe or socket

 Seal welding is sometimes required on pipe to ensure that the seal is tight so that it does
not leak. However, a seal weld should not be thought of as a type of a fillet weld that
adds strength to the joint.

Pipe Welding
Testing of pipe welding

 Destructive Weld Testing
 Tests capable of being performed in the Workshop.
-Tensile Test.
-Bend Test.
 Laboratory tests (microscopic-macroscopic , chemical and corrosive.)
-Hardness Test
-Toughness Test
- Fatigue Behaviour

 Non Destructive Weld Testing

 Detection of surface flaws
- Visual Inspection.
- Magnetic Particle Inspection
- Dye Penetrant Inspection
 Detection of internal flaws
- Radiography
- Ultrasonic Testing
- Eddy current Testing

Pipe Welding
Process Issues.

Pipe Welding
Parameter Issues.

Pipe Welding

 https://www.thefabricator.com/article/arcwelding/process-pipe-welding-filler-
 http://weldinghelmetpros.com/6g-pipe-welding
 https://apps.neb-one.gc.ca/REGDOCS/File/Download/2499147
 http://www.pfri.uniri.hr/~bernecic/literatura/DIPL_Zav_Isp/Metalworking%20
 http://www.wcwelding.com/pipe-welding.html#gallery[pageGallery]/1/

Pipe Welding