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Basic Exploration & Drilling for

Non Field Personnel

By:
Ir. Tutuka Ariadji, MSc, PhD
Adopted from
Modern Petroleum Technology
By: Richard A. Dawe

FUNDAMENTALS OF
EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION
 INTRODUCTION

To plant development of an oil – or gasfield,


infirmation is needed about:

• The shape, size and connectivity of the


accumulation
• The porosity and permeability (producibility)
of the rock
• The fraction of the pore space filled with
hydrocarbons
• The nature of the hydrocarbons
• The cost of wells, facilities, pielines,
installations and so on
• Safety, helath and environmental matters.
 EXPLORATION METHODS

Any exploration activity is carried out with the


consent and under he control of the host
government.

Geological field mapping and geophysical


survey mapping establish the sequence of
sedimentary rocks and their ages, and
determine the position and shape of the
structure, including anticlines and faults –
stratigraphy and structure.
Geochemists will analyse possible source rock
with a view to determining the degree to
whice the organic material has been altered
by time, heat and pressure, identifiying
possible petroleum source rock, and
assessing the burial history and prtroleum
potential of the sediments.

Drilling is the final test. The location of the


drilling site is chosen all available evidence of
the geological picture.

Petrophysics presents the major sources of


geological data for subsurface interpretation
as obtained from borehole logs.
 EXPLORATION – PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS’
OVERVIEW
Table 1.1 Generalized and simplified stratigraphis column for
Qatar, Middle East [1]
 DEVELOPMENT OF AN OIL - OR GASFIELD

The appraisal wells are then sited to attemp to


answer the question ‘Is this economic?’ rather
then ‘How large is it?’
 THE STATE OF FLUIDS IN THE RESERVOIR

• Near the surface to deeper tham 10 km


• Temperaturs above 400 K (130oC, 260oF)
• Pressure 1300 bar (108 Pa, 20.000 psi)

Hydrocarbons underground may be present


initially as:

• Liquid only – an oil reservoir


• Gas only – a gas or gas/condensate
reservoir
• Gas overlying liquid – an oil reservoir with
gas cap, or gas reservoir with oil ring
 HYDROCARBON COMPOSITION

Table 1.2 The constituens of petroleum

Hydrocarbon Formula Found in commercial product


Methane CH4 Natural gas
Ethane C2H 6 Natural gas
Propane C3 H 8 Natural gas – propane
Isobutane C4H10 Natural gas – butane lighter fuel
n-Butanes nC4H10 Natural gas – motor fuel
Pentanes C5H12 Gasoline
Hexanes C6H14 Gasoline
Heptanes C7H16 Gasoline
Octanes C8H18 Gasoline
Decanes C10H22 Motor fuel
Tetradecanes C14H30 Kerosene
Hexadecanes C16H34 Furnace oil
Triacontanes C30H62 Lube oil
Tetracontanes C40H82 Heavy oil
Asphaltene C80H162 Bunker fuel oil
+
Reservoir fluid composition determines:

• The fluid type – dry gas, condensate gas,


volatile gas or black oil
• The methode of fluid sampling
• Laboratory tests
• The surface equipment (type and size)
• Calculation procedurs for determining oil
and gas in place
• Techniques for predicting oiland gas
reserves
• Prediction methods for future production
rates
• The depletion plan
• Secondary or EOR methods
141.5
o
API   131.5
S.G
Table 1.3 A rough classification of crude oil that is sometimes
used, based on the API gravity
oAPI Classification Specific Gravity
10 – 20 Heavy oil 1.0 – 0.93
20 – 30 Medium oil 0.93 – 0.87
> 30 Light oil < 0.87
The common types of petroleum are as follow:
• Crude oil (oil)
• Conventional black oil
• Volatile oil
• Gas condensate
• Condensate (distillate)
• Heavy oil
• Oil sand
• Natural gas (gas)
• Natural gas liquid (NGL)
• Associated gas
• Sour
Table 1.4 Typical component mole-fraction % in reservoir
fluids
Boiling
Component Point Black Oil Volatile Oil Gas Condensate Wet Gas Dry Gas
(oC)
Methane -161 49.0 64.0 86.0 87.0 96.0
Ethane -88 2.8 8.0 4.4 5.0 2.8
Propane -42 1.8 4.5 2.4 5.0 0.3
n-Butanes -1 0.8 2.0 0.8 0.6 0.2
i-Butanes -11 0.8 2.1 1.0 0.6 0.2
n-Pentanes 36 0.7 1.5 0.3 0.5 0.1
i-Pentanes 27 0.5 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.1
n-Hexanes
69 1.6 1.4 0.6 0.3 0.1
Heptanes+
- 42.0 15.0 4.0 0.5 0.4

Color of
liquid at
surface Black Brown Straw White -

Liquid
specific 0.853 0.779 0.736 0.758 None
gravity

oAPI 20-35 38-50 50-70 50-70 None


GOR, scf/bbl 50-1500 2000-40000 3000-18000 >100000 None
 STANDARD CONDITIONS AND UNITS
Table 1.5 Unit and conversion factors
continued
continued
SOURCES OF RESERVOIR THERMODYNAMIC
ENGINEERING DATA

Fig. 1.1 The thermodynamic path from reservoir to stock


tank
THE PHASE BEHAVIOUR OF HYDROCARBON
MIXTURES
The important terms are as follow:
• Bubble point
• Bubble point pressure
• Cricondentherm
• Critical state
• Critical pressure and/or temperature
• Dew point
• Dew point pressure
• Phase
• Producing gas : oil ratio, GOR
Continued…
• Properties, extensive and intensive
• Pseudo-critical pressure and temperature
• Reduced pressure and temperature
• Saturated liquid
• Saturated vapour
• Saturation pressure
• Stock tank oil
• Undersaturated fluid
Volatile oil

Black oil Condensate Gas


A1

Critical Cricondentherm
Point
Bubble Point
0% vapour,
Pressure

100% liquid

A2

Two phase
region
Cricondentherm

Dew point
100% vapour, 0% liquid

Temperature

Fig. 1.2 Generalized reservoir fluid phase diagram


 ESSENTIAL PARAMETERS

• Formation – voluime factor


• Shrinkage
• Shrinkage factor
• Solution gas: oil ratio (dissolved gas : oil
ratio)
• Compressibility
• Viscosity

1  V 
c  
V  P T
 NATURAL GAS PROPERTIES

• Ideal gas (perfect gas)

PV  nRT

• Gas gravity
g
SG gas  g 
udara
• Compressibility factor (Z factor)

RT a T
P 
 V  b  V  V  b   b  V  B
• Density

MP

ZRT
• Gas-formation volume factor, Bg.

zT res BBL
Bg  0.00502
p SCF
• Viscosity
1000

Oil viscosity, o, cp

0,0
0 Pb

Reservoir pressure, psig

Viskositas minyak sebagai fungsi tekanan


Gas viscosity, g

Increasing T

0
0 Reservoir pressure

Viskositas gas sebagai fungsi tekanan


 CRUDE – OIL PROPERTIES

The most important parameters are:

• The bubble point pressure, Pb


• The oil-formation volume factor, Bo
• The oil density (gravity), o
• The oil viscosity, o
• The oil compressibility, co
• The gas-solubility factor, Rs
• Plus the phase envelope, oil and gas
analyses, gas density and oil-gas interfacial
tension
Fig. 1.3 Bo, Rs and o generalized behaviour with
pressure
 PVT DATA FOR OIL

• Laboratory Procedures

Fig. 1.4 A schematic of laboratory PVT equipment


Pb

o
Liquid Vt Liquid Vt Liquid Vt Gas
Vt Gas
Liquid Vt

Hg Liquid
Hg
Hg Hg

Hg

First Step Second Step Third Step Fourth Step

Percobaan Flash Liberation di Laboratorium


Gas Gas

Pb

o
Liquid Vo Liquid Vo
Liqui Vo Gas Gas
d

Liquid Liquid
Hg Hg
Hg
Hg Hg

First Step Second Step

Percobaan Differential Liberation di Laboratorium


 RESERVOIR PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE

Depth of reservoir Initial pressure Temperature


608 m (200 ft) 61 bar (900 psia) 21-32oC (70-90oF)
1520 m (5000 ft) 153 bar (2250 psia) 38-65oC (100-150oF)
3952 m (13000 ft) 408 bar (6000 psia) 82-149oC (180-
300oF)
 RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE

The calculation of primary recovery relies on


(reasonable) assumption that the reservoir
temperature stays constant, because the
thermal capacity of a reservoir is mostly in the
rock.
 WATER

Water is present at all stages of oil production.


Originally, the pores were fully filled with water,
which was left is known as connate water.