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Transistor/switch/amplifier – a 3 terminal device

Incoherent
Source Light Vein Artery
Coherent
Light Valve

Gate
Gain medium

Drain

Dam Laser Heart

Emitter Collector
Ion Channel

Base

BJT MOSFET Axonal conduction


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All of these share a feature with…

• Output current can toggle between large and small

(Switching  Digital logic; create 0s and 1s)

• Small change in ‘valve’ (3rd terminal) creates Large


change in output between 1st and 2nd terminal

(Amplification  Analog applications; Turn 0.5  50)


Example: BJT common emitter characteristics

Gain = 300
http://www.computerhistory.org/semiconductor/timeline.html#1940s
Aim of this chapter

• How can we get ‘Gain’?

• What is the structure of the device to get gain?

• What is the equation for gain?

• How can we use this equation to maximize gain?

• How can we model this device as a circuit element?

• What are its AC characteristics and speed?


Recall p-n junction

P N N P

W W +
+ - -
Vappl > 0 Vappl < 0

Forward bias, + on P, - on N Reverse bias, + on N, - on P


(Shrink W, Vbi) (Expand W, Vbi)

Allow holes to jump over barrier Remove holes and electrons away
into N region as minority carriers from depletion region

I I

V V
So if we combine these by fusing their terminals…

P N N P

W W +
+ - -
Vappl > 0 Vappl < 0

Holes from P region (“Emitter”) of 1st PN junction


driven by FB of 1st PN junction into central N region (“Base”)

Driven by RB of 2nd PN junction from Base into P region of


2nd junction (“Collector”)

• 1st region FB, 2nd RB

• If we want to worry about holes alone, need P+ on 1st region

• For holes to be removed by collector, base region must be thin


Bipolar Junction Transistors: Basics

+ -

IE IC
- + IB

IE = I B + IC ………(KCL)

VEC = VEB + VBC ……… (KVL)


BJT configurations

GAIN
CONFIG

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Bipolar Junction Transistors: Basics
+ -

IE IC
- + IB

VEB >-VBC > 0  VEC > 0 but small


IE > -IC > 0  IB > 0 VEB, VBC > 0  VEC >> 0
IE, IC > 0  IB > 0

VEB < 0, VBC > 0  VEC > 0


IE < 0, IC > 0  IB > 0 but small

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Bipolar Junction Transistors: Basics

Bias Mode E-B Junction C-B Junction


Saturation Forward Forward

Active Forward Reverse


Inverted Reverse Forward
Cutoff Reverse Reverse

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BJT Fabrication

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PNP BJT Electrostatics

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PNP BJT Electrostatics

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NPN Transistor Band Diagram: Equilibrium

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PNP Transistor Active Bias Mode

VEB > 0
VCB > 0
Few recombine
in the base

Collector Fields drive holes


far away where they can’t
return thermionically

Large injection Most holes


of Holes diffuse to
collector
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Forward Active minority carrier distribution

P+ N P

pB(x)

nE(x’) nC0
pB0
nE0
nC(x’’)

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PNP Physical Currents

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PNP transistor amplifier action

IN (small)

OUT (large)

Clearly this works in common emitter


configuration
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Emitter Injection Efficiency - PNP

IE IC
IEp ICp
C
E IEn ICn

IB

IEp IEp
 
IE IEp  IEn Can we make the emitter
see holes alone?
0   1

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Base Transport Factor

IE IC
IEp ICp
C
E IEn ICn

IB

ICp
T 
IEp

0  T  1 Can all injected holes


make it to the collector?

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Common Base DC current gain - PNP

Common Base – Active Bias mode:

IC = DCIE + ICB0

ICp = TIEp
DC = T
= TIE

IC = TIE + ICn

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Common Emitter DC current gain - PNP

Common Emitter – Active Bias mode:

IE = bDCIB + ICE0

bDC =
IC = DCIE + ICB0 DC /(1-DC)
= DC(IC + IB) + ICB0 GAIN !!
IC
IB
IC = DCIB + ICB0
1-DC
IE
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Common Emitter DC current gain - PNP

T
b dc 
1  T

Thin base will make T  1


Highly doped P region will make   1

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PNP BJT Common Emitter Characteristic

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