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NAME MATRIC NO

AMOS ANAK NIO CF160128


ASHA AJEERAH BINTI ABDUL LATIF CF160142
MAIZAN SOFIA BINTI MOHD MAAROF CF160028
SATHISWARAN A/L JEEWA CF160050
ZAINARUL ASWAD BIN RAZALI CF160051
Introduction
Two Peg Test
• Surveying operation carried out to determine whether
the levelling bubble and telescope line of sight are
parallel.
• Should be done before levelling works started.
• The instruments should be done on flat surface.
Two Peg Test Result
Distance 30m
Reading Staff (S1) Reading Staff (S2) Height Difference
(m)
First Setup 1.507 1.282 0.255

Reading Staff (S1) Reading Staff (S2) Height Difference


(m)

Second Setup 1.323 1.090 0.233


Distance 60m

Reading Staff (S1) Reading Staff (S2) Height Difference


(m)
First Setup 1.750 1.25 0.5

Reading Staff (S1) Reading Staff (S2) Height Difference


(m)
Second Setup 1.195 0.65 0.51

Difference (m-m’) 30m 60m


0.01 0.01
Levelling Works
• Defined as vertical control.
• Levelling works explain about the location level from
sea level.
• We can determine the level of unknown location by
flying the nearby T.B.M.
• Our location was T.B.M 7 and T.B.M 10. We should
fly T.B.M 7(23.63m) to T.B.M 10.
• Our hypothesis is the T.B.M 10 should be lower than
T.B.M 7
Theory
• A level is set up on a tripod and levelled so that the line of sight is horizontal

• Graduated staffs are held vertically over the first point and a reading made of the intersection of the
cross-hair with the image of the staff (back sight - BS).

• The same or an identical staff is then held vertically over the second point and a further reading
made (foresight - FS).
• The difference between the two readings is the difference in height between the two points:
• h = bs – fs

• This process can be repeated as the level can be moved to beyond the second point and the height
difference between the second and a third point measured by the same process.

• The distance from level to staff is dictated by the steepness of the terrain and the clarity of the image
viewed by the observer.

• Usually the maximum sight length is restricted to 50-60m.


 Allowable Closure should be:
 ±( 20√D) mm ,
 where D is the length of the traverse in km.
Instrument

Auto Level

Hammer

Measuring Tape
Instrument
Plumbob Staff Bubble Tripod
Procedure
1. Firstly, two-peg test were done to ensure instruments are really good to be done for the exact
levelling testing to be conducted.

2. Then, the first point were started at Temporary Bench Mark 7 (TBM 7) to TBM 10 and back to TBM
7.

3. Each and every checkpoints were fixed with every distance which would be suitable and the distance
were from 10-15 Meters.

4. As for first point were started with Back Side (BS) view at TBM 7 and the instrument were setup at
the middle of each checkpoints as L/2 and the Foreside (FS) for each checkpoints.

5. Then the BS and FS were recorded as Rise and Fall where rise shows positive average value and fall
shows the negative average value.

6. Data were recorded and same procedure done to the maximum of checkpoints up to CP 14.
Data Analysis
Calculation
Arithmetic check
∑BS −∑FS = 21.484 – 21.474 = 0.01
∑RISE −∑FALL = 6.604 – 6.594 = 0.01
R.L (B) – R.L (T) = 23.273 – 23.263 = 0.01

Permissible error = Distance factor


=20√d
=20√0.34
=11.7mm

SK < HSK
10mm < 11.7 mm
Correction
0.01 /16 = 6.25 x 10 ^ -4
Example CP 13
0.009 - ( 6.25 x 10 ^ -4 )

Adjusted Reduced Level


RL – Correction
Example CP 7
18.868 – 0.004 = 18.864
Discussion
Mistake and error during field work :
• Parallax error by the observer when reading the staff
• Defect from the centre of staff bubbles
• Instrument and tripod did not set up properly
• Surrounding weather ( strong wind )
• Different size of aggregate
Conclusion
As conclusion, we as a future engineer should know that:

• Levelling is the basic method to know the level by using


the staff and auto-level
• The function every each levelling instrument
• How to operate the levelling instrument
• The factor that effect the reading
• The factor that causes error
• How to control the errors
• The function of two pad test
• How to conduct the two pad test
• How the two pad test effect the result