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First they came for the socialists,

and I did not speak out because I was not a socialist.

Then they came for the trade unionists,

and I did not speak out because I was not a trade

Then they came for the Jews,

and I did not speak out because I was not a Jew.

Then they came for me,

and there was no one left to speak for me.

Pastor Martin Niemoller, Nazi Germany, circa 1945.

What is this pastor saying in this poem?

Hatred or dislike of Jews is known as

- Hitler wanted to make Germany

- Why is this ironic?

They used the star of David not only

to stigmatize and humiliate Jews
but also to segregate them and to
watch and control their

German soldiers blocking entrance into

a Jewish store
Jewish people were moved into ghettos.
- What is a ghetto?

The ghettos were characterized by overcrowding,

malnutrition, and heavy labor.
Where were Jewish people
moved to after the ghettos?

• What would it feel like if we visited there?

• What is genocide?
What is genocide?
• It is a very specific term, referring to
violent crimes committed against groups
with the intent to destroy the existence of
the group.
• Are there other genocides other than the
How did it start?
By late 1941, the first Jews
from Germany and
western Europe were
gathered and moved,
along with many other
minorities, to
concentration camps in:
Poland, Czechoslovakia,
Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, and
western Russia, where they were
first used as slaves and then
In the first years of the war…
- the gas chambers of the
later Nazi concentration
camps were not yet

What happened to these

people before the gas
- stripped of clothing
- pushed into open pits
- machine-gunned
Extermination Camps
- The first extermination camps
began in 1942.

- prisoners died by the

thousands from disease,
overwork, or starvation in
German labor camps
throughout Europe

- However there were only 7

Extermination camps (or
death camps in total)
Clothing and rings taken
from prisoners.
What else would Hitler’s death and Germany’s loss
of WW2 impact?
After the liberation, a funeral for those unsaved
or killed.