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The Excretory System

Functions of the Excretory System
1) Excretion of Metabolic Wastes

2) Maintenance of Water-Salt Balance

– Ensure proper __________________________(K+,
HCO3-, Ca2+) in blood
– Helps regulate ___________________
– Controlled by hormones
Functions of the Excretory System

3) Maintenance of Acid-Base Balance

– Monitor and keep blood pH at ~7.4

4) Secretion of Hormones
– Assist endocrine system by secreting _______
(promotes Ca2+ absorption) and
________________ (production of red blood cells)
Eliminating Nitrogenous Wastes
• Nitrogen cannot be recycled within an animal, so
it needs to be removed from the organism
• Nitrogen is found in two of the four groups of
– Nucleic acids (RNA, DNA)
• Each nucleotide has a nitrogenous base (A, T, C, G, U).

– Proteins
• Each amino acid contains an amino group: —NH2.
Eliminating Nitrogenous Wastes

• Nitrogen from amino

groups is converted into
one of the following three
molecules and then
excreted into the
– Ammonia
• Very toxic
• ____________ in water
– Urea
• 100 000 times less toxic than
• ____________ in water
– Uric acid
• A white, pasty material
• _______________ in water
The Liver and the Kidney
• Liver
– Converts nasty chemicals into less harmful chemicals
– Ammonia (a nasty chemical) is converted into urea (a less nasty
– Alcohol and drugs are detoxified in the liver

• Kidney
– Removes waste products from the circulatory system: this
process is called _________________
– _________ is removed from circulatory system by the kidney
The Mammalian Excretory System
• Kidney
– Removes unwanted chemicals from our circulatory system
– Once these unwanted chemicals leave the circulatory system,
they are called urine because they contain urea

• Urine leaves the body through the following sequence of

• Ureter

• Urinary Bladder

• Urethra
The Kidneys
• Each kidney has a
mass of 150 g and
are the size of your

• They hold _25%_

of the body’s blood

• They filter
__200L___ of fluid
each day!
The Urinary System
• Wastes filtered by the kidneys travel along the
ureters to the urinary bladder

• A __Urinary spinchter_____ is found at the

base of the bladder
– Upon relaxation, urine enters the urethra and it is
The Urinary System

Renal pyramid
Bladder Capacity v=zzZrctQcNf8

• 200 ml: stretch receptors send impulses to the brain;

urge to urinate Estimates

• 400 ml: more receptors activated & higher frequency of

impulses; feeling of urination more urgent

• 600 ml: voluntary control is lost; micturition reflex


Signals sent up to the brain
saying that the bladder is
stretching. And the brain
then sends messages to
the bladder to contract.
Regions of the Kidney

3 Main Regions:
•Renal cortex
• Renal Medulla
• Renal Pelvis

Blood Supply:
• Renal Artery
• Renal Vein
• Over 1 million per

• Embedded in the renal

cortex and extend into
renal medulla

• Makes urine by _filtering

blood __to remove small
molecules and ions then
reclaiming useful materials
before excreting urine
The Glomerulus & Bowman’s Capsule
• The _Bowmans capsule
is a cap-like formation
at the top of each
nephron that serves as
a filtration structure

• The
___glomerulus___ is
a fine network of
capillaries that act as
a filtration device
Nephrons – How Filtrate Travels
Water and other solutes filter into the Bowman’s capsule from
the glomerulus

The capsule tapers off into the proximal tubule

Carries the filtrate to the __loop of henle_______________

Filtrate passes through the ___distal tube________and then the

__collecting ducts

The collecting ducts collect urine from many nephrons, which

merge in the _renal pelvis to bladder__
Urine Formation
Urine Formation: Activity of the Nephron

• Urine is formed by
1. Filteration
2. Reabsorbtion
3. Secretion
 Blood and other bodily fluids are exposed to a filtering device made
of a __selectively permeable membrane__
 Allows the body to retain proteins, other large molecules, and
 _Hydrostatic pressure_____ (blood pressure) forces water and
smaller solutes like salts, sugars, amino acids, urea, etc. through
the filter and out of the circulatory system into the excretory

The resulting aqueous solution in

the excretory system is
called the __filtrate__
• Some of the water and smaller
solutes are recovered from the
filtrate, which is now in the
excretory system

• Some of these molecules are

__ back into the circulatory

• These molecules are important

and essential for the body. They
– Water
– Glucose
– Salts
– Amino acids
• Some solutes are actively transported from
the blood (circulatory system) into the filtrate
(excretory system)

• These molecules are not needed. They

– Excess salts
– Toxins
Urine Formation: The Details
1. The Glomerulus & Bowman’s Capsule

• Blood is forced through

walls of glomerulus into
Bowman’s capsule by
hydrostatic in capillaries
• Filters water and dissolved
• Substances
2. The Proximal Tubule
(Reabsorption & Secretion)
• Select nutrients from filtrate are
reabsorbed back into the blood by
active and passive transport

• _ph___ is maintained in tubule by

____secreting__________ H+ and
__reabsorbing______________ HCO3-
• Substances transported:HCO3, NA ,
CL , H,K,NH3,H2O, glucose, amino
acids, vitamins and urea
3. Descending Limb of Loop of Henle
• Descending limb is (Reabsorption)
_permeable____________ to

• Water _leaves_______ filtrate

by osmosis

• Causes __salt(NaCl)__________
concentration to
_increase______ as limb
penetrates inner

• Substance transported:
4. Ascending Limb of Loop of Henle
• Ascending limb is permeable
to salt (NaCl)

• Salt leaves _THIN_____

portion by __passive
transport_________ transport

• Salt leaves _THICK______

portion by __active___

• Filtrate salt concentration


• Substance transported:
5. Distal Tubule (Reabsorption and Secretion)
• _Ascending limb_____ of K+ and H+ by active transport
• ___Reabsorbtion______ of HCO3 to ___maintain PH___
• Reabsorption of _NaCl___ and water

• Substances transported: NaCl, H2O, H+, K+, NH3, uric acid

6. Collecting Duct

• Cells are _permeable to
water_________ which ADH: a
is therefore hormo
___reabsorbed_______ regulat
__ by passive transport regulati
water b
• ___Urea____ also contro
reabsorbed to increase
osmotic pressure of _of

• Substances transported:
H2O , salt NaCl, urea,
Concentration of Filtrate and Interstitial Fluid in
Urine Formation
Go to chapter 44 (44.2 Nephron Function)
 read pg.444-455
Do endocrine and reproduction worksheet