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Mixed

Methods
Research
Professor Dr. Khalid Mahmood
University of the Punjab
Lahore – PAKISTAN

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Acknowledgement
 This presentation has been prepared with the
help of many books and presentations on the
topic.
 The presenter pays his sincere gratitude to all
authors, professors and experts for their efforts
and contributions.
 Particular thanks to Professor John W. Creswell
of University of Nebraska-Lincoln for his un-
matched contribution on the topic.

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Agenda
 Three types of research designs
 Qualitative vs. quantitative research
 Pragmatism – Philosophy behind MMR
 Reasons for “mixing”
 How methods can be mixed
 Planning mixed methods procedures
 Notations to describe MM designs
 6 mixed methods designs
 Further readings
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Three types of research designs
 Qualitative research – exploring and
understanding the meaning individuals or
groups ascribe to a social or human problem.
 Quantitative research – testing objective
theories by examining the relationship among
variables.
 Mixed methods research – an approach to
inquiry that combines or associates both
qualitative and quantitative forms.
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Qualitative vs. quantitative research
Criteria Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
Purpose To understand & interpret To test hypotheses, look at
social interactions. cause & effect, & make
predictions.
Group Studied Smaller & not randomly Larger & randomly selected.
selected.
Variables Study of the whole, not Specific variables studied
variables.
Type of Data Words, images, or objects. Numbers and statistics.
Collected
Form of Data Qualitative data such as Quantitative data based on
Collected open-ended responses, precise measurements using
interviews, participant structured & validated data-
observations, field notes, & collection instruments.
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reflections.
Qualitative vs. quantitative research
Criteria Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
Type of Data Identify patterns, features, Identify statistical relationships.
Analysis themes.
Objectivity and Subjectivity is expected. Objectivity is critical.
Subjectivity
Role of Researcher & their biases may be Researcher & their biases are not
Researcher known to participants in the study, known to participants in the study, &
& participant characteristics may participant characteristics are
be known to the researcher. deliberately hidden from the
researcher (double blind studies).
Results Particular or specialized findings Generalizable findings that can be
that is less generalizable. applied to other populations.
Scientific Exploratory or bottom–up: the Confirmatory or top-down: the
Method researcher generates a new researcher tests the hypothesis and
hypothesis and theory from the theory with the data.
data collected.
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Qualitative vs. quantitative research
Criteria Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
View of Human Dynamic, situational, social, & Regular & predictable.
Behavior personal.
Most Common Explore, discover, & construct. Describe, explain, & predict.
Research
Objectives
Focus Wide-angle lens; examines the Narrow-angle lens; tests a
breadth & depth of phenomena. specific hypotheses.
Nature of Study behavior in a natural Study behavior under controlled
Observation environment. conditions; isolate causal effects.
Nature of Reality Multiple realities; subjective. Single reality; objective.

Final Report Narrative report with contextual Statistical report with


description & direct quotations correlations, comparisons of
from research participants. means, & statistical significance
of findings.
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Pragmatism – Philosophy behind MMR

 Arises out of actions, situations, and


consequences rather than antecedent
conditions.
 There is a concern with applications—what
works—and solutions to problems.
 Instead of focusing on methods, researchers
emphasize the research problem and use all
approaches available to understand the
problem.

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Reasons for “mixing”
 The insufficient argument – either quantitative or
qualitative may be insufficient by itself
 Multiple angles argument – quantitative and qualitative
approaches provide different “pictures”
 The more-evidence-the-better argument – combined
quantitative and qualitative provides more evidence
 Community of practice argument – mixed methods may
be the preferred approach within a scholarly community
 Eager-to-learn argument – it is the latest methodology
 “Its intuitive” argument – it mirrors “real life”

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How methods can be mixed
Types of mixing Comments

Two types of research question. One fitting a quantitative approach and


the other qualitative.
The manner in which the research Preplanned (quantitative) versus
questions are developed. participatory/emergent (qualitative).

Two types of sampling procedure. Probability versus purposive.

Two types of data collection Surveys (quantitative) versus focus


procedures. groups (qualitative).
Two types of data analysis. Numerical versus textual (or visual).

Two types of data analysis. Statistical versus thematic.

Two types of conclusions. Objective versus subjective


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interpretations.
Planning mixed methods procedures

Timing Weighting Mixing Theorizing

No Equal Integrating Explicit


Sequence
Concurrent
Sequential - Qualitative Connecting Implicit
Qualitative
first
Sequential - Quantitative Embedding
Quantitative
first
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Notations to describe MM designs

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Mixed methods designs
 Sequential Explanatory Design
 Sequential Exploratory Design
 Sequential Transformative Design
 Concurrent Triangulation Design
 Concurrent Embedded Design
 Concurrent Transformative Design

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Sequential explanatory design

QUAN qual
Data & Data & Interpretation
Results Following up
Results

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Sequential explanatory design:
Characteristics
 Viewing the study as a two-phase project
 Collecting quantitative data first followed by
collecting qualitative data second
 Typically, a greater emphasis is placed on the
quantitative data in the study
 Example: You first conduct a survey and then
follow up with a few individuals who answered
positively to the questions through interviews

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Sequential explanatory design:
When do you use it?
 When you want to explain the quantitative
results in more depth with qualitative data
(e.g., statistical differences among groups,
individuals who scored at extreme levels)
 When you want to identify appropriate
participants to study in more depth
qualitatively

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Sequential explanatory design:
Sample script
The purpose of this two-phase, explanatory mixed methods
study will be to obtain statistical, quantitative results from a
sample and then follow-up with a few individuals to probe or
explore those results in more depth. In the first phase,
quantitative research questions or hypotheses will address the
relationship or comparison of __________ (independent) and
________ (dependent) variables with ___________
(participants) at ___________(the research site). In the
second phase, qualitative interviews or observations will be
used to problem significant _______(quantitative results) by
exploring aspects of the ________ (central phenomenon) with
_______ (a few participants) at ____________ (research
site). 17
Sequential exploratory design

QUAL quan
Data & Data &
Results Results Interpretation
Building to

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Sequential exploratory design:
Characteristics
 Viewing the study as a two-phase project
 Qualitative data collection precedes quantitative
data collection
 Typically, greater emphasis is placed on the
qualitative data in the study
 Example: You collect qualitative diary entries,
analyze the data for themes, and then develop
an instrument based on the themes to measure
attitudes on a quantitative survey administered
to a large sample.

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Sequential exploratory design:
When do you use it?
 To develop an instrument when one is not
available (first explore, then develop
instrument)
 To develop a classification or typology for
testing
 To identify the most important variables to
study quantitatively when these variable are
not known

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Sequential exploratory design:
Sample script
The purpose of this two-phase, exploratory mixed methods
study will be to explore participant views with the intent of
using this information to develop and test an instrument with
a sample from a population. The first phase will be a
qualitative exploration of a _______(central phenomenon) by
collecting ___________(data) from ____________
(participants) at _______ (research site). Themes from this
qualitative data will then be developed into an instrument (or
survey) so that the __________ (theory and research
questions/hypotheses) can be tested that ________ (relate,
compare) ____________ (independent variable) with
__________ (dependent variable) for _________(sample of a
population) at _________ (research site).
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Sequential transformative design

QUAL quan
Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldview

QUAN qual
Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldview

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Sequential transformative design:
Characteristics

 Has two distinct data collection phases


 A theoretical perspective is used to guide the
study
 Purpose is to use methods that will best
serve the theoretical perspective of the
researcher

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Concurrent triangulation design

QUAN
Data and Results
+ QUAL
Data and Results
Interpretation

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Concurrent triangulation design:
Characteristics

 Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data


 Collecting these data at the same time in the
research procedure
 Analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data
separately
 Comparing or combining the results of the
quantitative and qualitative analysis
 Example: collect survey data (quantitative) and
collect individual interviews (qualitative) and then
compare the results

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Concurrent triangulation design:
When is it used?
 When you want to combine the advantages of
quantitative (trends, large numbers,
generalization) with qualitative (detail, small
numbers, in-depth)
 When you want to validate your quantitative
findings with qualitative data
 When you want to expand your quantitative
findings with some open-ended qualitative data
(e.g., survey with closed- and open-ended data)

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Concurrent embedded design

qual quan
QUAN QUAL

QUAN Intervention QUAN


Pre-test Post-test
Interpretation
Data & Data &
qual
Results Results
Process

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Concurrent embedded design:
Characteristics
 One data collection phase during which both
quantitative and qualitative data are collected
(one is determined to be the primary method).
 The primary method guides the project and the
secondary provides a supporting role in the
procedures.
 The secondary method is “embedded” or
“nested” within the predominant method and
addresses a different question.

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Sample script for a concurrent design
(Triangulation or nested)
The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study
is to better understand a research problem by
converging both quantitative (numeric) and qualitative
(text or image) data. In this approach, ___________
(quantitative instruments) will be used to measure the
relationship between the ________ (independent
variables) and __________ (dependent variables). At
the same time in the study, the __________ (central
phenomenon) will be explored using _____________
(qualitative interviews, documents, observations,
visual materials) with _________ (participants) at
____________ (the research site).
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Concurrent transformative design

QUAN + QUAL quan


Social science theory, qualitative theory, QUAL
advocacy worldview
Social science theory, qualitative theory,
advocacy worldview

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Concurrent transformative design:
Characteristics
 Guided by a theoretical perspective.
 Concurrent collection of both quantitative and
qualitative data.
 The design may have one method embedded in
the other so that diverse participants are given a
choice in the change process of an organization.

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Further readings

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