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Petrol, Diesel and Gas Engine

Abu Hamja
Heat Engine
• A heat engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a
fuel into thermal energy and uses this energy to produce mechanical
work.
Engine

• Heat engine can be defined as any type of engine or machine, which


drives heat energy from the combustion of fuel or any other source and
converts this energy into mechanical work.
Heat engines are classified into two broad types-
Internal combustion engine (IC Engine)-
Those engines in which the combustion of fuel takes place inside the
engine cylinder. Example- petrol engine, diesel engine, gas engine etc.

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Strokes of a four stroke cycle engine
1. Suction stroke: In this stroke, the fuel vapour is supplied to the engine cylinder.
2. Compression stroke: In this stroke the fuel vapor is compressed in the engine cylinder.
3. Expansion or working stroke: In this stroke the fuel vapor is fired just before the compression stroke is complete.
It results in the sudden rise of pressure due to expansion of the combustion products. This sudden rise of pressure
pushes the piston with a great force, and rotates the crankshaft. The crankshaft, in turn drives the machine
connected to it.
4. Exhaust stroke: In this stroke, the combustion products are exhausted from the engine cylinder.
Strokes of a two stroke cycle engine
In two stroke cycle engine, one working cycle is completed in 2 strokes of the piston or one revolution of the
crankshaft. Here suction and compression processes in one stroke; expansion and exhaust processes in the second
stroke.

So, from thermodynamic point of view there is no difference between 2 and 4 stroke engine. The difference is
purely mechanical.
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Valve timing diagram of a 4 stroke cycle engine

At A, the inlet valve opens and suction takes place from A


to B. Here crankshaft revolves through 1800 and piston
moves from TDC to BDC.

At B, the inlet valve closes and compression takes place


from B to C. Here crankshaft revolves through 1800 and
piston moves from BDC to TDC.

At C, the fuel is fired and expansion takes place from C to


D. Here crankshaft revolves through 1800 and piston again
moves from TDC to BDC.

At D, the exhaust valve opens and exhaust takes place from


D to E. Here crankshaft revolves through 1800 and piston
moves back to TDC.
Four stroke cycle petrol engine/Otto cycle

(a) Suction Stroke (b) Compression Stroke (c) Expansion Stroke (d) Exaust Stroke

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8
p-v and T-s diagram of Otto cycle

9
Actual Indicator Diagram and valve timing diagram of a 4-stroke Petrol Engine

10
Four stroke cycle diesel engine

Suction:
In this stroke, the inlet valve opens and
pure air is sucked
Compression into the cylinder as
stroke:
the piston
In this moves
stroke bothfrom TDCand
the inlet to BDC.
exhaust
valve are closed and the air is
compressed as the piston moves from
BDC to TDC. As a result of
compression, both the pressure and
temperature of the air increases
considerably. This completes one
revolution of the crankshaft.

11
Four stroke cycle diesel engine

Expansion or working stroke:


Shortly before the piston reaches TDC
(during compression stroke) diesel fuel
oil is injected in the form of fine spray
into engine
Exhaust cylinder with the help of a
stroke:
fuel injector,
In this stroke,asthea result
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valve starts.
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12
p-v and T-s diagram of Diesel cycle

13
Engine Knocking
Engine knocking (also called detonation) is a sudden
blow on the piston just like a hammering. Knocking
occurs due to localized ignition inside the combustion
chamber.

This can be explained thus: at the end of the


compression stroke the sparkplug gives electric spark to
initiate ignition of the air fuel charge. Ignition takes
place and very quickly advances like a heat wave to all
corners of the combustion chamber. Consequently,
localized ignition starts before the flame reaches it.
Therefore, knocking is a post ignition phenomenon.

Detonation or knocking is harmful for the engine and


causes the engine-running shaky. Both high
combustibility of fuel and the high compression ratio
are responsible for knocking. To stop engine knocking
generally a special fuel or a chemical (tetraethyl lead) is
mixed with gasoline. Mixing of a small amount
satisfactorily stops knocking. High Octane rating also
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prevents engine knocking.
Rating of IC Engine

• Octane Number: The knocking tendency of a fuel in S.I engines is


generally expressed by its octane number. The percentage, by volume of
iso-octane in a mixture of iso-octane and n-heptane, which exactly matches
the knocking intensity of a given fuel, in a standard engine, under given
standard operating conditions, is termed as the octane number rating of that
fuel. It us noted that, higher the octane number rating of a fuel, the greater
will be its resistance to knock and higher will be the compression ratio.
Example: Octane Number 75 means that there is 75% iso-octane and 25%
n-heptane in that mixture of fuel.
Rating of IC Engine

• Cetane Number: The property of ignition lag in C.I engine is generally


measured in terms of cetane number. It is defined as the percentage, by
volume, of cetane in a mixture of cetane and alpha-methyl-naphthalene
that produces the same ignition lag as the fuel being tested, in the same
engine and under the same operating conditions.
Example: Cetane Number 75 means that there is 75% cetane and 25%
alpha-methyl-napthalene in that mixture of fuel.
•Any Question?

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