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Modern Philosophers and

their Philosophies
 From the verb Excellere (Surpass)
 Latin word for “excellence”
Different focal points of the human philosophical soul
through the ideas and views based on:

Pragmatism Realism Personalism

Materialism Idealism

 Derived the word from the
 It can be traced from the
term PRAGMA which
means practice
 It is a philosophy which says that the meaning, value and
truth of an idea, theory, or belief are determined by their
practical consequences, and that the function of thought is
to produce or to guide action
Pioneers of Pragmatism
Charles Sanders Peirce
 American Philosopher, logician,
mathematician, and scientist
 Father of Pragmatism
 The crux of his pragmatism is that for
any statement to be meaningful, it
must have practical bearings
John Dewey
 American philosopher and
 Father of Modern Experiential
 He wanted students to learn
through experience, and to
thing and reflect critically on
their experience
 “Education is not preparation
for life, education is life itself”
William James

 American philosopher and psychologist

who was also trained as a physician
 Father of American Psychology
 According to him, “Pragmatism is a
solving or evaluating intellectual
problems and a theory about the kinds
of knowledge we are capable of
 “An Idea must have PRACTICAL and
 It is a theory which means that physical matter
is the ultimate reality and that all beings
processes and phenomena can be explained as
a manifestations or results of matter
Two Kinds of Materialistic
according to Karl Marx and
Friedrich Engels
 Mechanistic Materialism

 which puts emphasis on the natural sciences

 Dialectical Materialism

 which is essentially a form of

metaphysics and which developed in
predominantly Russian
 It is derived from its root
word, IDEAL, which means a
standard of perfection or
excellence which is a model
for imitation
 It refers to the practice of
forming ideals or living under
their influence
Philosophers of Idealism
 W.E. Hocking
 Plato

 Father of Idealism
 He believed that perfect truth,
beauty and wisdom exist in the
world of forms and ideas which can
only be reached through the power
of reason and the human mind
 George Berkeley

 Irish philosopher whose

primary achievement was the
advancement of a theory he
 Father of Modern Idealism
 He claimed that only the
conscious minds and
ideas/perceptions are reality
Two Philosophical Thoughts
recognized by Idealist
 Objective Idealism
 It is the view that the world exists independent
of the mind, and that this world is knowable to
the perceiving mind which determines its
organization and form as well as human
 Subject Idealism

is a theory which holds that the

fundamental element of the world is not
matter but spirit or mind
 It Is a philosophical view which
holds that there is a real world
which existence is independent of
man but which can be known
through man’s intellect and sense
of perceptions
 Plato, John Locke and Thomas
Aquinas are examples of these
Three Fundamental Principles
of Realism
1.Both material and immaterial being exists; each cannot
be immaterial reduced to another’s mode of being

2.All Beings, material or immaterial, can be known by the

human mind as they are in themselves. Truth then is
something which is attainable to man

3.The knowledge of these beings, especially those about

human nature, is unchanging and dependable and
serves as norm for the decision and action of the
individual and society
Types of Realism
 Naïve Realism
 The view which recognizes the existence
of objects independent of mind
 Classical Realism
 This realism rests on the belief that ideas
which are considered as forms, patterns,
types or universals, are more real than
any particular thing
 Theistic Realism

 This view unites the positions of some medieval

philosophers and theologian, they believed that
matter and form constitute the universe
 Representative Realism

 It believes that the real world is made

up of material particles which are in
 Neo Realism

 A form of protest against the dominant

systems of thought and remained faithful to
the realists belief that all things are
independent, asserts that real things are
known directly, that is, they enter into the
mind with nothing between them and the
 Critical Realism

It is in agreement with neo-realism as to the

objective or independent existence of objects, but
it disagrees with the latter’s view that objects are
immediately or directly perceived by the mind as
they are
Three Factors of Critical Realism
1.The perceiving mind or the knower

2.The object, with only its primary qualities


3.The sense data, the intermediate “logical

entity” which links the mind and its object of
 A movement launched against
materialism and idealism which
disregard if not depersonalized
the person
 According to Amos Bronson
Talcott, he believed that it is a
doctrine that believes in the
ultimate reality of the world is a
Divine Person who sustains the
universe by a continuous act of
creative will
Two Forms of Personalism
 Traditional Personalism

 A person is the supreme principles, that is, the

highest in value and dominant in power

 The realm of nature is the phenomenal product of

the energizing of God’s will, thus having no
independent existence

 The metaphysical basis of all laws of the nature is the

orderliness of God’s volition
 The interaction of created selves does not consist
in direct causal effects on each other, but only on
God through whom they work

 The only causality experienced is the act of willing

 Contemporary Personalism

 Reality is concrete and individual; it is neither

abstract nor universal

 The unity of the world and world ground, that is, the
world and the Absolute are one

 Reality is essential active, that is, reality consists in

the power of action
 Reality must be conceived as cause which is real,
and independent of and distinct from thought

 Matter is phenomenal in nature; it is neither

ideational nor logical

 Personality is the key to ultimate reality, that is,

personality is the means by which one is able to
understand the nature and meaning of reality
 This term is commonly used to mean the
type of thinking which emphasizes human
existence and the distinctive qualities of
individual living persons

Soren Jean Paul Friedrich

Kierkgaard Sartre Nietzsche
Existentialism believes on a common
theme as the following
 Existence precedes essence

 An individual has no essential nature, no self-

identity; he creates himself by his own free choice

 Truth id subjectivity

 Abstractions can never grasp nor communicate the

reality of individual existence
 Philosophy must concern itself with the human
predicament and inner states such as alienation,
anxiety, inauthenticity, dread, sense of nothingness,
anticipation of death

 The universe has no rational direction or scheme

 The universe does not provide moral rules

 Individual actions are unpredictable

 Individuals have complete freedom of will

 Individuals cannot help but make choices

 An individual can become completely other than

what he is
Socio-Political Philosophy
 Latin word for “one’s country” or homeland
Ideas and Terms
 State
 Is defined as a group of people,
permanently inhabiting a
definite territory

 Nation
 is often times being confused to
a term of a state, refers to a
permanent and historically
developed community who live in
a territory and share many
things in common
 Government

 Is an organization of people
within the state which directs
or controls the affairs of the

 Sovereignty

 Is the supreme authority or

power in the state by which
the state is governed, by which
its affairs are regulated and
controlled, and by which it is
able to exist and to function
 Law

 Means the body of rules

promulgated by the governing
authority and enforced by the
 Citizen

 Refers to a member of the

political community who enjoys a
legal status acquired at or after
birth as well as full civil and
political obligations and privileges
granted by the sovereign state
Origins of the State
 Divine Theory
 According to this theory, the state
has divine origin and basis because
all political authority comes from

 Contract Theory
 This theory is based on the
assumption that there was a time
when men lived in a state of
nature, that is without government,
laws or any social restrictions
 Instinctive Theory
 It asserts that the state is neither
originated from God nor resulted
from the agreement of men
 it is believed to have originated
from the natural and inherent
need of man to associate with
other men to live in an organized
 Patriarchal or Matriarchal Theory
 It traces the origins of the state to
the family where the father or
mother is the respected authority
 Force Theory
 It is believed that the state is a
result of necessity and force
 The strong and brave fight for
supremacy; the weak is
subjugated and given protection
by the mighty
 Historical or Evolutionary Theory
 This theory suggests that the state
is the result of God’s design, or of a
social contract, or of man’s instinct,
or of force, or of family expansion
are deemed inadequate
explanations by modern scientist
and students of political science
Elements of the State
 People
 The mass of the population living within the state
 Territory
Demarcated area that rightly belongs to the
Terrestrial, Fluvial, Maritime and aerial
Should be permanent and large enough to be
 Government
 Refers to the agency to which the will of the state
is formulated, expressed, and carried out
 Normally consists of Legislature, Executive,
and Judiciary
 It is the system or group of people governing an
organized community

 Supreme and independent power or authority in

government as possessed or claimed by a state or

 It has two aspects: Internal and External Sovereignty

Functions of the State
according to Thomas E. Hill
1.To defend man’s basic need or security

2.To support his quest for natural well-being

3.To see to the administration of justice on a fair basis for


4.To help in the education and cultural life of the people

5.To defend and advance the freedom of the citizens

 Individualistic Theory

 Which asserts that the activities of the

government should be restricted to the narrowest
possible limits, consistent with the maintenance of
peace, order, and security

 Socialistic Theory
 Wherein it insist that the functions of the
government should not be restricted but maximized
as much as it is possible
Ends of a State
 can be considered through the
disintegration of the following such as
security, justice, liberty and welfare
Forms of Government
 Monarchy
 Is a form of government in which supreme and
final authority is in the hands of a single person
either a king or queen
 If it is a cruel leader they call this ruler as a tyrant
or despot
 Aristocracy
 "rule of the best“
 It is a government rule by a few elite citizens
 Oligarchy
- In which Aristotle considered to be the
corrupted form of aristocracy)
- Whose primary motives is for their own
self-vested interests alone
 Democracy
 The rule of the majority and the most ideal
government for all free citizens
 Dictatorial

 A popular elected leader who rejects the principles

and doctrines of Democracy

 It is a one-party government composed of well

discipline and loyal subordinates and a powerful
individual who is the head of the government
Philosophers and their

 He was greatly influenced by

the biological and
psychological theories of his
 He assumed that man and
society is alike
 Greatly influenced by his
teacher Plato
 He taught that the state was
created to meet the natural
need of man
 According to him Man is a
social animal and that Man is
also a political animal
Niccolo Machiavelli

 He believed in the survival of

the ruler and the state over
the interest of the individual
and the general public
 He believed in the ideas
“Might makes right” and “The
end justifies the means”
Thomas Hobbes

 He believed that man’s nature is

selfish, egoistic, corrupt and
 His contention with the argument
that all man’s actions are
motivated by selfish desires which
satisfaction will please and make
him happy
 He also believes in competition
and class disputes among
members of the society
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
 He believed in the Social
Contract theory based on the
three (3) estates of man
bounded with an agreement
that is not stipulated but
being observed
(1) Parent to children
(2) Teacher to student
(3) Government to people
 He believed in freedom and
the utilization of the “General
Karl Marx
 He believed that there are two
(2) class system in the society
(1) Capitalist
(2) Working Class
 Communist Manifesto and
Das Kapitals (through this
book he criticized the evils of
democracy and safeguarded
the beauty of communism
Immanuel Kant
 He believed in “Eternal Peace”
that made him conclude that
it can be found among men
living together happily and
with oneness
 He view governments as a
system to unite people into a
federation or republic
 He believed that private laws
are based on rights being
desired by man
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government
 https://rationalwiki.org/wiki/List_of_forms_of_govern
 https://www.google.com/search=john+dewey+pragm
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Sanders_Peirce
 https://www.slideshare.net/valeragrace/grace-valera-
 https://www.google.com/search=william+james+pra
 https://www.google.com/search?q=charles+s+peirce