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L5

Optical Fiber Link and


LAN Design

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Table of content
Transmission Type
Elements in Network Design
Factors for Evaluating Fiber Optic System Design
Link Budget Considerations
Power Budget
Power Budget Requirement
Example : Long-haul Transmission System
Example : LAN

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Table of content (cont.)
Bandwidth Budget
System Rise Time
Example on STM-4, STM-16 and STM-64
Budget Summary
Sensitivity Analysis
Eye Diagrams
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)
Cost/ Performance Considerations
Summary
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Transmission Types

Two types of transmissions:


1. Link (point to point)

2. Network
a. point to multipoint
b. Mesh
c. Ring

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Elements of Link/ Network Design
Transmitter :
Operating wavelength (), Linewidth (),
Rise time, Bit-rate, Line format, Power
level

Fiber :
SMF/MMF, Fiber type – SMF28, DSF, etc,
Cable loss, Spool length
Rx :
PSEN, PSAT, Rise time
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Elements of Link/ Network Design (cont.)

Connection:
No. of splice, Splice loss
No. of connectors, Connector Loss

In Line Devices:
Splitter, Filter, Attenuator, Amplifier
Insertion loss, Gain

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The Main Question The Main Problems
In Digital System Attenuation and
- Data Rate Loss
- Bit Error Rate Dispersion
In Analog System
- Bandwidth
- Signal to Noise
Ratios

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Factors for Evaluating Fiber Optic System Design

System Factor Considerations


Type of Fiber Single-mode or Multimode
Operating Wavelength 780, 850, 1310 and 1550 nm
typical
Transmitter Power Typically expressed in dBm
Source Type LED or Laser
Receiver Sensitivity and Typically expressed in dBm
Overload Characteristics
Detector Type PIN Diode, APD or IDP

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Factors for Evaluating Fiber Optic System Design
(cont.)
System Factor Considerations
Modulation Code AM, FM, PCM or Digital
Bit Error Rate (BER) 10-9 ,10-12 Typical
(Digital Systems Only)
Signal to Noise Ratio Specified in decibels (dB)
Number of Connectors Loss increases with the number of
connectors
Number of Splices
Loss is Loss increases with the
number of splices
Environmental Humidity, Temperature,
Requirements Exposure to sunlight
Mechanical Requirements Flammability, Indoor/Outdoor
Application
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Optical Transmitter/ Sources
LEDs Laser Diodes
Output Power Output Power
Modulation Modulation
Bandwidth Bandwidth
Center Wavelength,
Center Wavelength Number of Modes
Spectral Width Chirp, Linewidth
Source Size Mode Field of the
Far-Field Pattern Gaussian beam

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Optical Fiber
Multimode Fiber Single-Mode Fiber
Attenuation Attenuation
Multimode Chromatic
Dispersion Dispersion
Chromatic Cutoff Wavelength
Dispertion Spot Size
Numerical Aperture
Core Diameter

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Optical Receiver/ Photodiode

Risetime/Bandwidth
Response Wavelength Range
Saturation Level
Minimum Detection Level

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Simple Link

OA OA RX
TX

Medium and Devices

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Link Budget Considerations

Three types of budgets:

(1) Power Budget


(2) Bandwidth or Rise Time Budget

(3) ?

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POWER BUDGET

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Power Budget Requirements:
PB : PRX > PMIN

PRX = Received Power


PMIN = Minimum Power at a certain BER

PRX = PTX – Total Losses + Total Gain - PMARGIN

PTX = Transmitted Power


PMARGIN ≈ 6 dB

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Requirements Cont’d:
Loss,L = LIL + Lfiber + Lconn. + Lnon-linear
LIL = Insertion Loss
Lfiber = Fiber Loss
Lconn.= Connector Loss
Lnon-linear= Non-linear Loss

Gain,G = Gainamp + Gnon-linear

Gainamp = Amplifier Gain


Gnon-linear = Non-linear Gain
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dB, dBm, mW

dB = 10 log (P1/P2)
dBm Value % of 1 mW Power Application
0.0 100% 1.0 mW Typical laser Peak
Output
-13.0 5% 50.0W Typical PIN
Receiver
Sensitivity
-30.0 0.1% 1.0W Typical APD
Receiver
Sensitivity
-40.0 0.01% 100.0W Typical LED Peak
Output
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Decibel to Power Conversion

dB Power Out as a % % of Power Remarks


of Power In Lost
1 79% 21% -
2 63% 37% -
3 50% 50% ½ the power
4 40% 60% -
5 32% 68%
6 25% 75% ¼ the power

7 20% 80% 1/5 the power

8 16% 84% 1/6 the power

9 12% 88% 1/8 the power

10 10% 90% 1/10 the power

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Decibel to Power Conversion

dB Power Out as a % % of Power Remarks


of Power In Lost
25 0.3% 99.7% 1/300 the power

30 0.1% 99.9% 1/1000 the power

40 0.01% 99.99% 1/10,000 the power

50 0.001% 99.999% 1/100,000 the power

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Example:
Power Budget Measurement for Long Haul
Transmission
185 km

Splice Connector

PTx = 0 dBm PSEN = -28 dBm


Attenuation Coefficient,  = 0.25 dB/km
IS THIS SYSTEM
Dispersion Coefficient, D = 18 ps/nm-km

GOOD?
Number of Splice = 46
Splice Loss = 0.1 dB
Connector Loss = 0.2 dB
PMargin = 6 dB
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Simple Calculation….
Fiber Loss = 0.25 dB/km X 185 km
= 46.3 dB
Splice Loss = 0.1 dB X 46

CONCLUSION: = 4.6 dB
Connector Loss = 0.2 dB X 2
= 0.4 dB

BAD SYSTEM!!
Total Losses = 46.3 + 4.6 + 0.4
= 51.3 dB
PMargin = 6 dB
PRX = PTX – Total Losses – PMargin
= 0 – 51.3 – 6
PRX = -57.3 dB
Power Budget, PRX < PSEN !!
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How To Solve?
Answer… Place an amplifier

But… ? What is the gain value?

And… Where is the location?

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First we calculate the amplifier’s gain..

Gain  PSEN - PRX


Gain  -28 – (-57.3)
Gain  29.3 dB
To make it easy, Gain  30 dB
Now…Where to put the
amplifier?

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Three choices available
for the location
Power Amplifier – At the transmitter

Preamplifier – At the receiver

In Line – Any point along fiber

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Let us check one by one…
Power Amplifier: PTX + Gain = POUT
0 + 30 = 30 dBm

But is there any power amplifier with 30 dBm POUT?


NO, THERE ISN’T

Hence …

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What about Preamplifier?
Remember…
POUT received = -57 dBm

Preamplifier with 30 dB available? Yes

But, can it take –57 dBm?


Typically, NO

Hence …

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Let us check In Line Amplifiers

30 dB gain amplifier available here…


But, What value can it take?

Typically –30 dBm

So…

Now, we can find the location…

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Where is the –30 dBm point?

PTX – Loss At That Point = 0 dBm – 30 dB

Loss At That Point = -30 dBm

Assume Other Loss = 0, Loss At That Point = Fiber Loss,


30 =  x Length of That Point
Remember  = 0.25,
Point Length = 30/0.25
= 120 km
But 120 km from Tx,
No. of splice = 120/4
= 30
Splice Loss = 0.1 dB x 30 = 3 dB
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Also remember connector loss at amplifier and Tx…

+ 1 connector at Tx

2 connectors
Connector Loss = 0.2 dB x 3 = 0.6 dB
Actually, at 120 km,
Total Losses = Fiber Loss + Splice Loss + Connector Loss
= 30 + 3 + 0.6 = 33.6 dB
33.6 dB > 30 dB!! NOT GOOD!
Now, We have excess of 3.6 dB…Find the distance,
Fiber Loss Length = 3.6/0.25 = 14.4 km
Good Location = 120 km – 14.4 km = 105.6 km
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Let us confirm the answer…
At 105.6 km from Tx,
Fiber Loss = 0.25 x 105.6 = 26.4 dB
No. of Splice at 105.6 km = 105.6/4 =26.4 = 27
Splice Loss = 0.1 x 27 = 2.7 dB
Total Losses = 26.4 + 2.7 = 29.1 dB
29.1 dB < 30 dB !!
CONFIRM…105.6 KM IS A GOOD LOCATION!!
185 km

Splice Connector
PTx = 0 dBm PSEN = -28 dBm
105.6 KM
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Example:
Power Budget Measurement for LAN
Server A Server B

500 m

Using 850nm
PTx = -15 dBm PSEN = -25 dBm
Attenuation Coefficient,  = 4.5 dB/km
IS THIS SYSTEM
Dispersion Coefficient, D = 18 ps/nm-km

GOOD?
Number of Splice = 0
Splice Loss = 0 dB
Connector Loss = 0.5 dB
PMargin = 2 dB
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BANDWIDTH
BUDGET

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System Rise Time
Calculate the total rise times
Tx, Fiber, Rx

Calculate Fiber rise time, TFiber


Tfiber = D x  x L
D = Dispersion Coefficient
 = Linewidth
L = Fiber Length

Tx Rise Time, TTX = normally given by manufacturer


Rx Rise Time, TRX = normally given by manufacturer

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Total Rise time, Tsys:
Tsys=1.1(TTX2+TRX2+Tfiber2)1/2

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Bandwidth Budget

T T’
OA OA RX
TX

Δτ = T’ - T

Medium and Devices

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What is a good Rise time?
For a good reception of signal
Tsys < 0.7 x Pulse Width (PW)

PW = 1/BitRate for NRZ


1/2BitRate for RZ

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Example:
Rise Time Budget Measurement for
Long Haul Application

Tx rise time, TTX = 0.1 ns


Rx rise time, TRX= 0.5 ns
Linewidth() = 0.15 nm

Dispersion Coefficient, D = 18 ps/nm-km


Fiber length = 150km
Bit Rate = 622Mbps
Format = RZ

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Simple Calculation….

Fiber rise time, TF =Length x D x Linewidth()


= 150 km x 18 x 0.15 nm
= 0.4 ns
Total Rise time, TSYS = 1.1 TLS2 + TPD2 + TF2
= 1.1 0.01 + 0.25 + 0.16

TSYS = 0.77 ns

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Let say,
Bit Rate = STM 4 = 622 Mbps
Format = RZ
Tsys < 0.7 x Pulse Width (PW)

Pulse Width (PW) = 1/(622x106)


= 1.6 ns
0.77 ns < 0.7 x 1.6 ns
0.77 ns < 1.1 ns !!
Good Rise Time Budget!!
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Let say,
Bit Rate = STM 16 = 2.5 Gbps
Format = RZ
Tsys < 0.7 x Pulse Width (PW)

Pulse Width (PW) = 1/(2.5x109)


= 0.4 ns
0.77 ns < 0.7 x 0.4 ns
0.77 ns ≥ 0.28 ns !!
Bad Rise Time Budget!!
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Budget Summary
Option Power Bandwidth Financial
Budget Budget
A Source (LED vs. LD)
850nm Mediocre Bad Cheap
Δλ
1310nm Good Good Less
expensive
1550nm Very good Very good Expensive

Modulation LED NA Bad Cheap


Bandwidth LD NA Good Expensive

LED Mediocre NA Cheap


Output Power
LD Good NA Expensive

LED (far- NA Bad Cheap


Radiation pattern
field pattern)
LD (Gaussian NA Good Expensive
beam)

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Budget Summary
B Fiber Option Power Bandwidth Financial
Budget
Budget
Attenuation MM Mediocre Mediocre Cheap

SM Good Good Expensive

Dispersion MM Mediocre Mediocre Cheap

SM Good Good Expensive

Numerical Aperture MM Mediocre Mediocre Cheap


(NA)
SM Good Good Expensive

Core Diameter MM Mediocre Mediocre Cheap

SM Good Good Expensive

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Budget Summary
Option Power Bandwidth Financial
C Receiver (PIN vs. Budget Budget
APD)
Rise time/ PIN Mediocre Mediocre Cheap
Bandwidth
APD Good Good Expensive

Response PIN Mediocre Mediocre Cheap


wavelength range
APD Good Good Expensive

Saturation Level PIN Mediocre Mediocre Cheap

APD Good Good Expensive

Minimum detection PIN Mediocre Mediocre Cheap


level
APD Good Good Expensive

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Sensitivity Analysis

Minimum optical power that must


be present at the receiver in order
to achieve the performance level
required for a given system.

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Factors will affect this analysis
1. Source Intensity Noise - Refers to noise generated by the
LED or Laser
Phase Noise - the difference in the phases of two optical
wavetrains separated by time, cut out of the optical
wave
Amplitude Noise - caused by the laser emission
process.
2. Fiber Noise
Relates to modal partition noise
3. Receiver Noise
Photodiode, conversion resistor

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4. Time Jitter and Intersymbol Interference
Time Jitter - short term variation or instability in the
duration of a specified interval
Intersymbol Interference
result of other bits interfering with the bit of interest
inversely proportional to the bandwidth
Eye diagrams - to see the effects of time jitter and
intersymbol interference

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5. Bit error rate - main quality criterion for a digital
transmission system

BER = Q [IMIN2/ (4 . N0 . B) ]

where :
N0 = Noise power spectral density (A2/Hz)
IMIN = Minimum effective signal amplitude (Amps)
B = Bandwidth
Q(x) = Cumulative distribution function (Gaussian distribution)

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Eye Diagrams

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Signal to Noise Ratio

SNR = S/N
S - represents the information to be transmitted
N - integration of all noise factors over the full system bandwidth

SNR (dB) = 10 log10 (S/N)

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Cost/Performance Considerations
Components considerations such as :
Light Emitter Type
Emitter Wavelength
Connector Type
Fiber Type
Detector Type

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Summary

The key factors that determine how far one can


transmit over fiber are transmitter optical output
power, operating wavelength, fiber attenuation,
fiber bandwidth and receiver optical sensitivity.
The decibel (dB) is a convenient means of
comparing two power levels.
The optical link loss budget analyzes a link to
ensure that sufficient power is available to meet
the demands of a given application.
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Summary
Rise and fall times determine the overall response
time and the resulting bandwidth.
A sensitivity analysis determines the amount of
optical power that must be received for a system
to perform properly.
Bit errors may be caused by source intensity noise,
fiber noise, receiver noise, time jitter and
intersymbol interference.
The five characteristics of a pulse are rise time,
period, fall time, width and amplitude.

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TUTORIAL

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Thank You

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