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# Design for Single Reactions

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Factors while Designing reactors:
• Rate of production
• Cost of Equipment & operation
• Safety
• Stability and flexibility
• Equipment life expectancy
Good design:
• No mathematical formula
• Experience
• Engineering judgment
• Knowledge of various reactor systems
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Practical reactor design should consider:

## • Use of multiple reactors

• Inter-stage feed injection
• Non-isothermal conditions
• Ratio of reactants
• Inlet feed conditions
• Recycle of the unconverted reactants

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What is a single reaction ?

## • Rate w.r.t. one species is enough to infer the

rates w.r.t all others

## • Can be described by one stoichiometric

equation and equilibrium expression
AR+S

## • For a single Chemical Reaction

• No product distribution

## • Designs are compared based on size only ??

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CSTR Vs. PFR ?
For a given duty the ratio of sizes of CSTR &
PFR will depend on:
• extent of reaction
• stoichiometry
• form of the rate equation
For nth order reaction & for identical CA0 & FA0

  1   x n 
 x A  A A
 
 M VM   1  x A   M
 
P VP xA  1   x n 
   A A
 dx A 
 0  1  x A   P
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Constant density and for identical CA0 & FA0

 x 
n

 A
 
 M VM  1  x A   M
 
P VP  (1  x A )1 n  1
  
 n 1 P

 xA 
1  x 
 M VM  A M
  for n 1
P VP  ln( 1  x A ) P

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• For all reactions of order > 0, the CSTR is
always larger than the PFR
• For Zero order the size is same
• The ratio of volumes increases with order
• At small conversions, the ratio of volumes
approach unity
• The ratio increases very rapidly at high
conversion
• Density variation also effects the ratio –
secondary influence
• Expansion / density decrease - increases
the volume ratio
• Contraction / density increase - decreases
the volume ratio
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Variation of reactant ratio:

## • Usually beneficial to use unequal molar

quantities of the reactants

## • Include the feed ratio as a variable in the

search for optimum

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Multiple reactors:
• The reactors may or may not be of the
same type
• They may be connected either in series or
parallel

Issues involved:
• How many reactors ??
• What type of reactors ??
• Series / parallel arrangement ??
• Sizes of each reactor ??
• In what order they must be connected ??
• Inter-stage feed injection ??
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Types of staged reactors

## Reactor battery Vertically staged Compartmented

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Multiple reactors in parallel:

PFRs in parallel

CSTRs in parallel 12
Multiple reactors in parallel:
• Fluid streams which meet must have
the same composition
• Space time () must be same for
each parallel line
• Any other way of feeding will be less
efficient ??

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PFRs in series:
C0, F0, v0 C1, F1 C2, F2 Cn, Fn

x1 x2 xn

## For any reactor i:

Vi Vi
xi
F0  FN
 i / C0     dx A /  rA xN 
v0C0 F0 xi1 F0
For all N reactors:  = 1 + 2 + . . . + N

V1  V2  ...  VN
x1 x2 xn
V dx A dx A dx A
    ...  
F0 xN F0 0
 rA x1  rA xn1
 rA
dx A

 rA
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0
Example:
50 lit 30 lit
F

40 lit

## What should be the flow in each parallel line for

optimum results.
2F/3
80 lit

40 lit
F/3 15
CSTRs in series - notation

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CSTRs in series

Vi Vi xi  xi 1
For any reactor i:  i / C0   
v0C0 F0  ri
Ci 1  Ci
At constant denisty: i 
 ri 17
CSTRs in series

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CSTRs in series

## Concentration profile for PFR, 1 , 2 CSTRs in series

What would happen if this number is increased
to a large value ?? 19
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CSTRs in series
The shaded area is the saving with
2 CTSRs when compared to 1 CSTR

1 /-rA

xA

## What would happen if this number is increased

to a large value ?? 21
The total residence time of the CSTR battery
approaches that of the PFR for large number of n.

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CSTRs in series

## The performance of the CSTR battery

approaches that of the PFR 23
CSTRs in series
Issues involved are:
1. Designing the CSTR battery
• How many reactors ??
• Sizes of each ??
• In what order to connect ??
• What is optimum ??

## 2. Rating the given CSTR battery

• Exit conversion ??
Algebraic method
Graphical method
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Rating Problem: (Algebraic method)
First Order Reaction at constant density
Ci 1  Ci Ci 1
i   1  k i 
kCi Ci
C0 C0 C1 C N 1
 ...  (1  k 1 )(1  k 2 )...(1  k N )
C N C1 C2 C N
C0
For equal sized reactors  (1  k i ) N

CN
N  C0  
1/ N

##  N Re actors   1   2  ... N  N i     1

k  CN  

N  C0  
1/ N
C
Lim  N Re actors     1  1 ln 0 PFR Eqn.
N  k  CN   k C
 
N 25
First Order Reaction at constant density

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Second Order Reaction at constant density

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Rating Problem: (Algebraic method)
Second Order Reaction at constant density
Ci 1  Ci
i  2
 k i Ci  Ci  Ci 1  0
2

kCi
C1  1  1  4k 1C0 / 2k1

## Given the kinetics (n & k) and the space times of all

reactors, the exit conversion can be calculated 28
Rating Problem: (Graphical method)
Jone – 1951 (Negligible density change)
Vi xi  xi 1 F0
 i / C A0    ri  ( xi  xi 1 )
F0  ri Vi

F0/ V1

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xA
Ci 1  Ci  Ci Ci 1
i   ri  
 ri i i

## Graphical method does not require explicit kinetics

but can use the rate vs. concentration/conversion
data 30
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Eldridge and Piret Method
Graphical method to find the number of tanks required to
obtain a given conversion
F0 Vi
 ri  ( xi  xi 1 ) xi 1  xi  (ri )
Vi F0
For a second order reaction: -ri = k C02(1-xi)2
xi 1  xi  kC0 i (1  xi ) 2
Given the kinetics (order and k) and i values, the
number of tanks required can be calculated.

## Plot a graph taking xi-1 as abcissa and xi as

coordinate based on the above equation

Xi-1

X5
Xi

## 5 stage equal CSTR battery is required to obtain a

conversion of x5

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CSTRs in series (Design Problem)
The shaded area is the saving with 2 CTSRs when
compared to 1 CSTR

## The conversion from the exit of the first reactor

influences the amount of saving.
What is the optimum saving and what is the corresponding
conversion
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CSTRs in series (Design Problem)
The shaded area has to be maximized for optimum design

## dA = ydx + xdy = 0  -dy/dx = y/x

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The shaded area is maximized when the slopes of the two
lines are equal

## Choose x1 such that the slopes are equal

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Reactors of different types in series

## CSTR - PFR PFR - CSTR

Concentration
Profiles
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What arrangement is better ??
What is the criteria that need to be adopted ??

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What is the criteria that need to be adopted ??
•For reactions of orders > 0, they should be
ordered so as to keep the concentration as high
as possible.
•For reactions of orders < 0, they should be
ordered so as to keep the concentration as low
as possible.
•If the rate vs. concentration curve passes
through a maxima or minima, the arrangement
would depend on the actual shape, concentration
level desired. No generalized rule can be
suggested.
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For + ve order reactions:

## One small CSTR and a large CSTR: - in Which

order they should be connected ??

## One CSTR and one PFR: in which order they

should be connected ??

## One small PFR and a large PFR: - in Which order

they should be connected ??

## One small CSTR, one large CSTR and one PFR: in

which order they should be connected ??

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ANY CLARIFICATIONS ?

Cornforth, JohnW.
Scientists do not believe; they check.

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