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LTE1170: RL50/RL35TD/RL50FZ

Network Engineering Information

John Torregoza
MBB CS NE LTE Radio & Performance
Wroclaw, April 2013
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LTE1170 – Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing Main Menu

Table of Contents

Introduction Performance Aspects


1 Motivation and Feature Overview 7 Counters and KPIs, Feature Impact Analysis and
Verification

Technical Details
2 Functionality and Implementation, Message Flows

Interdependencies
3 Interdependencies with Other Features and Functions

Configuration Management
4 Parameters and parameterisation scenarios

Deployment Aspects
5 Feature Activation and Configuration Examples

Benefits and Gains


6 Simulation, Lab and Field Findings

For internal use NEI Contact: John Torregoza


4 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2013
LTE1170 – Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing Main Menu

Table of Contents

Introduction Performance Aspects


1 Motivation and Feature Overview 7 Counters and KPIs, Feature Impact Analysis and
Verification

Technical Details
2 Functionality and Implementation, Message Flows

Interdependencies
3 Interdependencies with Other Features and Functions

Configuration Management
4 Parameters and parameterisation scenarios

Deployment Aspects
5 Feature Activation and Configuration Examples

Benefits and Gains


6 Simulation, Lab and Field Findings

For internal use NEI Contact: John Torregoza


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Introduction Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 LTE1170 extends RL40 functionality in providing means to move incoming load


from a high-loaded cell to low-loaded cells which use different frequency than
the high-loaded serving cell
• UEs entering Connected state can be offloaded if target cell is measured to be at good radio
condition
• Offloading of UEs can be done towards intra-eNB or inter-eNB neighbor cells
• Target cell for offloading must have available capacity to serve offloaded UEs
• Load information is exchanged only between cells of the same eNB
• Load information from cells belonging to other eNBs are implicitly determined from HO
preparation decision in Load blind HO
• The feature balances load only between inter-frequency cells
• DL GBR, DL non-GBR and PDCCH load are evaluated to trigger offloading of UEs
 LTE55 Inter-frequency handover must be activated in order for LTE1170 to
work

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Introduction Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 LTE1170 is aimed to improve the utilization of resources between inter-frequency cells


• Does not aim to equally distribute between cells but to have cell load below a configurable threshold

100 100
Freq1
Freq1 90
90
Freq2 Freq2
80 80
High Load
70 70 Thresh

Cell Load (%)


Cell Load (%)

60 60
50 With 50 Target Load
LTE1170 Thresh
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 0
t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 t12 t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 t12
Time Time

Imbalanced utilization of resources


in an eNB resulting in some UEs Resources are better utilized,
not scheduled in Freq1 resulting in more scheduled UEs

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Introduction Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 LTE1170 extends the RL40 feature LTE1387 (Intra-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing)
with the following functionalities:
LTE1387 (RL40) LTE1170 (RL50)
Intra-eNB/Inter-eNB Intra-eNB Intra-eNB, Inter-eNB

Load Measurement, GBR, non-GBR load (exchange only GBR, non-GBR, PDCCH load (exchange only between
Evaluation and Exchange between same eNB cells) same eNB cells)

Similar sorting mechanism to LTE1387 for cells of the


same eNB is supported.
Suitable candidate cells are sorted Load-blind HO for cells with unknown load is supported.
Target Cell Selection according to load information exchanged Target cells of rejected iFLB-based HO are temporarily
between cells of same eNB blacklisted.
Cells with unknown load information are added at the
bottom of the sorted list.
RAC forwards load measurements from scheduler to
higher layers.
Radio Admission Control RAC forwards load measurements from
(RAC) scheduler to higher layers In case of iFLB-based HO, RAC in target cell checks
for target cell’s available capacity and rejects the LB-
based HO if the target cell has no available resource.

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Introduction Table of Contents Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 Dependency table:
FD-LTE RL release eNB NetAct

Release/version RL50 LBTS5.0 OSS5.5

TD-LTE TD LTE release eNB (TD LTE) NetAct (TD LTE)

Release/version RL35TD TD-LBTS3.0 OSS5.5

Flexi Zone Micro FZM release eNB (FZM) NetAct (FZM)

Release/version RL50FZ LNFZ5.0 OSS5.5

HW & IOT HW requirements MME SAE GW UE

FSMr2 (Flexi FDD)


Release/version FSMr3 (Flexi 1Flexi10
No dependency No dependency 3GPP R8 UEs
TD-LTE0 FDD,)
FlexiZone
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LTE1170 – Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing Main Menu

Table of Contents

Introduction Performance Aspects


1 Motivation and Feature Overview 7 Counters and KPIs, Feature Impact Analysis and
Verification

Technical Details
2 Functionality and Implementation, Message Flows

Interdependencies
3 Interdependencies with Other Features and Functions

Configuration Management
4 Parameters and parameterisation scenarios

Deployment Aspects
5 Feature Activation and Configuration Examples

Benefits and Gains


6 Simulation, Lab and Field Findings

For internal use NEI Contact: John Torregoza


10 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2013
Technical Details Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

Feature Overview Continuous load


 LTE1170 can be split into the four building blocks as follows: Measurement and
Exchange
 Load Supervision and Exchange
• Each cell measures DL GBR, DL non-GBR and PDCCH load periodically and Load Supervision and
exchanges load information between cells of the same eNB
Exchange
• eNB decides whether the cell enters or exits active inter-frequency load balancing (iF-
LB) state
 Candidate UE Selection for measurement solicitation
• UEs entering Connected state are considered candidates for measurement solicitation Candidate UE Selection for
hence avoiding further increase in existing cell load Measurement Solicitation
• Already connected UEs are NOT offloaded to neighbor cells via load-based HOs
• UEs with QCI1 bearers established may be excluded from offloaded UEs depending on
parameterization
 Measurement Solicitation Measurement Solicitation
• A4 measurements is activated if candidate UE’s serving cell is in active iF-LB state
 iF-LB Execution
• Target cell list (TCL) is created based on received RSRP, RSRQ and load
measurements
• TCL is then sorted and highest ranked neighbor cell is chosen as target cell for iF-LB Execution
offloading
• Load-blind HO is supported if load information is not available (ex. Inter-eNB target
cells)
For internal use
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Technical Details Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Cell Load Measurement(1/8)
 When LTE1170 is activated, eNB periodically (every 500ms) calculates DL GBR, DL non-GBR and PDCCH load for
each of its own cells
 Relevant information as highlighted below are provided to L3 from L2 in order to calculate DL GBR, DL non-GBR and
PDCCH load

DL GBR Load • DL GBR load (%) is defined as the ratio of the average DL GBR PRB utilization to the average
Measurements available PRBs for dynamic scheduling

PDCCH Load • PDCCH load (%) is defined as the averaged ratio of utilized CCEs to total number of available CCEs
• Total number of available CCEs is calculated based on configurable maximum number of PDCCH
Measurements symbols(maxNrSymPdcch), independent of number of currently used PDCCH symbols (when
LTE616/LTE939 Usage-based PDCCH Adaptation is activated)

• DL non-GBR load (%) is defined as the ratio of the estimated resource utilization for non-GBR bearers
DL non-GBR to the average available PRBs for non-GBR dynamic scheduling
Load • Average available PRBs for non-GBR dynamic scheduling is the average available PRBs for dynamic
Measurements scheduling without the PRBs allocated to GBR bearers
• Estimated resource utilization for non-GBR bearers is related to the average sum of scheduling weights
for established non-GBR bearers

For internal use


12 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2013 Detailed Information
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Technical Details Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation

Cell Load Measurement (2/8)


 DL non-GBR load is estimated based on the average sum of scheduling weights for non-GBR bearers
with data available for initial transmission
• A single non-GBR UE in an empty cell can occupy most of the available bandwidth, limited only by bandwidth-
limiting features (ex. LTE13 - Rate Capping)
Configurable parameter that
DL non-GBR Average sum of defines the estimated number
scheduling weights
Load for non-GBR iFLBNomNumPrb of PRBs allocated to a non-
Measurements bearers GBR bearer with scheduling
weight equal to 1

Average available This product defines the estimated


Scheduling weight pertains to the PRBs for non-GBR resource utilization for non-GBR bearers
non-GBR QCI-specific configurable bearers for a given average sum of weights for
weight parameter, schedulWeight non-GBR bearers

• It can be easily seen that parameterization of iFLBNomNumPrb defines how high/low non-GBR load is
interpreted

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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

Cell Load Measurement (3/8)


 iFLBNomNumPrb Behavior
Input parameters Value
Average available PRBs for dynamic scheduling 50 PRBs
Average GBR allocation 20 PRBs
100
iFLBNomNumPrb
90 Values
0.001
80 In high values of iFLBNomNumPrb, 0.002
non-GBR changes significantly with 0.005
70
Non-GBR Load (%)

slight changes in average sum of 0.01


60 non-GBR weights 0.02
 A higher hysteresis between target If iFLBNomNumPrb=0.5 with 0.05
50 and high load thresholds is needed given input parameters, non- 0.1
40 or change iFLBNomNumPrb to a GBR load is 100% if there 0.2
lower value are >60 UEs with scheduling 0.5
30 weight =1. 1
20 2
5
10 10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150
Average nonGBR Sum of Weights
For internal use
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Cell Load Measurement (4/8)
 The load measurements are subjected to a filter with coefficient α= 0.5
DL GBR
DL GBR Load
Filtered Load
Measurements
Measurements

Sliding Window PDCCH


PDCCH Load
Filter Filtered Load
Measurements
Measurements
α = 0.5
DL non-GBR DL non-GBR
Load Filtered Load
Measurements Measurements

Filter Coefficient α = 0.5 means that the resulting filtered load measurement
value consists of past filtered load measurement (50%) and current load
measurement (50%)

 Filtering prevents the algorithm from being overly sensitive to load measurement variations

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Technical Details Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Cell Load Measurement (5/8)

DL GBR Filtered DL non-GBR PDCCH Filtered  Filtered load measurements as calculated


Load Filtered Load Load from load information received from L2
Measurements Measurements Measurements

 Relative load (Rel.Load) for each load type


DL GBR DL non-GBR PDCCH
(DL GBR/DL non-GBR/PDCCH) is the
Relative Load Relative Load Relative Load actual load (DL GBR/non-GBR/PDCCH)
compared to the corresponding target load
thresholds

 Available capacity (AC) for each load type


(DL GBR/DL non-GBR/PDCCH) defines the
DL GBR DL non-GBR PDCCH
Available Capacity Available Capacity Available Capacity available resource of the cell relative to
corresponding target load thresholds

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Detailed Information
Technical Details Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Cell Load Measurement (6/8)
Cell LoadX(t)
DL GBR Filtered DL non-GBR PDCCH Filtered
Load Filtered Load Load 100%
Available capacity in
Measurements Measurements Measurements relation to configured
target load threshold Rel.
Target
load for X LoadX(t)
@ 60% 100%
ACX(t)
DL GBR DL non-GBR PDCCHSuppose that actual 50%
80%
Relative Load Relative Load Relative Loadcell load for load
type X (DL GBR/DL
60%
non-GBR/PDCCH)
is as shown LoadX(t) Rel.
LoadX(t) 40%
30%
50%
20%

DL GBR DL non-GBR PDCCH


Available Capacity Available Capacity Available Capacity
50% of the cell’s configured target
load threshold for load type X(DL
GBR/DL non-GBR/PDCCH) is
For internal use already being utilized in the cell
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Cell Load Measurement(7/8)
Cell LoadX(t)
DL GBR Filtered DL non-GBR PDCCH Filtered
Load Filtered Load Load 100%
Measurements Measurements Measurements Available capacity=0%,
no UEs are offloaded to
Target this cell Rel.
load X LoadX(t)
@ 60% 100%

Actual cell load for


DL GBR DL non-GBR PDCCH load type X (DL 80%
Relative Load Relative Load Relative Load
GBR/DL non-GBR
/PDCCH) exceeds LoadX(t) 60%
corresponding Rel.
target load 70% LoadX(t)
threshold 100% 40%

20%

DL GBR DL non-GBR PDCCH


Available Capacity Available Capacity Available Capacity
100% of target load threshold for
load type X ((DL GBR/DL non-
GBR/PDCCH) is utilized
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Cell Load Measurement (8/8)

DL GBR Filtered DL non-GBR PDCCH Filtered  These load measurements are


Load Filtered Load Load evaluated to trigger and to stop inter-
Measurements Measurements Measurements
frequency load balancing

 Available capacities are exchanged between


cells of the same eNB periodically every 1
second
DL GBR DL non-GBR PDCCH
Relative Load Relative Load Relative Load  Load information is exchanged independent of
load balancing status, i.e. ACs are exchanged
whether LB was triggered or not as long as
feature is enabled

 Available capacity is used to quantify


DL GBR DL non-GBR PDCCH the load between different cells
Available Capacity Available Capacity Available Capacity  This information is exchanged between
cells of the SAME eNB
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Cell Load Evaluation (1/1)

Filtered load DL GBR


measurements are Filtered Load
Receive and process Measurements
evaluated periodically Load Measurements DL non-GBR
each time Filtered Load
measurements arrive PDCCH Measurements
from L2 (period= Filtered Load
500ms) Measurements
N Cell in Y
Active iF-
LB state
Enter Active iF-LB N
State ANY Cell Load ALL Cell Load Y
GBR OR nGBR > < Leave Active iF-LB State
load OR PDCCH Y N
TargetLoadxxx
HighLoadxxx
load exceed the
related high-load iFLBHighLoadGBRDL/ iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL/
thresholds iFLBHighLoadNonGBRDL/ iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL/
Y
Leave Active iF-LB iFLBHighLoadPDCCH N
iFLBTargetLoadPDCCH
State
GBR AND nGBR Enter Active iF-LB State
load AND PDCCH Difference between target load and
load are below UE Selection for high load thresholds defines the
related the target Measurement level of hysteresis to prevent ping-
load thresholds Solicitation pong between iF-LB states
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Candidate UE selection for Measurement Solicitation(1/3)
 Check UE selection
 For each UE that enter Connected state, UEs in Idle conditions
iFLBBearCheckTimer is started. State  If conditions are met,
activate A4 and start
 When iFLBBearCheckTimer expires, eNB checks if the timer reportTimerIFLBA4
following UE selection conditions are met: iFLBBearCheckTimer
… t
1. Serving cell is in Active iF-LB state.
2. UE has no QCI1 bearer*  If conditions are
eNB sends Initial not met, UE is not
3. Frequencies configured in LNHOIF are supported by the Context Setup candidate for LB
UE Response for UE offloading
entering Connected  UE stays in cell
4. A4 measurements and reporting supported by UE state
5. No ongoing inter-frequency or inter-RAT measurements for
the UE Parameters Description
6. If carrier aggregation is supported, UE has no SCC
configured (FDD RL50 only as CA not supported in
MeasParameters  Defines list of frequencies supported by UE
RL35TD) > bandListEUTRA  For each of the defined frequencies, the list
*Note: depending on settings for iFLBBearCheckTimer, >> interfreqBandlist of other frequencies it can measure and
condition 2 is not checked >> interfreqNeedGaps necessity of setting gaps.

 If all conditions are met, A4 configuration is activated Feature Group Indicator  Defines which features are supported by
(Measurement Solicitation) UE.
 BIT13 Inter-frequency Handover
• Otherwise, UE under consideration is removed from possible
 BIT14 A4 and A5 measurements/reporting
candidates for offloading (UE stays in cell)  BIT25 interfrequency measurement and
For internal use
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Candidate UE selection for Measurement Solicitation(2/3)
 Exemplary scenarios for iFLBBearCheckTimer
Suppose iFLBBearCheckTimer=30s, Suppose iFLBBearCheckTimer=30s,
 Check UE selection
conditions
UEs in Idle
• UE did not establish UEs in Idle UE establishes
State State
QCI1 QCI1 bearer
• Other conditions
 If conditions are met,
activate A4 and start
timer reportTimerIFLBA4 … 30s

… 30s

•Since QCI1
eNB sends Initial
bearer was
eNB sends Initial Context Context Setup
established,
Setup Response for UE Response for UE
UE stays in
going from Idle to going from Idle to
the cell
Connected Connected

UE can be offloaded if it UE is not a candidate for


measures a suitable cell and offloading, UE stays in the
satisfies other conditions highly-loaded cell

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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Candidate UE selection for Measurement Solicitation(3/3)
 Exemplary scenarios for iFLBBearCheckTimer
,Suppose iFLBBearCheckTimer=30s, Suppose iFLBBearCheckTimer=31s(special value),
 Check UE selection conditions  Check UE selection
• UE did not establish QCI1 conditions
• Other conditions UEs in Idle UE establishes • QCI1 Bearer condition
 If conditions are met, activate State QCI1 bearer not checked
UEs in Idle A4 and start timer • Other conditions
State reportTimerIFLBA4  If conditions are met,
activate A4 and start
… 1s timer reportTimerIFLBA4
… 30s

eNB sends Initial Context


UE established Setup Response for UE
eNB sends Initial Context going from Idle to
Setup Response for UE QCI1 bearer 40s
after switching to Connected
going from Idle to
connected state
Connected

UE can be offloaded if it UE can be offloaded if it


measures a suitable cell and measures a suitable cell and
satisfies other conditions satisfies other conditions

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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Measurement Solicitation (1/ 2)
 ReportConfigEUTRA RSRP

Parameter Name Set values RSRP


Lowest possible A4 Neighbor
> Trigger Type event RSRP threshold A4 Report
allows measurement Sent
>> eventId eventA4
of most neighbor cells
>>> a4-Threshold
>>>> threshold-RSRP 0 (-140dBm)
time
>> hysteresis 0 A4-threshold
= -140dBm
>> Time To Trigger 40ms
> Trigger Quantity RSRP TTT=40ms

> Report Quantity Both(RSRP & RSRQ)


> MaxReportCells 8 A4 Configuration hard-coded and NOT
> Report Interval 60min
configurable!
 Reported cells are post-processed to remove cells
> Report Amount 1 with insufficient RSRP and/or RSRQ.

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
Measurement Solicitation (2 / 2)
A4 event activation A4 event deactivation
 If all conditions for Candidate UE selection for  Set s-measure in measConfig  Set s-measure in measConfig to
Measurement Solicitations are met, to 0 threshold1
reportTimerIFLBA4 timer is started and A4 is activated  Add measIDs in MeasConfig  Remove measIDs in MeasConfig
 Measurement gap handling  Measurement gap handling
 If IF/IRAT mobility HO event is reported or no A4  Send RRC Connection  Send RRC Connection
reports arrive before reportTimerIFLBA4=3000ms Reconfiguration Reconfiguration
expires, A4 is deactivated and UE stays in cell
• UE with IF/IRAT event is excluded from UE candidates for  If A4 report from
offloading as they may handover via normal means UE arrives
 Check UE selection  If reportTimerIFLBA4
before timer
 Some UEs are removed from UE Candidate for conditions
expires, Target
expires without any
 If conditions are met, reports coming, UE not
offloading (green boxes) Cell List (TCL) considered for LB
activate A4 and start from A4 reports
UE in Idle Mode timer offloading
are post-
reportTimerIFLBA4 processed for iF-  Deactivate A4
LB execution  UE stays in the the cell
… iFLBBearCheckTimer reportTimerIFLBA4=3000ms
t
 If conditions  If iF/interRAT event is
eNB sends Initial are not met, reported before
Context Setup UE is not reportTimerIFLBA4
Response for UE
going from Idle to candidate for expires, stop timer and
Connected LB offloading deactivate A4.
 UE stays in  UE stays in the cell but
For internal use the cell possibly HO via normal
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
iF-LB Execution (1/8)
 Elimination of Unsuitable LTE Handover Target Cells due to LB-HO conditions
 Upon receiving A4 reports, the target
• Target cells with insufficient signal level or quality based on measurement reported.
cell list (TCL) is post-processed to
choose the best target cell for offloading  Measured RSRP/RSRQ below thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter/thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter, respectively
• Target cells whose load is too high (load above target, CAC= min(AC_GBR, AC_nGBR, AC_PDCCH) =0)
 Target cells whose AC are unknown would not be removed from TCL
Elimination of Unsuitable Cells
• Target cells which are temporarily blacklisted due to highload conditions
• Target cells are from another RAT
• If target cell is considered as HeNB (HeNB mobility is done via redirection)
Reordering of Target Cell List  Elimination of Unsuitable LTE Handover Target Cells due to Handover Restrictions
 Elimination of Unsuitable LTE Handover Target Cells due to Handover Restrictions for VoIP Emergency calls

Choosing the target cell for HO

Handover preparation

Handover Execution and Completion


UE entering
Connected
For internal use State
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Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
iF-LB Execution (2/8)
 Upon receiving A4 reports, the target  eNB sorts cells in Target Cell List according to descending Composite Available
cell list (TCL) is post-processed to Capacity (CAC) = min (AC_GBR, AC_nGBR, AC_PDCCH)
choose the best target cell for offloading  For cells with unknown CAC, eNodeB places them after cells with CAC>0

Elimination of Unsuitable Cells


TCL
Cell 1
Reordering of Target Cell List CAC=X
Cell 2
CAC=Y
Ordered according to

Increasing Priority
Cell 3 descending CAC
Choosing the target cell for HO
CAC=Z

….
Handover preparation Cell a
CAC=?
Cell b Same order as
CAC=?
Handover Execution and Completion measurement report
Cell c
CAC=?

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Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
iF-LB Execution (3/8)
 Upon receiving A4 reports, the target  Topmost cell of sorted TCL is chosen as the target cell for handover
cell list (TCL) is post-processed to • If no other cells exists in TCL, UE stays in cell
choose the best target cell for offloading

Elimination of Unsuitable Cells


TCL Target Cell
for offloading
Cell 1
Reordering of Target Cell List CAC=X
Cell 2
CAC=Y
Ordered according to

Increasing Priority
Cell 3 descending CAC
Choosing the target cell for HO
CAC=Z

….
Handover preparation Cell a
CAC=?
Cell b Same order as
CAC=?
Handover Execution and Completion measurement report
Cell c
CAC=?

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
iF-LB Execution (4/8)
 Upon receiving A4 reports, the target
cell list (TCL) is post-processed to
choose the best target cell for offloading

Elimination of Unsuitable Cells  If the highest ranked cell is “unknown”


TCL (no existing LNREL)
• Highest ranked cell is not
Cell a considered as target cell for
Reordering of Target Cell List CAC=? offloading
(unknown cell)
• The next highest ranked cell is
check if known

Increasing Priority
Cell b
Choosing the target cell for HO CAC=?
(unknown cell)

Cell c Target Cell


Handover preparation CAC=? for offloading
(known cell)

Handover Execution and Completion

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
iF-LB Execution (4/8)
 Upon receiving A4 reports, the target  eNB shall create a RNL-available NR if a neighbour cell is selected
cell list (TCL) is post-processed to as target for handover preparation (if the RNL-available NR is not yet
choose the best target cell for offloading existing)

Elimination of Unsuitable Cells


TCL RNL- available NR is created
if not yet existing
Cell a
Reordering of Target Cell List CAC=?
(unknown cell)
• If a neighbour cell is selected as target
Cell b for handover preparation after an A4

Increasing Priority
CAC=? event, then the eNB shall create the
Choosing the target cell for HO
(unknown cell)
related RNL-available NR (if it does not
Cell c exist yet)
CAC=?
Handover preparation (unknown cell)

Handover Execution and Completion

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
iF-LB Execution (5/8)
 Intra-eNB, X2 or S1-based handover is prepared towards the
 Upon receiving A4 reports, the target chosen target cell with Handover Cause =“Reduce load in
cell list (TCL) is post-processed to serving cell
choose the best target cell for offloading

Elimination of Unsuitable Cells  Radio Admission Control works in


the same way as described for
Source Cell Target Cell “HO due to radio reasons” in
RRM_SFS.5090
Reordering of Target Cell List Handover Request  In addition, radio admission
Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell control in target cell checks its
CAC and decides whether to
admit/reject the load based HO
Choosing the target cell for HO Admission  If target cell’s load (any of the load
Control
type) is above corresponding
HO Preparation Failure target (i.e. CAC=0), target cell
Cause: No Radio Resources rejects HO with failure cause “No
Handover preparation Available in Target Cell Radio Resources Available in
Target Cell”
 Radio admission control condition
applies for Intra-eNB, X2 or S1
Handover Execution and Completion LB-based HO

For internal use


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Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
iF-LB Execution (6/8)  If source cell receives a X2AP/S1AP: HANDOVER PREPARATION FAILURE or HO
 Upon receiving A4 reports, the target was internally aborted (for Intra-eNB HOs) with cause "Radio Network Layer Cause
cell list (TCL) is post-processed to (No Radio Resources Available in Target Cell)" or "Transport Layer Cause(Transport
choose the best target cell for offloading Resource Unavailable)", source eNB assumes that the target cell has no available
capacity
Elimination of Unsuitable Cells
 Source eNB starts timer with
Source Cell Target Cell configurable duration
“prohibitLBHOTimer”
Reordering of Target Cell List Handover Request  While the timer is running, the target
Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell cell where HO was rejected will be
temporarily blacklisted for all LB-based
HO requests from the source cell
Admission
Choosing the target cell for HO Control  Blacklist evaluation only for LB-based
handovers
HO Preparation Failure
prohibitLBHOTimer Cause: No Radio Resources
Target Cell X
Available in Target Cell
Handover preparation Transport Resource
Unavailable Handover Request
Handover Request Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell
Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell
Handover Execution and Completion
Handover Request
Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell
For internal use
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
iF-LB Execution (7/8)
 Upon receiving A4 reports, the target  If the Target cell sends accepts HO request with partial admission of bearers
cell list (TCL) is post-processed to due to load reasons, the source eNB applies temporary blacklisting towards
choose the best target cell for offloading the Target cell
 The source eNB starts HO CANCEL procedure with cause “Partial Handover”
Elimination of Unsuitable Cells
Source Cell Target Cell IE/Group Name
ERAB Not Admitted List
Reordering of Target Cell List Handover Request
Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell > ERAB List Items
>>ERAB Id
Admission
Control >> Cause
Choosing the target cell for HO
X2AP: HO Request Acknowledge/
S1AP: HO COMMAND Different

prohibitLBHOTimer
ERAB Not Admitted List Target Cell
Handover preparation Handover Cancel
Cause: Partial Handover
Handover Request
Handover Request Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell
Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell
Handover Execution and Completion
Handover Request
Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell
For internal use
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for Measurement
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Solicitation
iF-LB Execution (8/8)
 Upon receiving A4 reports, the target
cell list (TCL) is post-processed to
choose the best target cell for offloading

Elimination of Unsuitable Cells


Source Cell Target Cell

 UE follows normal HO
Reordering of Target Cell List Handover Request execution and completion
Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell
procedures for Intra-eNB,
X2 or S1-based HO.
Admission
Control
Choosing the target cell for HO
Intra-eNB/X2AP: HO Request
Acknowledge/ S1AP: HO COMMAND/

Handover preparation
Continue Continue
Normal HO Normal HO
Procedures Procedures

Handover Execution and Completion

For internal use


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Technical Details Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 Feature activation
• Feature activated via parameter actInterFreqLB
 Activation flag is common between RL40 LTE1387 and RL50 LTE1170
 Upgrade from RL40 to RL50 means that PDCCH load and load-blind HO is considered with regards to impact
on perfomance
• When activated, load measurements are taken and exchange between cells of same eNB.
• In addition, iFLBBearCheckTimer is started for each UE that transitions from idle to connected.
 Feature deactivation
• Load measurements are not taken nor exchanged. iFLBBearCheckTimer is not started
• If, iF-LB triggered actions are ongoing, continue actions but do not trigger new actions
 Running timers are not stopped but no new actions triggered when timers expire
 Incoming A4 reports are ignored
 Ongoing iF-LB handovers are completed

For internal use


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Table of Contents

Introduction Performance Aspects


1 Motivation and Feature Overview 7 Counters and KPIs, Feature Impact Analysis and
Verification

Technical Details
2 Functionality and Implementation, Message Flows

Interdependencies
3 Interdependencies with Other Features and Functions

Configuration Management
4 Parameters and parameterisation scenarios

Deployment Aspects
5 Feature Activation and Configuration Examples

Benefits and Gains


6 Simulation, Lab and Field Findings

For internal use NEI Contact: John Torregoza


36 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2013
Interdependencies Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 LTE1170 Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing- Mandatory feature


 LTE55 – Inter-frequency Handover (RL20/RL05TD)
• The feature provides means for a UE to be handed over to neighbor cells of different frequency
• In order to offload UEs to neighbor cells using different frequency carrier, LTE55 must be activated
• LTE1170 will not work if LTE55 is not activated

LTE55
Inter-frequency
Handover

LTE1170
Inter-eNB Inter-
frequency Load
Balancing

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 LTE1170 Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing- Affected/Affecting Features


 LTE1089 Downlink Carrier Aggregation – 20Mhz (RL50)
• UEs with Secondary Component Carrier(SCC) configured will not be considered as candidates for offloading to another layer
• If a large percentage of UEs have SCC configured for carrier aggregation, gain from load balancing is limited
 LTE1442 Open Access Home eNodeB Mobility (RL50)
• Home eNodeBs are not considered as target for LB-based HOs
• If actHeNBMobility = TRUE and if the PCI is within the PCI range (defined by pciFirst and pciLast) for the HeNB for the
EARFCN ( freqEutra), the cell is removed from the target cell list
• Mobility towards HenB is only via redirect

LTE1089 LTE1442
Downlink Carrier Open Access Home
Aggregation-20Mhz eNodeB Mobility

LTE1170
Inter-eNB Inter-
frequency Load
Balancing

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 LTE1170 Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing- Affected/Affecting features


 LTE497 Smart Admission Control (RL40/RL35TD)
• LTE497 introduced a threshold maxGbrTrafficLimit to determine whether to initiate congestion control or preemption of GBR bearers
• No cross-check between the maxGbrTrafficLimit and the LTE1170 GBR high load thresholds iFLBHighLoadGBRDL
• Relationship between maxGbrTrafficLimit and iFLBHighLoadGBRDL determines whether congestion control or load balancing is the
first mechanism to take effect
 LTE533+CRL0923 MRO (RL30/RL35TD)
• CRL0923 allows MRO algorithms to be applied as well to inter-frequency neighbor relations
• Cell individual offsets adjusted by LTE533 would take into account HO events from LB-based HOs
 LTE490 Subscriber profile based mobility (RL30/RL35TD)
• Subscriber profiles are applied on the load balancing target frequency carriers as already supported for the normal Inter-Frequency HO
targets
• When LTE490 is activated, the SPID assigned to the UE is evaluated and the LB HO target for offloading is selected according to the
mobility profile defined by SPID (MODPR and MOPR MOCs)

LTE490
Subscriber Profile
based Mobility

LTE1170 LTE533
LTE497
Inter-eNB Inter- Mobility
Smart Admission
frequency Load Robustness
Control
Balancing Optimization
For internal use
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 LTE1170 Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing- Supporting features


 LTE1383-A Cell Specific neighbor relation / PCI handling (RL50/RL35TD)
• LNREL object, is created by eNB for a neighbor cell selected as target cell for handover preparation, assuming LNREL object
for this neighbor cell does not exist and no other cells in the TCL are known

LTE1383
Cell Specific Neighbor
Relation/PCI Handling

LTE1170
Inter-eNB Inter-
frequency Load
Balancing

For internal use


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LTE1170 – Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing Main Menu

Table of Contents

Introduction Performance Aspects


1 Motivation and Feature Overview 7 Counters and KPIs, Feature Impact Analysis and
Verification

Technical Details
2 Functionality and Implementation, Message Flows

Interdependencies
3 Interdependencies with Other Features and Functions

Configuration Management
4 Parameters and parameterisation scenarios

Deployment Aspects
5 Feature Activation and Configuration Examples

Benefits and Gains


6 Simulation, Lab and Field Findings

For internal use NEI Contact: John Torregoza


42 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2013
Configuration Management Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

• Definition of terms and rules for parameter classification:


- The ‘Basic Parameters’ category contains primary parameters which should be considered during cell deployment and must be
adjusted to a particular scenario. These are:
- Network Element (NE) identifiers
- Planning parameters, e.g. neighbour definitions, frequency, scrambling codes, PCI, RA preambles
- Parameters that are the outcome from dimensioning, i.e. basic parameters defining amount of resources
- Basic parameters activating basic functionalities, e.g. power control, admission control, handovers
- Parameters defining operators’ strategy, e.g. traffic steering, thresholds for power control, handovers, cell reselections, basic parameters defining
feature behaviour

- The ‘Advanced Parameters’ category contains the parameters for network optimisation and fine tuning:
- Decent network performance should be achieved without tuning these parameters
- Universal defaults ensuring decent network performance need to be defined for all parameters of this category. If this is not possible for a given
parameter it must be put to the ‘Basic Parameters’ category
- Parameters requiring detailed system knowledge and broad experience unless rules for the ‘Basic Parameters’ category are violated
- All parameters (even without defaults) related to advanced and very complex features
Purpose:
 Categories of parameters have been defined to simplify network parameterization. Parameterization effort shall be focused mainly on
parameters included in basic category.
 Categorization will be reflected in a ‘view’ definition in NetAct CM Editor (planned in RL60) i.e. parameters will be displayed according to
the category: either in the ‘Basic parameters’ view or the ‘Advanced parameters’ view.

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

actInterFreqLB Activation of inter frequency load balancing (iFLB)


Object: LNBTS Parameter Behavior:
Range: 0 (false), 1  Feature is activated on eNB level.
(true) • All cells in eNB are considered in LB procedures
Default: 0 (false) • However, cell-level exclusion from LB procedures can be done via specific configuration
of load thresholds
Multiplicity: 1  When actInterFreqLB =“TRUE”, load measurements are taken and exchange between cells of
Modification: Online same eNB. In addition, iFLBBearCheckTimer is started for each UE that transitions from idle to
Modifiable connected.
Category: Basic  The parameter serves as a common activation switch for LTE1387 (Intra-eNB Inter-frequency
Link to PKDB LB) and LTE1170 (Inter-frequency LB)
Parameterization Rules:
1. actifHO must be enabled to activate actInterFreqLB
• Offloading to other frequencies is not possible without activating inter-frequency
handovers
2. The object “Inter freq load bal load thresholds” must be created per cell belonging to an eNB
for which actInterFreqLB is set to “TRUE”.
• This object contains mandatory parameters (high load and target load thresholds, QCI1
bearer check timer and nominal number of PRBs) which are needed for LB operations
3. At least one of thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter or thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter must be configured when
actInterFreqLB is “TRUE”
• In order to assure a level of signal power and quality in target cells where UEs are
offloaded
For internal use
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter (1/3)
thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter Inter-Freq LB Threshold for RSRP Target Filter
Object: LNHOIF Parameter Behavior:
Range: -140, -139,  The parameter thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter defines the minimum RSRP level at
..., -44dBm which UE reported measurements (via A4 event) are filtered in order to
Step: step 1dBm remove cells with insufficient signal power from the Target Cell List(TCL)
Default: -100dBm • Cells with measured RSRP below thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter are removed from
TCL
Multiplicity: 1
 High Value of thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter
Unit: dBm • Low chance for UE to get offloaded as a suitable target cell needs to be measured
Modification: Online with higher RSRP than configured thresholds
Modifiable • Less UEs are offloaded, less risk of HO failures and HO pingpongs
Category: Basic  Low Value of thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter
Link to PKDB • High chance for UE to get offloaded as a suitable target cell needs to be
measured with higher RSRP than configured thresholds
• More UEs are offloaded, increase in risk of HO failures and HO pingpongs
 The parameter incorporates frequency layer prioritization in offloading UEs
as the parameter can be configured per neighbor carrier frequency under
LNHOIF object

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter (2/3)

thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter Inter-Freq LB Threshold for RSRP Target Filter


Parameterization Rules:
1. Configured values for thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter is recommended to be
above threshold2InterFreq of target cell to prevent inter-frequency mobility
ping-pongs.
2. If actInterFreqLB is “TRUE”, at least one of the threshold parameters for
RSRP (thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter ) and RSRQ (thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter)
must be configured per LNHOIF object

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter (3/3)
 Figures show the possible scenarios violations of rule#1 and rule#2 in parameterization of
thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter
•Scenario below shows a possible ping-pong scenario if thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter < threshold2InterFreq

Scenario: thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter < threshold2InterFreq

Serving Cell UE switches Target Cell


from idle to
RSRP (F1) connected UE may be handed RSRP (F2)
state over back to
previous serving
cells via normal
inter-frequency HO

Serving cells
enter Active
LB state

threshold2InterFreq

thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter
UE is offloaded to
target cell
After a short delay
Inter-frequency
measurements are
triggered
For internal use
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter (1/2)
thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter Inter-Freq LB Threshold for RSRQ Target Filter
Object: LNHOIF Parameter Behavior:
Range: -19.5, -19, , ..., -  The parameter thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter defines the minimum RSRQ level
3.5, -3 dB
at which UE reported measurements (via A4 event) are filtered in order to
Step: step 0.5dB remove cells with insufficient signal quality from the Target Cell List(TCL)
Default: -10dB • Cells with measured RSRQ below thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter are
Multiplicity: 1 removed from TCL
Unit: dB
 The parameter incorporates frequency layer prioritization in offloading
UEs as the parameter can be configured per neighbor carrier frequency
Modification: Online Modifiable
under LNHOIF object
Category: Basic
 High Value of thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter
Link to PKDB
• Low chance for UE to get offloaded as a suitable target cell needs to
be measured with higher RSRQ than configured thresholds
• Less UEs are offloaded
 Low Value of thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter
• High chance for UE to get offloaded as a suitable target cell needs to
be measured with higher RSRQ than configured thresholds
• More UEs are offloaded, increase in risk of HO failures and HO
pingpongs
For internal use
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter (2/2)
thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter Inter-Freq LB Threshold for RSRQ Target Filter
Parameterization Rules:
1. If actInterFreqLB is “TRUE”, at least one of the threshold
parameters for RSRP (thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter ) and RSRQ
(thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter) must be configured per LNHOIF object

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL(1/2)
iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL Inter-Freq Load Balancing GBR Target Load DL
Object: LNCEL Parameter Behavior:
Range: 0%..100%  The parameter iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL defines the level of GBR load that triggers
Step: 1% the exit from iF-LB Active state of a cell, i.e. stop UE offloading to neighbor cells
• Exit from iF-LB Active state occurs if ALL GBR, non-GBR and PDCCH load are below
Default: 50%
their corresponding target thresholds
Multiplicity: 1 • Together with iFLBHighLoadGBRDL, iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL provides hysteresis
Unit: % between iF-LB state transitions in terms of GBR load
Modification: Online  In addition, iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL serves as GBR load reference in the
Modifiable calculation of a cell’s GBR available capacity
Category: Advanced  Setting the target load thresholds to 0% and high load thresholds to 100% allows a
Link to PKDB cell to be excluded from LB procedures
 Setting the target threshold to a value XX% and high load thresholds to 100%
allows a cell to accept offloaded UEs but does not allow to offload UEs to
neighbors
 Thresholds can be set per load type (DL GBR/DL non-GBR/PDCCH) to
differentiate load levels per load type at which cell enters or exits active iF-LB
states

For internal use


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 iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL(2/2)
iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL Inter-Freq Load Balancing GBR Target Load DL
Object: LNCEL
Range: 0%..100% Parameter Behavior:
Step: 1%  High Value of iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL
Default: 50% • More offloaded UEs can can be accepted by the cell from neighbor cells
• Easier to exit from active iF-LB in terms of GBR load
Multiplicity: 1
 Low Value of iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL
Unit: %
• Low number of UEs can be offloaded to this cell due to CAC=0 level can
Modification: Online easily be reached
Modifiable
• Once cell enters active iF-LB state, it is difficult to exit active iF-LB state
Category: Advanced
Link to PKDB
Parameterization Rules:
1. Verify that iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL ≤ iFLBHighLoadGBRDL
2. iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL is mandatory when actInterFreqLB =“TRUE”

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL(1/2)
iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL Inter-Freq Load Balancing non-GBR Target Load DL
Object: LNCEL Parameter Behavior:
Range: 0%..100%  The parameters iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL defines the level of non-GBR
Step: 1% load that triggers the exit from iF-LB Active state of a cell, i.e. stop UE
Default: 75% offloading to neighbor cells
• Exit from iF-LB Active state occurs if ALL GBR, non-GBR and PDCCH load are
Multiplicity: 1 below their corresponding target thresholds
Unit: % • Together with iFLBHighLoadNonGBRDL, iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL provides
Modification: Online hysteresis between iF-LB state transitions in terms of non-GBR load
Modifiable  In addition, iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL serves as non-GBR load reference in
Category: Advanced the calculation of a cell’s non-GBR available capacity
Link to PKDB  Setting the target load thresholds to 0% and high load thresholds to 100%
allows a cell to be excluded from LB procedures
 Setting the target threshold to a value XX% and high load thresholds to 100%
allows a cell to accept offloaded UEs but does not allow to offload UEs to
neighbors
 Thresholds can be set per load type (DL GBR/DL non-GBR/PDCCH) to
differentiate load levels per load type at which cell enters or exits active iF-LB
states
For internal use
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 iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL(2/2)

iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL Inter-Freq Load Balancing non-GBR Target Load DL


Object: LNCEL Parameter Behavior:
Range: 0%..100%  High Value of iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL
Step: 1% • More offloaded UEs can can be accepted by the cell from neighbor
Default: 75% cells
Multiplicity: 1 • Easier to exit from active iF-LB in terms of non-GBR load
Unit: %  Low Value of iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL
Modification: Online • Low number of UEs can be offloaded due to CAC=0 can easily be
Modifiable reached
Category: Advanced • Once cell enters active iF-LB state, it is difficult to exit active iF-LB state
Link to PKDB Parameterization Rules:
1. Verify that iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL ≤ iFLBHighLoadNonGBRDL
2. iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL is mandatory when actInterFreqLB
=“TRUE”

For internal use


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 iFLBTargetLoadPdcch(1/2)
iFLBTargetLoadPdcch Inter-Freq Load Balancing PDCCH Target Load DL
Object: LNCEL Parameter Behavior:
Range: 0%..100%  The parameters iFLBTargetLoadPdcch defines the level of PDCCH load that
Step: 1% triggers the exit from iF-LB Active state of a cell, i.e. stop UE offloading to
neighbor cells
Default: 50%
• Exit from iF-LB Active state occurs if ALL GBR, non-GBR and PDCCH load are below
Multiplicity: 1 their corresponding target thresholds
Unit: % • Together with iFLBHighLoadPdcch, iFLBTargetLoadPdcch provides hysteresis
between iF-LB state transitions in terms of PDCCH load
Modification: Online
Modifiable  In addition, iFLBTargetLoadPdcch serves as PDCCH load reference in the
Category Advanced calculation of a cell’s PDCCH available capacity
Link to PKDB  Setting the target load thresholds to 0% and high load thresholds to 100%
allows a cell to be excluded from LB procedures
 Setting the target threshold to a value XX% and high load thresholds to 100%
allows a cell to accept offloaded UEs but does not allow to offload UEs to
neighbors
 Thresholds can be set per load type to differentiate load levels per load type at
which cell enters or exits active iF-LB states

For internal use


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 iFLBTargetLoadPdcch(2/2)
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

iFLBTargetLoadPdcch Inter-Freq Load Balancing PDCCH Target Load DL


Object: LNCEL Parameter Behavior:
Range: 0%..100%
 High Value of iFLBTargetLoadPdcch
Step: 1% • More offloaded UEs can can be accepted by the cell from neighbor
Default: 50% cells
Multiplicity: 1 • Easier to exit from active iF-LB in terms of PDCCH load
Unit: %  Low Value of iFLBTargetLoadPdcch
Modification: Online • Low number of UEs can be offloaded due to CAC=0 can easily be
Modifiable reached
Category Advanced • Once cell enters active iF-LB state, it is difficult to exit active iF-LB state
Link to PKDB Parameterization Rules:
1. Verify that iFLBTargetLoadPdcch ≤iFLBHighLoadPdcch
2. iFLBTargetLoadPdcch is mandatory when actInterFreqLB =“TRUE”

For internal use


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 iFLBHighLoadGBRDL(1/2)
iFLBHighLoadGBRDL Inter-Freq Load Balancing GBR High Load DL
Object: LNCEL Parameter Behavior:
Range: 0%..100%  The parameters iFLBHighLoadGBRDL defines the level of GBR load that
Step: 1% triggers the entry to iF-LB Active state of a cell, i.e. start UE offloading to
Default: 60% neighbor cells
• Together with iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL, iFLBHighLoadGBRDL provides
Multiplicity: 1
hysteresis between iF-LB state transitions
Unit: %  Setting the target load thresholds to 0% and high load thresholds to 100%
Modification: Online allows a cell to be excluded from LB procedures
Modifiable
 Setting the target threshold to a value XX% and high load thresholds to 100%
Category: Advanced
allows a cell to accept offloaded UEs but does not allow to zoffload UEs to
Link to PKDB
neighbors
 Thresholds can be set per load type to differentiate load levels per load type at
which cell enters or exits active iF-LB states
 High Value of iFLBHighLoadGBRDL
• More GBR cell traffic handled by cell before triggering LB, i.e. delays offloading of
UEs to neighbor cells
 Low Value of iFLBHighLoadGBRDL
• UEs are offloaded to neighbor cells earlier, cell enters active iF-LB earlier
For internal use
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 iFLBHighLoadGBRDL(2/2)
iFLBHighLoadGBRDL Inter-Freq Load Balancing GBR High Load DL
Object: LNCEL Parameterization Rules:
Range: 0%..100% 1. iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL ≤ iFLBHighLoadGBRDL
Step: 1% 2. iFLBHighLoadGBRDL is mandatory when actInterFreqLB =“TRUE”
Default: 60% 3. When LTE497 (Smart Admission Control) is activated
Multiplicity: 1 (actEnhAcAndGbrServices=true), care must be taken in setting
Unit: % iFLBHighLoadGBRDL
Modification: Online • If maxGBRTrafficLimit < iFLBHighLoadGBRDL, admission control and
Modifiable congestion handling reduce/limit the load before iF-LB can act
Category: Advanced • Similarly, if maxGBRTrafficLimit > iFLBHighLoadGBRDL, offloading of
Link to PKDB Ues occurs first before load becomes high enough to trigger smart
admission control actions

For internal use


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iFLBHighLoadNonGBRDL Inter-Freq Load Balancing Non-GBR High Load DL


Object: LNCEL Parameter Behavior:
Range: 0%..100%  The parameters iFLBHighLoadNonGBRDL defines the level of non-GBR load that
Step: 1% triggers the entry to iF-LB Active state of a cell, i.e. start UE offloading to neighbor
Default: 85% cells
• Together with iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL, iFLBHighLoadNonGBRDL
Multiplicity: 1
provides hysteresis between iF-LB state transitions
Unit: %  Setting the target load thresholds to 0% and high load thresholds to 100% allows a
Modification: Online cell to be excluded from LB procedures
Modifiable
 Setting the target threshold to a value XX% and high load thresholds to 100%
Category: Advanced
allows a cell to accept offloaded UEs but does not allow to offload UEs to neighbors
Link to PKDB
 Thresholds can be set per load type to differentiate load levels per load type at
which cell enters or exits active iF-LB states
 High Value of iFLBHighLoadNonGBRDL
• More non-GBR cell load handled by cell before triggering LB, i.e. delays
offloading of UEs to neighbor cells
 Low Value of iFLBHighLoadNonGBRDL
• UEs are offloaded to neighbor cells earlier, cell enters active iF-LB earlier
Parameterization Rules:
1. iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL ≤ iFLBHighLoadNonGBRDL
For internal use
2. iFLBHighLoadNonGBRDL is mandatory when actInterFreqLB =“TRUE”
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 iFLBHighLoadPdcch (1/2)

iFLBHighLoadPdcch Inter-Freq Load Balancing PDCCH High Load DL


Object: LNCEL Parameter Behavior:
Range: 0%..100%  The parameters iFLBHighLoadPdcch defines the level of PDCCH load that
Step: 1% triggers the entry to iF-LB Active state of a cell, i.e. start UE offloading to
Default: 80% neighbor cells
• Together with iFLBTargetLoadPdcch, iFLBHighLoadPdcch provides hysteresis
Multiplicity: 1 between iF-LB state transitions
Unit: %  Setting the target load thresholds to 0% and high load thresholds to 100%
Modification: Online allows a cell to be excluded from LB procedures
Modifiable  Setting the target threshold to a value XX% and high load thresholds to 100%
Link to PKDB allows a cell to accept offloaded UEs but does not allow to offload UEs to
neighbors
 Thresholds can be set per load type to differentiate load levels per load type at
which cell enters or exits active iF-LB states
 High Value of iFLBHighLoadPdcch
• More PDCCH cell load handled by cell before triggering LB, i.e. delays offloading of
UEs to neighbor cells
 Low Value of iFLBHighLoadPdcch
• UEs are offloaded to neighbor cells earlier, cell enters active iF-LB earlier
For internal use
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 iFLBHighLoadPdcch (2/2)

iFLBHighLoadPdcch Inter-Freq Load Balancing PDCCH High Load DL


Object: LNCEL Parameterization Rules:
Range: 0%..100% 1. iFLBTargetLoadPdcch ≤ iFLBHighLoadPdcch
Step: 1% 2. iFLBHighLoadPdcch is mandatory when actInterFreqLB =“TRUE”
Default: 80%
Multiplicity: 1
Unit: %
Modification: Online
Modifiable
Link to PKDB

For internal use


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 Target and High load threshold special configurations (1/4)


• Setting the target load thresholds to 0% and high load thresholds to 100% allows a cell to be excluded from LB
procedures
Special Case 1: Cell Exclusion from Load Balancing
GBR/nGBR/PDCCH
Cell Load

GBR/nGBR/PDCCH
High load = 100%
Load for any load type will GBR nGBR PDCCH
never be below target=0%, will Load Load Load
not exit active iF-LB state
100% 100% 100%

AC is always 0%, cell will not Load for any load type will never
accept any offloaded UEs from exceed 100%, i.e. cell will never
neighbor cells enter active iF-LB state

GBR AC Non-GBR AC PDCCH AC


GBR/nGBR/PDCCH 0% 0% 0%
Target load = 0% GBR Load Non-GBR PDCCH Load
0% Load 0%
0%
For internal use
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 Target and High load threshold special configurations (2/4)


• Setting the target threshold to a value XX% and high load thresholds to 100% allows a cell to accept offloaded
UEs but does not allow to offload UEs to neighbors
Special Case 2: Cell accepts offloaded UEs but never enter active iF-LB state

GBR/nGBR/PDCCH
Cell Load
GBR/nGBR/PDCCH
High load = 100%
GBR nGBR PDCCH
Load Load Load
Up to a certain level of cell load 100% 100% 100%
defined by target cell load, cell may
be target for offloaded UEs
GBR/nGBR/PDCCH
Target load = XX%
Load for any load type will never
nGBR PDCCH exceed 100%, i.e. cell will never enter
GBR Load Load active iF-LB state
Load B% C%
A%

For internal use


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 Target and High load threshold special configurations (3/4)


• Thresholds can be set per load type to differentiate load levels per load type at which cell enters or exits active
iF-LB states
Special Case 3: Load Type Differentiation

GBR/nGBR/PDCCH
Cell Load Different threshold levels allows differentiation between
nGBR/PDCCH load types
High load = 100%
nGBR/PDCCH
Target load = YY%
In this example, nGBR and PDCCH load never trigger
cell’s entry to active iF-LB state; UEs will not be
GBR High offloaded to this cell as GBR load has exceeded target
load = XX% nGBR GBR load
Load
B% PDCCH
Load
GBR Target GBR C%
load = ZZ% Load
A% nGBR AC
0%

For internal use


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 Target and High load threshold special configurations (4/4)


• Setting the target threshold to 0% and high load thresholds to some value XX% makes the cell reject offloaded
UEs and allows the cell to be in always active iF-LB state  Not recommended
Special Case 4: Cell always in Active iF-LB mode

AC is always 0%, cell will not accept any offloaded


GBR/nGBR/PDCCH UEs from neighbor cells
Cell Load
Cell enters active iF-LB state
When cell enters active iF-LB state, cell will never
exit due to load never going below target load.

GBR/nGBR/PDCCH
High load = XX% nGBR
Load
B%
GBR
PDCCH
Load
Load
A%
C%
GBR AC nGBR AC PDCCH AC GBR AC nGBR AC PDCCH AC
GBR/nGBR/PDCCH 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Target load = 0%
GBR Load nGBR Load PDCCH Load
For internal use 0% 0% 0%
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 iFLBNomNumPrb (1/2)
iFLBNomNumPrb Inter-Freq LB Nominal Number of PRBs
Object: LNCEL Parameter Behavior:
Range: 1 (0.001), 2  The parameter iFLBNomNumPrb defines the estimated load contributed to the
(0.002), 5 (0.005), overall non-GBR cell load by a non-GBR bearer with scheduling weight=1
10 (0.01), 20 • Non-GBR load can not be measured in similar manner as GBR load a single UE with
(0.02), 50 (0.05), non-GBR bearer may completely use all PRBs if there are no other UEs in the cell
100 (0.1), 200
• Multiplying the parameter with the average sum of bearer weights results in the
(0.2), 500 (0.5),
1000 (1), 2000 estimated non-GBR cell loaded for the cell
(2), 5000 (5),  Higher Value: faster rate of change in measured non-GBR load with respect to
10000 (10) change in sum of bearer scheduling weights
Default: 1000 (1) • Faster to trigger entry and exit to active iF-LB
• iF-LB state changes can be become more frequent difference between HighLoad
Multiplicity: 1 and TargetLoad must be higher to have decent hysteresis between entering and
Modification: Online Modifiable leaving active iF-LB state
Category: Advanced • Faster to reach non-GBR target load  less offloaded UEs accepted
Link to PKDB  Lower Value: slower rate of change in measured non-GBR load with respect to
change in sum of bearer scheduling weights
• Slower to trigger entry and exit to active iF-LB
• Slow to reach non-GBR target load  more offloaded UEs accepted

For internal use


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 iFLBNomNumPrb (2/2)
iFLBNomNumPrb Inter-Freq LB Nominal Number of PRBs
Object: LNCEL Parameterization Rules:
Range: 1 (0.001), 2 1. iFLBNomNumPrb must be configured with consideration to traffic profiles in
(0.002), 5 the operators network
(0.005), 10 • Take into consideration as well the average GBR PRB utilization and non-GBR
(0.01), 20
PRB utilization measured from the field
(0.02), 50
(0.05), 100 2. If iFLBNomNumPrb is configured with a high value, it is recommended to
(0.1), 200 (0.2), increase the difference between iFLBHighLoadNonGBRDL and
500 (0.5), 1000 iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL to have decent hysteresis between entering
(1), 2000 (2),
5000 (5), 10000 and leaving active iF-LB state
(10)
Default: 1000 (1)
Multiplicity: 1
Modification: Online
Modifiable
Category: Advanced
Link to PKDB

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 iFLBBearCheckTimer (1/2)

iFLBBearCheckTimer Inter-Freq Load Balancing QCI1 Bearer Check Timer


Object: LNCEL
Parameter Behavior:
Range: 1…30
 The parameter iFLBBearCheckTimer defines the amount of time to wait in
Step: 1 sec order to check if QCI1 bearers are established by the UE before activation of
Default: 10 secs A4 measurements
Multiplicity: 1  The feature allows for voice users to be excluded from load balancing
Unit: seconds procedure to avoid risks of call drops
Modification: Online  For each UE that switches from Idle to Connected state, eNB waits for a time
Modifiable duration defined by iFLBBearCheckTimer
Category: Advanced • If UE establishes QCI1 bearer before iFLBBearCheckTimer expires, UE is not
Link to PKDB considered for offloading to neighbor cells (A4 not activated)
 If iFLBBearCheckTimer is set to the special value 31, UE is included in
candidate for offloading (A4 activated) regardless of QCI1 bearer
establishment given that additional conditions for UE selection are met
• The timer to wait before A4 activation is set to 1 second

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 iFLBBearCheckTimer (2/2)
iFLBBearCheckTimer Inter-Freq Load Balancing QCI1 Bearer Check Timer
Object: LNCEL Parameter Behavior:
Range: 1…30  Including and excluding QCI1 bearer UEs for offloading affect gains derived
Step: 1 sec from LTE1170 depending on networks traffic profile
Default: 10 secs • For instance, excluding QCI1 bearer UEs in a network where most UEs establish
QCI1 bearers will have QCI1 UEs staying at the highly loaded cell with minimal
Multiplicity: 1 UEs offloaded
Unit: seconds  Higher Value: longer delay before LB actions can take effect
Modification: Online  Lower Value: higher possibility of QCI1 UEs included in UE candidates for
Modifiable
offloading
Category: Advanced • Operators may require QCI1 to be excluded from UE candidate for offloading to
Link to PKDB minimize risk of call drops
Parameterization Rules:
1. It is recommended to align iFLBBearCheckTimer with average time of
QCI1 bearer establishment in operator’s network

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

prohibitLBHOTimer Prohibit Load Based Handover Timer


Object: LNBTS Parameter Behavior:
Range: 1 (1s), 2 (2s), 5  If an UE is offloaded to a neighbor cell which does not have sufficient
(5s), 10 (10s), resources, the HO is rejected and the neighbor cell is temporarily blacklisted
20 (20s), 50
(50s), 100 in the source cell
(100s)  The parameter prohibitLBHOTimer defines the duration at which the
Default: 10 (10s) neighbor cell is temporarily blacklisted for all LB-based HO requests from
Multiplicity: 1
the source cell
 Higher Value: Longer time that the neighbor cell is temporarily blacklisted for
Unit: seconds
load-based HOs
Modification: Online
• May delay effects of LB in cases when temporarily blacklisted neighbor cell is only
Modifiable
heavily loaded for a short time
Category: Advanced
 Lower Value: Shorter time that the neighbor cell is temporarily blacklisted for
Link to PKDB load-based HOs
• Frequent load-based HO rejections occurs if neighbor cell’s load does not go below
target threshold for each time temporary blacklisting is removed

For internal use


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Table of Contents

Introduction Performance Aspects


1 Motivation and Feature Overview 7 Counters and KPIs, Feature Impact Analysis and
Verification

Technical Details
2 Functionality and Implementation, Message Flows

Interdependencies
3 Interdependencies with Other Features and Functions

Configuration Management
4 Parameters and parameterisation scenarios

Deployment Aspects
5 Feature Activation and Configuration Examples

Benefits and Gains


6 Simulation, Lab and Field Findings

For internal use NEI Contact: John Torregoza


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

• Before enabling LTE1170, LTE55 Inter-frequency handover must be activated via actifHO flag

For internal use


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 Feature is enabled on eNB level via the activation flag actInterFreqLB


• Activation flag is common with RL40 LTE1387 Intra-eNB Inter-frequency Load Balancing feature

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 The LTE1170 feature is beneficial only for multi-layer LTE deployments with some level of coverage
overlap between different frequency layers
• Overlap between frequency layers is needed to ensure sufficient RSRP/RSRQ of target cells for UE offloading
• Verify that inter-frequency layers are configured (LNHOIF)
• Verify that, for each LNHOIF object, RSRP (thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter) and/or RSRQ (thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter)
thresholds are configured

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 Verify that target and high load thresholds are configured


• Operator’s layering strategy must be taken into consideration in configuring the load thresholds
 Will all cells be involved in load balancing? Some cells will be UE offloading/accepting offloaded UEs only (unidirectional LB)?
 Will all load types trigger LB? Or will only specific types (i.e. GBR only, GBR + nGBR only, etc)

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 Number of UEs that are capable of supporting the feature-needed functionalities (defined by FGI bits)
affects the gain derived from the feature

FGI Bits Description


13 Inter-frequency Handover
14 A4 and A5 measurements/reporting
25 Inter-frequency measurements and reporting in connected mode

 Gain from the feature is maximized for same coverage cells with different frequency carriers
• Higher probability that target cell/layer is seen with sufficient signal power and/or signal quality
 A frequency layer(source layer/cell) must be sufficiently loaded to trigger entry to active iF-LB state
• Cell load reaches high load threshold
 The inter-frequency neighbor cells must have low load to accommodate UE offloading
• Cell load is below target load thresholds
 Sufficient amount of UEs switching to Idle state
• Low number of UEs which are “always on” and never go to idle

For internal use


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Table of Contents

Introduction Performance Aspects


1 Motivation and Feature Overview 7 Counters and KPIs, Feature Impact Analysis and
Verification

Technical Details
2 Functionality and Implementation, Message Flows

Interdependencies
3 Interdependencies with Other Features and Functions

Configuration Management
4 Parameters and parameterisation scenarios

Deployment Aspects
5 Feature Activation and Configuration Examples

Benefits and Gains


6 Simulation, Lab and Field Findings

For internal use NEI Contact: John Torregoza


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Benefits and Gains Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

Without LTE1170/LTE1387 With LTE1170/LTE1387

100 100
90 Freq1 Freq1
Freq2 90
80 Freq2
80
High Load Thresh
Cell Load (%)

70

Cell Load (%)


70
60
60
50 Target Load
50
40 Thresh
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 t12 0
Time t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 t12
Time
Cell becomes overloaded
New UEs connect to
and some UEs are not
the cell and cell
allocated resources
enters Active iF-LB
state

New UEs connect to


the cell Incoming UEs switching
from Idle to Connected
For internal use state are offloaded to
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

With LTE1387 (RL40) With LTE1170 (RL50)

Offloading to cells from other eNBs is


possible in case same eNB cells are highly
loaded

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 Improved traffic distribution between layers


• Depending on scenario, PDCP and RLC data volume increase on target cells for offloading
 Due to consideration of PDCCH load, CCE blocking rate is expected to decrease
• With LTE1387, if PDSCH utilization is below the configured high load threshold, LB will not be
triggered despite Ues being blocked in PDSCH due to PDCCH scheduling
 Average UE throughput is expected to improve due to UEs being offloaded to less
loaded cells
• Without LTE1170, there is high probability of UEs being blocked in scheduling (PDSCH or
PDCCH) in highly loaded cells
 As a consequence of preventing further load increase in high load cells, ERAB
setup failure due to lack of resource and ECM-IDLE to ECM-CONNECTED failure ratio
due to Rejection by RRM RAC is reduced
 Indirectly, improvements in distribution of average connected UEs can be observed

For internal use


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Table of Contents

Introduction Performance Aspects


1 Motivation and Feature Overview 7 Counters and KPIs, Feature Impact Analysis and
Verification

Technical Details
2 Functionality and Implementation, Message Flows

Interdependencies
3 Interdependencies with Other Features and Functions

Configuration Management
4 Parameters and parameterisation scenarios

Deployment Aspects
5 Feature Activation and Configuration Examples

Benefits and Gains


6 Simulation, Lab and Field Findings

For internal use NEI Contact: John Torregoza


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Performance Aspects Main Menu
LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 LTE1170 with CRL0893 introduces the following counters in RL50 to monitor the performance of the
feature

Counter name Description


HO_LB_ATT This counter provides the number of LB-based HO attempts for both intra and inter-eNB LB-based
(M8021C23) HOs.
Trigger event: Transmission of an “RRC:Connection Reconfiguration” message indicating a load
based HO command to the UE.
Use case: Load Balancing based HO Success Ratio
LB-HO SR (%) = 100 * HO_LB_SUCC / HO_LB_ATT
= 100 * M8021C24 / M8021C23

For internal use


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 LTE1170 with CRL0893 introduces the following counters in RL50 to monitor the performance of the
feature
Counter name Description
HO_LB_SUCC This counter provides the number of successful LB HOs for both intra and inter-eNB LB-based HOs.
(M8021C24) Trigger event:
• Intra-eNB: Counter is updated upon reception of an internal message indicating successful Intra-
eNB load-based HO.
• Inter-eNB via X2: Counter is updated upon reception of X2AP: UE CONTEXT RELEASE from
target eNB in case received due to LB-based HO
• Inter-eNB via S1: Counter is updated upon reception of S1AP: UE CONTEXT RELEASE
COMMAND from MME with cause value Radio Network Layer (Successful Handover) in case
received due to LB-based HO
Use case#1: Load Balancing based HO Success Ratio
LB-HO SR (%) = 100 * HO_LB_SUCC / HO_LB_ATT
= 100 * M8021C24 / M8021C23
Use case#2: Ratio of successful LB-based HOs to total successful inter-frequency HOs
Ratio LB-HO to Total HO (%) = 100 * HO_LB_SUCC / HO_INTFREQ_SUCC
= 100 * M8021C24 / M8021C2

For internal use


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 LTE1170 with CRL0893 introduces the following counters in RL50 to monitor the performance of the
feature

Counter name Description


HIGH_CELL_LOAD_LB This counter provides the number of times that a cell is in active iF-LB state for the whole
(M8011C69) measurement period
Trigger event: Every 1 second, the counter is incremented if cell is in active iF-LB state
Use case#1: Duration of time (in minutes) at which the cell has been in active iF-LB state
Time in active iF-LB (minutes) = HIGH_CELL_LOAD_LB / 60
= M8011C69 / 60
Use case#2: Percentage of time in active iF-LB state
Percentage of time in active iF-LB (%) = 100* HIGH_CELL_LOAD_LB / (60*(aggregation period
in minutes))
= 100* M8011C69 / (60*(aggregation period in minutes))

For internal use


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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

Load-Blind HO Performance Monitoring


 At the highly- loaded cell, Inter-eNB HO preparation failure rate and the HO Preparation Failure due to admission
control Distribution provide a measure of the intensity of load-blind HO failures when LTE1170 is activated
• Increase in HO preparation failure rate and HO preparation failure due to admission control means that unsuccessful load-blind
HOs are increasing
FAIL_ENB_HO_PREP_TIME FAIL_ENB_HO_PREP_AC FAIL_ENB_HO_PREP_OTHER INTER_ENB_HO_PREP
(M8014C2) (M8014C3) (M8014C5) (M8014C0)
INTER_S1_HO_PREP_FAIL_TIME INTER_S1_HO_PREP_FAIL_NORR INTER_S1_HO_PREP_FAIL_OTHER INTER_ENB_S1_HO_PREP
(M8014C15) (M8014C16) (M8014C17) (M8014C14)

Inter-eNB HO preparation failure rate (%) = 100 * (FAIL_ENB_HO_PREP_TIME + FAIL_ENB_HO_PREP_AC + FAIL_ENB_HO_PREP_OTHER +


INTER_S1_HO_PREP_FAIL_TIME + INTER_S1_HO_PREP_FAIL_NORR +
INTER_S1_HO_PREP_FAIL_OTHER) / ( INTER_ENB_HO_PREP + INTER_ENB_S1_HO_PREP)
Inter-eNB HO Preparation Failure due to AC Distribution (%) = 100 * (FAIL_ENB_HO_PREP_AC + INTER_S1_HO_PREP_FAIL_NORR ) /
(FAIL_ENB_HO_PREP_TIME + FAIL_ENB_HO_PREP_AC +
FAIL_ENB_HO_PREP_OTHER + INTER_S1_HO_PREP_FAIL_TIME +
INTER_S1_HO_PREP_FAIL_NORR + INTER_S1_HO_PREP_FAIL_OTHER )
 Further looking into details, HO preparation failure rate and HO preparation failure due to AC distribution can be
derived per neighbor relation
INTER_HO_PREP_FAIL_TIME_NB INTER_HO_PREP_FAIL_AC_NB INTER_HO_PREP_FAIL_OTH_NB
(M8015C6) (M8015C7) (M8015C5)

Inter-eNB HO preparation failure rate per NB (%) = 100 * (INTER_HO_PREP_FAIL_TIME_NB + INTER_HO_PREP_FAIL_AC_NB +


INTER_HO_PREP_FAIL_OTH_NB ) / (INTER_ENB_HO_PREP + INTER_ENB_S1_HO_PREP )
Inter –eNB HO Preparation Failure due to AC Distribution per NB (%) = 100 * (INTER_HO_PREP_FAIL_AC_NB) /
(INTER_HO_PREP_FAIL_TIME_NB + INTER_HO_PREP_FAIL_AC_NB +
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Feature impact on network performance


Feature impact How to measure
Improved Traffic Distribution KPIs:
Note: Depending on scenario, traffic distribution  E-UTRAN PDCP SDU Volume DL (LTE_5212a)
may be improved due to UE offloading in high
load scenarios. KPIs should be viewed on a cell-  E-UTRAN PDCP SDU Volume UL (LTE_5213a)
by-cell level distribution  E-UTRAN RLC PDU Volume UL (LTE_5810a)

Reduced CCE blocking KPIs:


Note: Depending on scenario, CCE blocking  CCE blocking = 100 * (1*AGG1_BLOCKED_PDCCH +
may be reduced to UE offloading triggered by 2*AGG2_BLOCKED_PDCCH + 4*AGG4_BLOCKED_PDCCH +
high PDCCH load. 8*AGG8_BLOCKED_PDCCH)
/ (1*AGG1_USED_PDCCH +2* AGG2_USED_PDCCH + 4*AGG4_USED_PDCCH +
8*AGG8_USED_PDCCH + 1*AGG1_BLOCKED_PDCCH +
2*AGG2_BLOCKED_PDCCH +4* AGG4_BLOCKED_PDCCH +
8*AGG8_BLOCKED_PDCCH)
AGG1_BLOCKED_PDCCH AGG2_BLOCKED_PDCCH AGG4_BLOCKED_PDCCH AGG8_BLOCKED_PDCCH
(M8011C43) (M8011C44) (M8011C45) (M8011C46)

AGG1_USED_PDCCH AGG2_USED_PDCCH AGG4_USED_PDCCH AGG8_USED_PDCCH


(M8011C39) (M8011C40) (M8011C41) (M8011C42)

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Feature impact on network performance


Feature impact How to measure
Improved UE throughput KPIs:
Note: UE throughput may improve due to UE  Currently there are no counters or KPIs that measure UE throughput. Tools for network
offloading. performance measurements are needed (eg. Iperf).
Improved UE Distribution KPIs:
Note: Depending on scenario and strategy, UE  Number of active users (users with data in buffer)
distribution may be improved due to UE • E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer DL (LTE_5800b)
offloading to neighbor cells. KPIs should be • E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer UL (LTE_5801b)
viewed on a cell-by-cell level distribution. • Maximum Active UEs with data in the buffer per cell DL (LTE_5802a)
• Maximum Active UEs with data in the buffer per cell UL (LTE_5803a)
 Number of connected users (with DRB)
• E-UTRAN Average Active Connected Ues (LTE_5804b)
• Active UE per eNB max (LTE_1082a)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for DRBs of QCI1 DL (LTE_5805b)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for DRBs of QCI2 DL (LTE_5559a)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for DRBs of QCI3 DL (LTE_5560a)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for DRBs of QCI4 DL (LTE_5561a)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for non-GBR DRBs (QCI5..9) DL
(LTE_5806b)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for QCI1 DRBs UL (LTE_5807b)
• E-UTRAN Average Active UEs with data in the buffer for non-GBR DRBs UL
(LTE_5808b)
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing

 Note that LTE1170, with CRL0893, does not introduce changes to existing HO
counters
• A4 HO successes/attempts/failures will be counted in existing HO counters
• When a cell is in active LB state, Inter-frequency HO attempts and successes are expected to
increase
 The LB-HO effects on HO counters may affect LTE533 MRO algorithm with
CRL0923
• CRL0923 allows MRO algorithms to be applied as well to inter-frequency neighbor relations

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BACK-UP SLIDES

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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Measurement Solicitation

• DL GBR PRB Usage is already being obtained for LTE497 Smart Admission Control
DL GBR Load • The measured GBRload is post-processed in RAC as follows:
aveUtil Calculated based on
Measurements LoadGBR,DL(t) 
PRBDL,GBR
*100 information sent periodically
aveAvail
PRBDL,GBR (default: 500ms) from L2

QCI-specific scheduling
• L2 calculates average DL nGBR bearer QCI-specific weight sum weight of nonGBR bearer j
DL non-GBR  1   1  scheduledWeight pertains to the
 *  scheduledWeight j
j

Load nGBRWtSum(t )  1   * nGBRWtSum(t  1)   non-GBR QCI-specific configurable


weight parameter of nonGBR
 TPRBave   PRBave 
T jU ( t ) bearer j, schedulWeight
Measurements • L2 calculates average available PRB for DL non-GBR bearers Set of bearers with data
aveAvail
PRBDL,nonGBR  PRBDL,GBR
aveAvail
 PRBDL,GBR
aveUtil available for initial
transmission
Calculated based on
• These results from L2 are forwarded to the load balancing control information sent periodically
(default: 500ms) from L2
• L2 provides pre-averaged PDCCH load to RAC
 1   1  Hard coded to 10 times the value of
Load PDCCH (t )  1  ave  * PDCCHUtil _ LB (t  1)   ave  * PDCCHUtil _ LB (t ) PDCCH link adaptation filter to assure
that LB acts on long term basis
PDCCH Load  TPDCCH   TPDCCH  compare to congestion handling
Measurements • PDCCHUtil_LB is calculated in L2 as the ratio of the number of CCEs used over the number of available
CCEs
• Available number of CCEs is calculated based on the configured maximum number of PDCCH symbols
For internal use (maxNrSymPdcch) and regardless of the number of currently used PDCCH symbols (in case of LTE616
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Measurement Solicitation
Non-GBR load calculations
• Non-GBR Load is further processed,
 iFLBNomNumPrb * max( 0.01; nGBRWtSum (t )) 
Load nGBR, DL (t )  min  aveAvail
; 1 *100
 PRBDL,nonGBR 
Operator configurable parameter for the nominal number of PRBs assigned for
a non-GBR bearer with scheduledWeight=1.

• Non-GBR load is calculated based on the average sum of scheduling weights of non-GBR UEs with
data available for initial transmission in contrast to utilization-based calculations for GBR and PDCCH
load
• Note that a single non-GBR UE may occupy the whole bandwidth of an empty cell
• Care must be taken in configuring iFLBNomNumPrb
• Value of iFLBNomNumPrb dictates how high or low the load is interpreted

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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Measurement Solicitation
Cell load filtering
• The load measurements are filtered as follows:
LoadGBR,DL(t)  (1   ) * LoadGBR,DL(t  1)   * LoadGBR,DL(t)
LoadnGBR,DL(t)  (1   ) * LoadnGBR,DL(t  1)   * LoadnGBR,DL(t)
Load PDCCH (t)  (1   ) * Load PDCCH (t  1)   * Load PDCCH (t)

• Filtering prevents the algorithm from being overly sensitive to load measurement variations
• Smoothing filter coefficient α is defined as follows:
Vendor parameter (non-modifiable, hidden) with default
1

value =4 resulting in a smoothing filter coefficient α = 0.5.

 iFLBLoadFilCoeff 
 
 4 
2
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LTE1170 - Inter-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing
Candidate UE Selection for
Load Supervision and Exchange Measurement Solicitation iF-LB Execution
Measurement Solicitation
Actual Load, Relative Load and Available Capacity
GBR Load Non-GBR Load PDCCH Load •Filtered load measurements as calculated
from load information from L2
LoadGBR,DL(t) LoadnGBR,DL(t) Load PDCCH (t)

X = GBR,DL / nGBR,DL / PDCCH •Relative load (Rel.Load) for each load type (DL
GBR/DL non-GBR/PDCCH) is the actual load (DL re
 Load X (t ) *100 
Rel.Load X (t )  min  ;100  non-GBR/PDCCH) compared to the corresponding
 TargetLoad X  target load thresholds
•TargetLoadx = iFLBTargetLoadGBRDL/
ACX (t )  100  Rel .Load X (t )
•iFLBTargetLoadNonGBRDL/ iFLBTargetLoadPdcch

Non-GBR PDCCH Available


• Available capacity for each load type
GBR Available
Capacity Available Capacity Capacity (DL GBR/DL non-GBR/PDCCH) defines
the available resource of the cell relative
ACGBR,DL(t) ACnGBR,DL(t) ACPDCCH (t) to corresponding target load thresholds
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