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Anaerobic Treatment of

Industrial Wastewater
Popularity of anaerobic processes
Energy crisis in 70 and 80’s- a renewed interest in anaerobic process

1200

1000
No. of plants

800

600

400

200

0
1978

1981

1984

1987

1990

1993

1996

1999
Anaerobic treatment plants for industrial applications (Source: Franklin, 2001)
Anaerobic treatment within wastewater processing

Domestic wastewater (100)


Anaerobic digester
(60)
Bar screen, Comminutor Preliminary treatment
Grit chamber etc.
(100)

Primary sludge
Primary sedimentation
(35)

(65)
e.g. Activated sludge,
Trickling filter, RBC Aerobic treatment
Oxidized to CO2 (30)
Converted to sludge (35)

Secondary sludge
Secondary sedimentation (25)
Effluent (10)
Anaerobic treatment of solids

Anaerobic treatment of high solids such as animal manure, biological


sludge, nightsoil, etc. is commonly known as “anaerobic digestion” and
is carried out in airtight container known as an anaerobic digester (AD).

 AD is usually a continuous flow stirred tank


reactor (CFSTR) for which HRT ~ SRT

 Design based on volatile solids (VS) loading rate

 Anaerobic treatment of wastewaters requires a


long SRT to achieve better treatment efficiency
 The ratio of SRT/HRT ~ 10-100
 The high ratio allows the slow-growing methanogens to remain
in the reactor for a longer time

How do we achieve high SRT in anaerobic treatment systems?


Anaerobic Waste Treatment

Anaerobic treatment is a biological process carried out in the absence


of O2 for the stabilization of organic materials by conversion to CH4
and inorganic end-products such as CO2 and NH3

Anaerobic microbes
Organic materials + Nutrients CH4 + CO2 +NH3 + Biomass

Anaerobic processes

Anaerobic fermentation Anaerobic respiration


Anaerobic fermentation

In anaerobic fermentation, there is no external electron acceptor.


The product generated during the process accepts the electrons
released during the breakdown of organic matter. Thus, organic
matter acts as both electron donor and acceptor. The process
releases less energy and the major portion of the energy is still
contained in the fermentative product such as ethanol.

Energy

Glucose Pyruvate Ethanol

Electron

Anaerobic fermentation of glucose to ethanol


Anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration on the other hand requires external electron
acceptor. The electron acceptors in this case could be SO42-, NO3-
or CO2. The energy released under such a condition is higher
than anaerobic fermentation.

Energy

Glucose Pyruvate CO2 + H2O

SO42- Electron H2S


CO2 CH4
NO3- N2

Anaerobic respiration of glucose, preference for electron acceptors

O2 > NO3- > SO42- > CO2


Advantage of anaerobic processes

1. Less energy requirement as no aeration is needed


0.5-0.75 kWh energy is needed for every 1 kg of COD removal by aerobic processes

2. Energy generation in the form of methane gas


1.16 kWh energy is produced for every 1 kg of COD fermented in anaerobic process

3. Less biomass (sludge) generation


Anaerobic process produces only 20% of sludge compared with aerobic process
CO2 + H2O
Aerobic process 0.5 kg
Soluble BOD
1 kg
New biomass
0.5 kg

CH4 gas
Anaerobic process > 0.9 kg
Biodegradable
COD
1 kg New biomass
< 0.1 kg
…Advantages of anaerobic processes

4. Less nutrients (N & P) required


Lower biomass synthesis rate also implies less nutrients requirement : 20% of aerobic

5. Application of higher organic loading rate


Organic loading rates of 5-10 times higher than that of aerobic processes are possible

6. Space saving
Higher loading rates require smaller reactor volumes thereby saving on
disposal cost

7. Ability to transform several hazardous solvents


including chloroform, trichloroethylene and trichloroethane
to an easily degradable form
Limitations of anaerobic processes

1. Long start-up time


Because of lower biomass synthesis rate, it requires a longer start-up time
to attain a biomass concentration
2. Long recovery time
If an anaerobic system is subjected to disturbances either due to biomass
wash-out, toxic substances or shock loading, it may take longer time for the
system to return to normal operating conditions

3. Specific nutrients/trace metal requirements


Anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, have specific nutrients
e.g. Fe, Ni, and Co requirement for optimum growth

4. More susceptible to changes in environmental conditions


Anaerobic microorganisms especially methanogens are prone to changes in
conditions such as temperature, pH, redox potential, etc.
…Limitations of anaerobic processes

5. Treatment of sulfate-rich wastewater


The presence of sulfate not only reduces the methane yield due to substrate
Competition, but also inhibits the methanogens due to sulfide production
6. Effluent quality of treated wastewater
The minimum substrate concentration (Smin) from which microorganisms are able
to generate energy for their growth and maintenance is much higher for
anaerobic treatment systems. Anaerobic processes may not be able to degrade
organic matter to the level to meet the discharge limits for ultimate disposal.

7. Treatment of high protein & nitrogen containing wastewater


The anaerobic degradation of proteins produces amines which are no longer be
degraded anaerobically. Similarly nitrogen remains unchanged during anaerobic
treatment. Recently, a process called ANAMMOX ( ANaerobic AMMonium OXididation)
has been developed to anaerobically oxidize NH4+ to N2 in presence of nitrite.
NH4+ + NO2-  N2 + 2H2O
NH4+ + 1.32 NO2- + 0.066CO2 + 0.13H+  1.02 N2 + 0.26NO3- + 0.066CH2O0.5N0.15
Comparison between anaerobic and aerobic processes

Anaerobic Aerobic
Organic loading rate
High loading rates:10-40 kg COD/m3-day Low loading rates:0.5-1.5 kg COD/m3-day
(for high rate reactors, e.g. AF,UASB, E/FBR) (for activated sludge process)
Biomass yield
Low biomass yield:0.05-0.15 kg VSS/kg COD High biomass yield:0.35-0.45 kg VSS/kg COD
(biomass yield is not constant but depends (biomass yield is fairly constant irrespective
on types of substrates metabolized) of types of substrates metabolized)

Specific substrate utilization rate


High rate: 0.75-1.5 kg COD/kg VSS-day Low rate: 0.15-0.75 kg COD/kg VSS-day

Start-up time
Long start-up: 1-2 months for mesophilic Short start-up: 1-2 weeks
: 2-3 months for thermophilic
Comparison between anaerobic and aerobic processes

Anaerobic Aerobic
SRT
Longer SRT is essential to retain the slow SRT of 4-10 days is enough for the
growing methanogens within the reactor activated sludge process

Microbiology
Anaerobic processes involve multi-step Aerobic process is mainly a one-
chemical conversions and a diverse species phenomenon, except for
group of microorganisms degrade the nutrient-removal processes
organic matter in a sequential order

Environmental factors
The process is highly susceptible to The process is more robust to
changes in environmental conditions changing environmental conditions
How much methane gas can be generated through
complete anaerobic degradation of 1 kg COD at STP ?

Step 1: Calculation of COD equivalence of CH4


CH4 + 2O2  CO2 + 2H2O

16 g 64g

 16 g CH4 ~ 64 g O2 (COD)

 1 g CH4 ~ 64/16 = 4 g COD ------------ (1)

Step 2: Conversion of CH4 mass to equivalent volume


Based on the ideal gas law, 1 mole of any gas at STP (Standard Temperature
and Pressure) occupies a volume of 22.4 L

 1 Mole CH4 ~ 22.4 L CH4

 16 g CH4 ~ 22.4 L CH4

 1 g CH4 ~ 22.4/16 = 1.4 L CH4 ---------- (2)


Step 3: CH4 generation rate per unit of COD removed

From eq. (1) and eq. (2), we have,

=> 1 g CH4 ~ 4 g COD ~ 1.4 L CH4

=> 4 g COD ~ 1.4 L CH4

=> 1 g COD ~ 1.4/4 = 0.35 LCH4

or 1 Kg COD ~ 0.35 m3 CH4 ----------- (3)

Complete anaerobic degradation of 1 kg COD


produces 0.35 m3 CH4 at STP
Organics Conversion in Anaerobic Systems
COMPLEX ORGANIC MATTER

Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids


hydrolysis
acidogenesis

Amino Acids, Sugars Fatty Acids, Alcohols


acetogenesis

INTERMEDIARY PRODUCTS
(C>2; Propionate, Butyrate etc)
methanogenesis

Acetate Hydrogen, Carbon dioxide

72 28
Methane
Carbon dioxide
Essential conditions for efficient anaerobic treatment

• Avoid excessive air/O2 exposure

• No toxic/inhibitory compounds present in the influent

• Maintain pH between 6.8 –7.2

• Sufficient alkalinity present (mainly bicarbonates)

• Low volatile fatty acids (VFAs)

• Temperature around mesophilic range (30-38 oC)

• Enough nutrients (N & P) and trace metals especially, Fe, Co, Ni, etc.
COD:N:P = 350:7:1 (for highly loaded system) 1000:7:1 (lightly
loaded system)

• SRT/HRT >>1 (use high rate anaerobic reactors)


Best industrial wastewaters for anaerobic treatment

• Alcohol production
• Brewery and Winery
• Sugar processing
• Starch (barley, corn, potato, wheat, tapioca) and desizing
waste from textile industry.
• Food processing
• Bakery plant
• Pulp and paper
• Dairy
• Slaughterhouse
• Petrochemical waste
Environmental factors
The successful operation of anaerobic reactor depends on maintaining
the environmental factors close to the comfort of the microorganisms
involved in the process.

Temperature

 Anaerobic processes like other biological processes


operate in certain temperature ranges

 In anaerobic systems: three optimal temperature ranges:

 Psychrophilic (5 - 15oC)
 Mesophilic (35 – 40 C)
 Thermophilic (50-55 oC)
pH
There exist two microbial domains in terms of pH optima namely
acidogens and methanogens. The best pH range for acidogens is 5.5 –
6.5 and for methanogens is 7.8 – 8.2. The operating pH for combined
cultures is 6.8-7.4 with neutral pH being the optimum. Since methano-
genesis is considered as a rate limiting step, it is necessary to maintain
the reactor pH close to neutral.
Low pH reduces the activity of methanogens causing accumulation of
VFA and H2. At higher partial pressure of H2, propionic acid degrading
bacteria will be severely inhibited thereby causing excessive accumulation
of higher molecular weight VFAs such as propionic and butyric acids and
the pH drops further. If the situation is left uncorrected, the process may
eventually fail. This condition is known as going “SOUR” or STUCK”.
Remedial measures: Reduce the loading rates and supplement
chemicals to adjust the pH: alkaline chemicals such as NaHCO3, NaOH,
Na2CO3, quick lime (CaO), slaked lime [Ca(OH)2], limestone (or
softening sludge) CaCO3, and NH3 can be used.
Cont..
pH dependence of methanogens

Relative activity of methanogens to pH

1.3

1.0
Activity

0.8

0.5

0.3

0.0
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

pH
Cont..
Natural buffering

An anaerobic treatment system has its own buffering capacity against


pH drop because of alkalinity produced during waste treatment: e.g.
the degradation of protein present in the waste releases NH3, which
reacts with CO2 forming ammonium carbonate as alkalinity.
NH3 + H2O + CO2  NH4HCO3
The degradation of salt of fatty acids may produce some alkalinity.
CH3COONa + H2O  CH4 + NaHCO3
Sulfate and sulfite reduction also generate alkalinity.

CH3COO - + SO42-  HS- + HCO3- + 3H2O


When pH starts to drop due to VFA accumulation, the alkalinity
present within the system neutralizes the acid and prevents further
drop in pH. If the alkalinity is not enough to buffer the system pH,
we need external additions.
Nutrients and trace metals Cont..

All microbial processes including anaerobic require macro (N, P and


S) and micro (trace metals) nutrients in sufficient concentration to
support biomass synthesis. Anaerobic micro-organisms, especially
methanogens, have specific requirements of trace metals such as
Ni, Co, Fe, Mo, Se etc. The nutrients and trace metals requirements
for anaerobic process are much lower as only 4 - 10% of the COD
removed is converted to biomass.

COD:N:P = 350:7:1 (for highly loaded system) 1000:7:1


(lightly loaded system)

Inhibition/Toxicity
The toxicity is caused by substances present in the influent waste
or byproducts of metabolic activities. Heavy metals, halogenated
compounds, and cyanide are examples of the former type whereas
sulfide and VFAs belong to latter . Ammonia from either group
Types of anaerobic reactors
Low-rate anaerobic reactors High-rate anaerobic reactors
Anaerobic contact process
Anaerobic pond
Anaerobic filter (AF)
Septic tank Upflow anaerobic sludge
blanket (UASB)
Imhoff tank Fluidized bed reactor

Standard rate Hybrid reactor: UASB/AF


anaerobic digester Anaerobic sequencing batch
reactor (ASBR)
Slurry type bioreactor, temperature, Able to retain very high concentration of
mixing, SRT or other environmental active biomass in the reactor. Thus
conditions are not regulated. extremely high SRT could be maintained
Loading of 1-2 kg COD/m3-day irrespective of HRT. Load 5-20 kg COD/m3-d
COD removal efficiency : 80-90%
The Imhoff tank, named for
German engineer Karl Imhoff (1876–
1965), is a chamber suitable for the
reception and processing ofsewage.
It may be used for the clarification
of sewage by
simple settling and sedimentation,
along with anaerobic digestion of the
extracted sludge. It consists of an
upper chamber in which
sedimentation takes place, from
which collected solids slide down
inclined bottom slopes to an
entrance into a lower chamber in
which the sludge is collected and
digested.
Anaerobic contact process (ACP)
Anaerobic contact process is essentially an anaerobic activated
sludge process. It consists of a completely mixed reactor followed
by a settling tank. The settled biomass is recycled back to the
reactor. Hence ACP is able to maintain high concentration of
biomass in the reactor and thus high SRT irrespective of HRT.
Degasifier allows the removal of biogas bubbles (CO2, CH4)
attached to sludge which may otherwise float to the surface. .

Biogas Biogas
Settling tank

Influent Effluent
Degassifier
Completely mixed
reactor

Recycled sludge
Waste sludge
Cont..
…Anaerobic contact process (ACP)

ACP was initially developed for the treatment of dilute


wastewater such as meat packing plant which had tendency
to form a settleable flocs. ACP is suitable for the treatment
of wastewater containing suspended solids which render
the microorganisms to attach and form settleable flocs.

The biomass concentration in the reactor ranges from 4-6 g/L


with maximum concentration as high as 25-30 g/L depending
on settleability of sludge. The loading rate ranges from 0.5 –
10 kg COD/m3-day. The required SRT could be maintained by
controlling the recycle rate similar to activated sludge process.
Anaerobic filter
• Developed by Young and McCarty in the late 1960s to
treat dilute soluble organic wastes
• The filter was filled with rocks similar to the trickling filter
• Wastewater distributed across the bottom and the flow was
in the upward direction through a bed of rocks
• Whole filter submerged completely
• Anaerobic microorganisms accumulate within voids of media
(rocks or other plastic media)
• The media retain or hold the active biomass within the filter
• The non-attached biomass within the interstices forms bigger
flocs of granular shape due to rising gas bubble/liquid
• Non-attached biomass contributes significantly to waste treatment
• Attached biomass not be a major portion of total biomass
• 64% attached and 36% non-attached
Upflow Anaerobic Filter
Heater Biogas

Effluent
Perforated
Al plate Sampling
port

Water bath

Peristaltic pump
Media

Constant temperature Sludge wastage


Feeding recirculation line
tank at 4oC

Peristaltic pump
Cont..
Anaerobic Filter Packing

Originally, rocks were employed as packing medium in


anaerobic filter. But due to very low void volume (40-50%),
serious clogging problems were witnessed. Now, many
synthetic packing media are made up of plastics; ceramic tiles
of different configuration have been used in anaerobic filters.
The void volume in these media ranges from 85-95 %.
Moreover, these media provide high specific surface area,
typically 100 m2/m3, or above, which enhances biofilm growth.
Cont..
Anaerobic Filters

Since anaerobic filters are able to retain high biomass, a long


SRT can be maintained. Typically HRT varies from 0.5 – 4 days
and the loading rates vary from 5 - 15 kg COD/m3-day. Biomass
wastage is generally not needed and hydrodynamic conditions
play an important role in biomass retention within the void space.

Downflow anaerobic filter (DAF)


Downflow anaerobic filters are similar to a trickling filter in
operation. DAF is closer to fixed film reactor as loosely held
biomass/sludge within the void spaces is potentially washed
out of the reactor. The specific surface area of media is more
important in DAF than UAF.
There is less of a clogging problem and wastewater with some
SS concentration can be treated using DAF.
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)
UASB was developed in 1970s by Lettinga in the Netherlands.
UASB is essentially a suspended growth system in which proper
hydraulic and organic loading rate is maintained in order to
facilitate the dense biomass aggregation known as granulation.
The size of granules is about 1-3 mm diameter. Since granules
are bigger in size and heavier, they will settle down and be
retained within the reactor. The concentration of biomass in the
reactor may become as high as 50 g/L. Thus a very high SRT
can be achieved even at a very low HRT of 4 hours.
The granules consist of hydrolytic bacteria, acidogen/acetogens
and methanogens. Carbohydrate degrading granules show
layered structure with a surface layer of hydrolytic/fermentative
acidogens. A mid-layer comprising of syntrophic colonies and
an interior with acetogenic methanogens.
UASB Reactor

Effluent

biogas

Influent
Effect of sulfate on methane production

When the waste contains sulfate, part of COD is diverted to


sulfate reduction and thus total COD available for methane
production would be reduced greatly.

Sulfide will also impose toxicity on methanogens at a


concentration of 50 to 250 mg/L as free sulfide.
Stoichiometry of sulfate reduction

8e +8H+ + SO42-  S2- + 4H2O

8e +8H+ + 2O2  4H2O

2O2/ SO42- = 64/96 ~ 0.67

• COD/SO42- ~ 0.67

Theoretically, 1 g of COD is needed to reduce 1.5 g of sulfate


Example 2
A UASB reactor has been employed to treat food processing
wastewater at 20oC. The flow rate is 2 m3/day with a mean soluble
COD of 7,000 mg/L. Calculate the maximum CH4 generation rate in
m3/day. What would be the biogas generation rate at 85% COD
removal efficiency and 10% of the removed COD is utilized for biomass
synthesis. The mean CH4 content of biogas is 80%. If the wastewater
contains 2.0 g/L sulfate, theoretically how much CH4 could be
generated?
Solution:

Maximum CH4 generation rate:


The complete degradation of organic matter in the waste could
only lead to maximum methane generation and is also regarded
as theoretical methane generation rate.
Cont..

(7000 x 10-6)
 Total COD removed = ----------------- x (2) kg/d
(10-3)

= 14 kg/d

From eq. (3) in example 1, we have :

1 Kg COD produces 0.35 m3 CH4 at STP

14 Kg COD produces ~ 0.35 x 14 = 4.9 m3 CH4/d at STP

At 20C, the CH4 gas generation = 4.9 x(293/273)


= 5.3 m3/d

The maximum CH4 generation rate = 5.3 m3/d


Cont..

Biogas generation rate

Not all COD (organic matter) is completely degraded. The fate of


COD during anaerobic treatment process can be viewed as :

Residual COD (in effluent)


COD converted to CH4 gas
COD diverted to biomass synthesis
COD utilized for sulfate reduction (if sulfate is present)

(7000 x 10-6)
Total COD removed = ------------- x (2) x 0.85 kg/d
(10-3)

= 11.9 kg/d
Cont..

As 10% of the removed COD has been utilized for biomass synthesis
remaining 90% of the removed COD has thus been converted to CH4 gas.

COD utilized for CH4 generation = 11.9 x 0.9 kg/d

= 10.71 kg/d
From eq. (3) in example 1, we have:

1 Kg COD produces 0.35 m3 CH4 at STP

10.71 Kg COD produces ~ 0.35 x 10.71 = 3.75 m3 CH4/d at STP

At 20C, the CH4 gas generation = 3.75 x (293/273)

= 4.02 m3/d

The bio-gas generation rate is larger as it also contains CO2 and H2S4C.02/0.80
= 5.03 m3/d
Cont..

Methane generation rate when sulfate is present

When the waste contains sulfate, part of COD is diverted to


sulfate reduction and thus total COD available for methane
production would be reduced greatly.
Sulfate-reducing bacteria

Organic matter + Nutrients + SO42-  H2S + H2O + HCO3- + New biomass

Theoretically, 1 g COD is required for reduction of 1.5 g sulfate.


In this problem, there is 2 g/L sulfate.
Total COD consumed in sulfate reduction = 1.33g = 1330 mg

COD available for methane production = (7000 –1330) mg/L


= 5670 mg/L
Cont..
(5666.67 x 10-6)
 Total COD available = ----------------- x (2) kg/d
for CH4 generation (10-3)

= 11.33 kg/d

From eq. (3) in example 1, we have:

1 kg COD produces 0.35 m3 CH4 at STP

11.33 kg COD produces ~ 0.35 x 11.33 = 3.97m3 CH4/d at STP

At 20C, the CH4 gas generation = 3.97 x(293/273)


= 4.3 m3/d
The CH4 generation rate when sulfate is present = 4.3 m3/d
Presence of sulfate reduces methane yield by about 19%
However, total biogas will now contain more H2S, adding volume
Expanded bed reactor (EBR)
• Expanded bed reactor is an attached growth
system with some suspended biomass.

• The biomass gets attached on bio-carriers


such as sandman, pulverized polyvinyl
chloride, shredded tire beads.

• The bio-carriers are expanded by the upflow


velocity of influent wastewater and recirculated effluent.

• In the expanded bed reactor, sufficient upflow


velocity is maintained to expand the bed by 15-30%.

• The expanded bed reactor has less clogging


problems and better substrate diffusion within the
biofilm.
• The biocarriers are partly supported by fluid flow
and partly by contact with adjacent biocarriers, which
retain the same relative position within the bed.
Fluidized bed reactor (FBR)
• FBR is similar to EBR in terms of configuration.
But FBR is truly fixed film reactor as suspended
biomass is washed–out due to high upflow velocity.

• The bed expansion is 25-300% of the


settled bed volume, which requires much
higher upflow velocity (10-25 m/hr).

• The bio-carriers are supported entirely by


the upflow liquid velocity and therefore able
to move freely in the bed.

• The fluidized bed reactor is free from


clogging problem short-circuiting and better
substrate diffusion within the biofilm.
Hybrid system: UASB/AF
Hybrid system incorporates both
granular sludge blanket (bottom)
and anaerobic filter (top). Such
approach prevents wash-out of
biomass from the reactor. Further
additional treatment at the top bed
due to the retention of sludge
granules that escaped from the
bottom sludge bed.
UASB reactor facing a chronic sludge
wash-out problem can be retrofitted
using this approach.
Hybrid system may be any combi-
nation of two types of reactor
Anaerobic baffled reactor
In anaerobic baffled reactor, the wastewater passes over
and under the baffles. The biomass accumulates in
Between the baffles which may in fact form granules with
time. The baffles present the horizontal movement of
of biomass in the reactor. Hence a high concentration of
biomass can be maintained within the reactor.
Biogas

Sludge
Anaerobic Sequential Bed Reactor

BIOGAS RECYCLE
BIOGAS

SUPERNATANT

DECANT
PORTS
SETTLED
BIOMASS

SETTLE DECANT FEED REACT


EFFLUENT FEED
Anaerobic process design

Design based on volumetric organic


loading rate (VOLR)

So . Q
VOLR = ---------
V

VOLR : Volumetric organic loading rate


(kg COD/m3-day)

So : Wastewater biodegradable COD (mg/L)

Q : Wastewater flow rate (m3/day)

V : Bioreactor volume (m3)


So and Q can be measured easily and are
known upfront

Efficiency, %
VOLR can be selected!

VOLR
How do we select VOLR?
 Conducting a pilot scale studies

 Find out removal efficiency at different VOLRs

 Select VOLR based on desired efficiency


Design based on hydraulic loading rate
Permissible superficial velocity (Va)
V = a . Q
Va = H/ For dilute wastewater with
a . Q COD < 1,000 mg/L
A = --------
H

H : Reactor height (m)

a : Allowable hydraulic retention time (hr)

Q : Wastewater flow rate (m3/h)

A : Surface area of the reactor (m2)


Solids retention time (SRT)
An anaerobic digester is a completely mixed reactor for which solid
retention time(SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) is the same.

Influent flow rate


(Q), m3/day
V, m3

Volume V (m3)
HRT, days = = day
Flow rate Q (m3/day)

For a given SRT (HRT), the size of reactor can be


easily determined since flow rate (Q) is known to us

Digester volume, V (m3) = Flow rate (Q) x SRT (C )


Volatile solids loading rate
The size of an anaerobic digester can also be estimated based
on volatile solids loading rate expressed as kg VS/m3-day.

Influent VS
kg/day
V, m3
Volatile solids Influent VS (kg/day)
loading rate, =
(kg VS/m3- day) Reactor volume (m3)
For a given volatile solids loading rate, the size of reactor can
be easily determined since influent VS (kg/day) is known to us.
Influent VS (kg/day)
Digester volume, V (m3) =
Volatile solids loading rate,(kg VS/m3- day)
Green cow power
Methane for power generation

The $4.9 million facility near


West Amana produces
methane biogas that powers
four electric generators.
The system produces about
2.6 MW of power or 15% of
Amana Service Co.’s base load
electricity in winter and 10% in
summer.

The digester uses feeder cattle manure from Amana Farms and
industrial and food processing waste from such industries as
Genencor International, Cargill and International Paper’s Cedar
River Mill in Cedar Rapids.
What happens to the left-overs?

Common misconceptions about anaerobic digesters include that anaerobic


digestion and the resulting biogas production will reduce the quantity of manure
and the amount of nutrients that remain for utilization or disposal. An anaerobic
digester DOES NOT MAKE MANURE DISAPPEAR! Often the volume of material
(effluent) handled from a digester increases because of required dilution water for
satisfactory pumping or digester operation. On average, only 4% of the influent
manure is converted to biogas. None of the water! The remaining 96% leaves the
digester as an effluent that is stable, rich in nutrients, free of weed seed, reduced
or free of pathogens, and nearly odorless. This means that a farm loading 1,000
gallons per day into a digester can expect to have 960 gallons of material
(effluent) to store and ultimately utilize. Depending on digester design and
operation, solids can also settle out in the bottom of the digester and/or form a
floating scum mat. Both the scum mat and the solids will eventually need to be
mechanically removed from the digester to assure desired performance. When
evaluating the actual performance and operation of a digester, it is important to
determine and account for the amount and type of material retained in the
digester and the cost of lost digester volume and ultimate cleaning.
More anaerobic digester information can be found at: www.biogas.psu.edu
Author: Patrick A. Topper, Pennsylvania State University