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Submitted to : Mam.AZQA

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Zaima Bashir 30
Aqsa Maryam 25
Kianat Gul 54
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Aqsa Noreen 53
Sakina Riaz 46
Theory Of Alfred Schutz


 He was an Austrian philosopher

 Born in Austria 1899
 Died in New yak in 1959.
 He get education in Law, social science and
Business in university of Vienna .
 He joined Austrian army during world war 1

 Schutz is gradually being recognized as one of the

twentieth century's leading philosophers of social
Schutz was the one who applied phenomenology in
sociology .
His main work was in phenomenology.


The philosopher Husserl argues that the world only makes

sense because we impose meaning and order on it by
constructing mental categories that we use to classify the
information coming from our senses. So, we can’t have
definite knowledge about what the world is really like, all
we can know is what our mind tells us about it.
 What is phenomenology?

phenomenology is the study of “phenomena”:

appearances of things, or things as they appear in
our experience, or the ways we experience things.

In philosophy the term phenomenon is used to

describe things as they appear to our senses..

“Phenomenology is a school of philosophy

concerned with the study of mind .”

 Alfred Schutz was influenced by Philosophy, he

was a sociologist interested in pushing
phenomenology in the direction of studying the
social world.
 Alfred applies this idea to the social world.
 He argues that the categories and concepts we use
are not unique to ourselves we share them with
other members of society .(typification and recipes)
Schutz calls these shared categories typification .

“Typification is the process of relying on general

knowledge as a way of constructing ideas about
people and the social world.”

These enable us to organize or experiences into a

shared world of meaning.
In his view, the meaning of any given experience varies
according to its social context.
For example, raising you arm means answering a
question in class, it is also the infamous symbol of
bidding on an item in an auction.

For this reason, meanings are potentially unclear and

unstable- especially if others classify the action in a
different way from oneself.
Fortunately, typifications stabilize and clarify
meanings by ensuring that we are all ‘speaking the
same language’- all agreeing on the meanings of
things. This makes it possible to communicate and
achieve goals. Without typifications, social order
would become impossible.

“Standardized ways of handling various


The idea of recopies implies that kind of cookbook exists in

the culture and to some degree in our minds as the result of
socialization that indicates which recipes are to be used in
which situation .the cookbook does not have a marital
existence it exist in individual minds.

When you say how are you to some one .you

are using the contemporary recipe for saying
Hello . When the person to whom say fine ,
she is using the recipe for saying hello to
someone who has said hello using the recipe
how are you.
The cookies exist in our culture.
The most important and classical think associated
with the sociology of everyday life was Alfred
Schutz wanted to focus on the world of everyday
social relationship.

Is recognizing other as similar to myself they
subject like myself.

Most broadly, Schutz's phenomenology focuses

on inter-subjectivity .

The study of inter-subjectivity seeks to answer

questions such as these: How do we know other’
mind? other selves? How is understanding and
communication possible?
Schutz’s response to the above questions
revealed that, an inter subjective world is not a
private world, it is common to all. It exists
“because we live in it as men among other men

The basic difference between these

two is as following.

Ethnomethodology focus on conversation

and develop sense on the basic of
Phenomenology study thinking patterns.
. Schutz maintained that the life-world is defined
by six characteristics

1. . First, it is characterized by wide-awake ness as its tension

of consciousness.
2. Second, the world is taken for granted; actors suspend any
doubt of the existence of the life-world.
3. Third, people work in the life-world — they "gear into" the
4. Fourth, people experience the working self as the total self
in the life-world.
5. Fifth, the social life of the life-world is characterized by
6. Sixth, the actor's flow of time intersects with the flow of time
of society.
Interpreting Schutz Theory
Ritzier and Goodman argue that it is important to
see Schutz's work as an attempt to construct a
theoretical perspective that emphasizes both how
actors create the social world and the impact of the
social world on actors.