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Dynamic Response of

MDOF Structures
Equilibrium of forces condition gives the equations of motions:

 m2 0  u&   k2
2 (t ) 
&  k2  u2 (t )   p2 (t ) 
      
 0 m1   u&
&   k2
1 (t )   k1  k2   u1 (t )   p1 (t ) 
Example: 2-DOF, identical mass & stiffness
Free vibration

p1 (t )  0
p2 (t )  0

How do we solve this set of coupled equations?


By observation, the solution should be harmonic.

ui (t )  f (sin( wt ),cos( wt ))
ui (t )   w ui (t )
&& 2

Substituting into the equations of motion:

Need to find non-trivial solution  coefficient matrix has to be singular


Natural frequencies
of the 2-DOF system.
1 2
Example: 5-DOF, identical mass & stiffness
Free vibration
Method for Uncoupling the Equations of Motion
Orthogonality Properties of Modeshapes
Scaling the Modeshapes
• Arbitrary

Set one modeshape coefficient equal to


unity (ex: coeff. at roof level = 1.0)
iT Mi  1
Mass normalized  M  I
T
iT M j  0 for i  j

 w12 0 0 0
 
T K K*  0 w22 0 0
 * = 
 M M  0
T
0 ... 0 
 
0 0 wn2 
 0
Repeat the 2-DOF example
Forced Vibration

 M x&&   K x   f 
% % %

 x(t )   i qi (t )


N
modal representation
% i 1 %
 q1 (t ) 
 q (t ) 
 2 
 x(t )  1 2
% % %
L 
N  
%  M %
 
     q(t )
qN (t ) 
 M x&&   K x   f 
% % %

 M q&&(t )   K q(t )   f 
% % %

  M q&&(t )    K q(t )    %f (t )


T T T

% %

% M %  0
T
i j
i j

% K %  0
T
i j
i j
%  M % q&& %  K % q  %  %f 
T T T
i i i i i i i i  1, 2,L , N
i

M i*q&
&i  K *
q
i i  f i
*
i  1, 2,L , N

 
M  i  M  i : generalized mass (“modal mass”) for mode i
T
*
i
%T %i

%T
 
Ki*  i  K  i : generalized stiffness (“modal stiffness”) for mode i
%
fi*  i
% %

f : generalized force (“modal force”) for mode i

t
1 1 1
qi (t )  *
M i wi 
0
fi * ( ) sin wi (t  )d  qi (0) cos wi t 
wi
q&i (0)sin wi t
How to find the initial conditions in the modal space?

 x(0)    j q j (0)
N

%
T
% j 1 % Premultiply by M
i

 x&(0)    j q&j (0)


N

% j 1 %

%        
N N
M  x(0)  i M   j q j (0)   i M  j q j (0)  i M i qi (0)
T T T T
i
% % j 1 % j 1 % % % %
  
i M  x&(0)  i M i q&i (0)
T T

% % % %
 M  M
T T

 x(0)  x&(0)
i i
q (0)  % q&(0)  %
% M % % % M % %
i T i T
i i i i

 
  q(0)   x(0)  
q(0)      x(0)
1

% %  % %

%
 
  q&(0)   x&(0)
%
 
q&(0)      x&(0)
%
1

%
Including damping

M i*q&
&i  C *
i i
&
q  K *
q
i i  f i
*
i  1, 2,L , N


T
fi * i f
i  2i wi qi  w q   %T % i  1, 2,L , N
2
q&
& &
 
i i *
Mi i M i
% %
t
1 1

i wi ( t  )
qi (t )  * f i
*
( ) e sin wd ,i (t  )d
M i wd ,i 0
 1 
e i wi t
 qi (0) cos wd ,i t   q&i (0)  i wi qi (0)  sin wd ,it 
 wd ,i 

wd ,i  wi 1  i2
 x(t )   i qi (t )
N

% i 1 %
MDOF Examples
find modes

det  M   w2  K   0

 2k k 0 0 0 0 0  2 1 0 0 0 0 0 
 k 2k k 0 0 0 0   1 2 1 0 0 0 0 
  
0 k 2k k 0 0 0   0 1 2 1 0 0 0 
 K    0 0 k 2k k 0
  
0   6000  0 0 1 2 1 0 0  kip/ft
0 0 0 k 2k k 0  0 0 0 1 2 1 0 
   
0 0 0 0 k 2k k   0 0 0 0 1 2 1
0 k k   0 0 0 0 0 1 1 
 0 0 0 0  

m 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 m 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 
  
0 0 m 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
 M    0 0 0 m 0 0 0  
100  
0 0 0 1 0 0 0  kip×sec2 /ft
32.2 
0 0 0 0 m 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
   
 0 0 0 0 0 m 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0
 0 0 0 0 0 0 m 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 
  
 w1, w2 , w3 , w4 , w5 , w6 , w7   9.19, 27.17, 43.95,58.82,71.12,80.31,85.99 rad/sec


Let’s illustrate how we can find a modeshape i once we know wi . Let’s try it for
%
mode 3 for which the natural [angular] undamped frequency is w3  43.95 rad/sec.

Using  K   w  M   %
2
0 , which is valid for any mode, we have
%
 K   43.95  M   %
2
0
%
  2 1 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0   13  0 
  

 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 
 
0
 1 0 0 0 0 0   23  0 
  0 1 2 1 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 0   33  0 
   100     
 6000  0 0 1 2 1 0 0  -43.95 2
0 0 0 1 0 0 0   43   0 
32.2
  0 0 0 1 2 1 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0   53  0 
       
  0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0   63  0 
    

 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 
 
0
 0 0 0 0 0 1   73  0 

  2 1 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0   13  0 
  

 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 
 
0
 1 0 0 0 0 0   23  0 
  0 1 2 1 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 0   33  0 
       
 6000  0 0 1 2 1 0 0  -6000 0 0 0 1 0 0 0   43   0 
  0 0 0 1 2 1 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0   53  0 
       
  0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0   63  0 
    

 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 
 
0
 0 0 0 0 0 1   73  0 

 1 1 0 0 0 0 0  13  0 
 
 1 1 1
 0 0 0 0  23  0 
 
 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  
 0 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 1  
  0 0 0 0  

 1 1 0 0 0 0 0  13  0 
 1 1 1 0 0 0 0    0 
   23   
 0 1 1 1 0 0 0  33  0 
    
6000  0 0 1 1 1 0 0  43   0 
 0 0 0 1 1 1 0  53  0 
    
 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 63  0 
 0 0 0 0 0 1 0    0 
   73   

13  1 
   
 23  1 
33  0 
   
 
3  43   1
%    
 1
 53   
63  0 
  1 
73   
If we want to normalize this modeshape with respect to  M  , i.e. normalize the modeshape

   
such that 3  M  3   I  , we first use the modeshape we have just found and compute
T

% %
   
3  M  3 .
T

% %
1
 
1
 
0
  100
    1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 
100
3  M  3 
T
5  15.528
% % 32.2   32.2
1
 
0
 
 1 
 
Scaling 3 with
%
1
15.528
 0.2538

we find the mass-normalized modeshape for the 3rd mode as

 1   0.2538 
   
 1   0.2538 
   
0  0 
   
   
 
3 
1
1  0.2538
15.528   
% 
1 0.2538
   
0  0 
   
 1   0.2538 
Mode #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Period (sec) 0.68 0.23 0.14 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.07
Freq (Hz) 1.5 4.3 7.0 9.4 11.3 12.8 13.7
7 0.29 0.28 0.25 0.22 0.17 0.12 -0.06
6 0.28 0.17 0.00 -0.17 -0.28 -0.28 0.17
Floor Level

5 0.25 0.00 -0.25 -0.25 0.00 0.25 -0.25


4 0.22 -0.17 -0.25 0.12 0.28 -0.06 0.29
3 0.17 -0.28 0.00 0.28 -0.17 -0.17 -0.28
2 0.12 -0.28 0.25 -0.06 -0.17 0.29 0.22
1 0.06 -0.17 0.25 -0.29 0.28 -0.22 -0.12
0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Mass-normalized modeshapes
7

Mode 1

0
-0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40
7

4
Mode 1
Mode 2
3

0
-0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40
7

4
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
3

0
-0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40
7

4
Mode 2
Mode 3
Mode 4
3

0
-0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40
7

4
Mode 3
Mode 4
Mode 5
3

0
-0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40
7

4
Mode 5
Mode 6
3

0
-0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40
7

4
Mode 6
Mode 7
3

0
-0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40
7

4
Mode 1
Mode 7
3

0
-0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40
71

72
Example


wn