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(Course 25741)

Synchronous Motors
…Steady-state Operation
• for field current less than value related to IA,min
armature current is lagging, consuming reactive
power, while when field current is greater than
value related to IA,min armature current is
leading, and supplying Q to power system
• Therefore, by adjusting the field current,
reactive power supplied to (or consumed by)
power system can be controlled
…Steady-state Operation
Under-excitation & Over-excitation
• If EA cosδ; projection of EA onto Vφ; < Vφ
syn. motor has a lagging current & consumes Q
& since If is small, is said to be: underexcited
• If EA cosδ; projection of EA onto Vφ; > Vφ it has a
leading current & supply Q (since If is large,
motor named overexcited

Syn Motor…Steady-state Operation
2nd Example
• The 208, 45 kVA, 0.8 PF leading, Δ connected,
60 Hz syn. motor of last example is supplying a
15 hp load with an initial PF of 0.85 PF lagging.
If at these conditions is 4.0 A
(a) sketch initial phasor diagram of this motor, &
find IA & EA
(b) motor’s flux increased by 25%, sketch new
phasor diagram of motor. what are EA, IA & PF ?
(c) assume flux in motor varies linearly with If,
make a plot of IA versus If for a 15 hp load
Syn Motor…Steady-state Operation
• Solution:
(a) Pin=13.69 kW,
IA=Pin/[3Vφ cosθ]=13.69/[3x208x0.85]=25.8 A
θ=arc cos 0.85=31.8◦ A
IA = 25.8 /_-31.8◦ A
EA=Vφ-j XS IA =208 – (j2.5)(25.8/_-31.8◦)=
= 208 – 64.5/_58.2◦ = 182 /_-17.5 V
Related phasor diagram shown next
Syn Motor…Steady-state Operation

• (b) if flux φ increased by 25%, EA=Kφω will increase

by 25% too:
EA2=1.25 EA1 =1.25(182)=227.5 V
since EA sinδ1 is proportional to Power, it remains
constant when varying φ to a new level, so:
EA sinδ1 =EA2 sinδ2
Syn Motor…Steady-state Operation
• δ2=arcsin(EA1/EA2 sinδ1) =
arcsin[182/227.5 sin(-17.5)]=-13.9◦
• armature current :
IA2=[Vφ-EA2]/ (jXS) = [208-227.5/_-13.9]/[j2.5]=
56.2/_103.2/(j2.5) =22.5 /_13.2 A
motor PF is : PF=cos(13.2)=0.974 leading
(c) assuming flux vary linearly with If, EA also vary
linearly with If, since EA=182 for If=4.0A
EA2/182=If2 /4.0 A or EA2=45.5 If2
Syn Motor…Steady-state Operation
….Example & PF Correction
• Torque angle δ for a given If found as follows:
EA sinδ1 =EA2 sinδ2  δ2 =arcsin(EA1/EA2 sinδ1)
These two present the phasor voltage of EA & then new
armature current determined:
IA2= [Vφ-EA2]/(jXS)
Using a MATLAB M-file IA determined versus If and present the
V shape (text book)
• In next figure an infinite bus supply an industrial plant
containing several motors (as load), through a transmission line
• Two of loads are induction motors with lagging PF, and third
load is a synchronous motor with variable PF
• What does the ability to set PF of one load, do for power
system? This studied in following Example
Syn Motor…Steady-state Operation
3 rd Example
• Simple power system, infinite bus has a 480 V

• Load 1, an induction motor consuming 100 kW

at 0.78 PF lagging, load 2 is an induction motor
consuming 200 kW at 0.8 PF lagging. Load 3 is
synchronous motor whose real power
consumption is 150 kW
Syn Motor…Steady-state Operation
3 rd Example
(a) syn. Motor adjusted to operate at 0.85 PF
lagging, what is transmission line current
(b) if syn. Motor adjusted to operate at 0.85 PF
lagging, what is transmission line current in this
(c) assume the transmission line losses are
given by: PLL=3IL^2 RL line loss
Where LL stands for line losses. How do
transmission losses compare in the two cases?
Syn Motor…Steady-state Operation
3 rd Example-Solution
(a) Real power of load is 100 kW, & its Q is:
Q1=P1 tanθ =100 tan (acos 0.78)
=100xtan(38.7)=80.2 kVAr
• Real power of load 2, is 200 kW, and Q of load 2 is
Q2=P2 tanθ =200 tan (acos 0.8)
=200xtan36.87=150 kVAr
• Real power of load 3 is 150 kW, & Q of load 3 is:
Q3=P3 tanθ =150 tan(acos0.85)=150xtan 31.8 =93
• Thus total real load is:
Ptot=P1+P2+P3=100+200+150=450 kW
• Qtot=Q1+Q2+Q3=80.2+150+93=323.2 kVAr
Syn Motor…Steady-state Operation
3 rd Example-Solution
• PF=cosθ=cos(atanQ/P)=cos(atan323.2/450)=
cos35.7=0.812 lagging
IL=Ptot/[√3 VL cosθ]=450/[√3x480x0.812]=667A
(b) only Q3 changed in sign:
Q3=P3 tanθ =150 x tan(-acos0.85)=150xtan(-31.8)=-93
Ptot=100+200+150=450 kW
Qtot=80.2+150-93=137.2 kVAr
PF=cos(atanQ/P)= cos(atan 137.2/450)
=cos(16.96)=0.957 lagging
IL=Ptot/[√3 VL cosθ]=450/[√3x480x0.957]=566 A
Syn Motor…Steady-state Operation
3 rd Example-Solution
• (c) transmission losses in (a):
PLL=3 IL^2 RL=3x667^2 RL=1344700 RL
in (b); PLL=3x556^2 RL=961070 RL
• Note: in (b) transmission losses reduced by 28% while
power supplied to loads is the same
• The ability to adjust PF of loads in a power system
affects operating efficiency significantly
• Most loads in typical power system are induction
motors  lagging PF
• Having leading loads (overexcited syn. motor) is
useful due to following reasons:
Syn Motor…Steady-state Operation
3 rd Example-Solution
1-leading load, supply reactive power Q for nearby lagging loads,
instead of coming from Gen. & transmission losses reduced
2- since less current pass transmission lines, lower rating and
investment is required for a rated power flow
3- requiring a synchronous motor to operate with leading PF
means it must be overexcited
this mode increase motor’s maximum torque & reduces chance
of accidentally pullout torque
• Application of syn. Motor or other equipment to improve PF is
called power-factor correction
• Many loads that accept constant speed motor are driven by
syn. Motors & due to PF correction capability save money in
industrial plants
• Any syn. Motor exists in a plant run overexcited to improve PF
& to increase its pullout torque, which need high If & φ & heat
Synchronous Capacitor
Synchronous Condenser
• A syn. Motor can operate overexcited to supply
Q, some times in past syn. motor employed to
run without a load & simply for power-correction
• This mode of operation shown in below phasor

• Vφ=EA+j XS IA since no power being drawn

from motor  EA sinδ & IA cosθ are zero
Syn. capacitor or Syn. Condenser
• jXS IA points to left  IA points straight up
• If Vφ and IA examined voltage-current relationship is
similar to a capacitor
• Some syn. Motors are used specifically for PF
correction & can not be connected to any load, these
are called syn. Condensers or syn. Capacitors
• Today, conventional capacitors are more economical
to be used than syn. Capacitors, however some syn.
Capacitors may still be used in older industrial plants
Syn. capacitor or Syn. Condenser
• V curve of Synchronous Capacitor &
corresponding phasor Diagram
• Since real power supplied to machine zero
(except for losses) at unity PF, IA=0
• Sofar, in study of syn. motor, it is assumed that motor
is initially turning at syn. Speed
• However, how did motor get to synchronous speed?
• realizing that for a 60 Hz motor at moment power
applied to stator, rotor is stationary, and BR is
• Stator magnetic field BS is starting to sweep around at
syn. speed
• At t=0 BR and BS are exactly lined up.
• Tind= k BR x BS would be zero
• Torque alternates rapidly in magnitude &
direction,  net starting torque is zero
• The average torque over complete cycle cycle was
• Motor vibrates heavily with each electrical cycle &
• This approach to syn. Motor starting is not satisfactory,
burning up the expensive equipment
• The 3 basic approach to safely start the syn. Motor
• 1- Reduce speed of stator magnetic field to low
enough value that rotor can accelerate & lock in with it
during half-cycle of magnetic field rotation, by reducing
frequency of applied electric power
• 2- use an external prime mover to accelerate
motor up to syn. Speed, follo the paralleling
procedure and bring machine on the line as a
generator, turning off the prime mover will make
syn. Machine a motor
• 3- use damper windings or amortisseur
windings. Its function described next