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Flight Operations Web Conference – 05 May 2009

RTOW charts, Frequently Asked Questions


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
Flight Operations Web Conference

• NEW concept
• Flight Operations topic presented during 20 minutes
• Questions may be asked in real time
• Answers to some selected questions will be given after the
presentation (please stay on line after the end of
presentation)

• This type of Web Conference will be organized on a


regular basis
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
Presented by:

Thierry PAYA-ARNAUD
Performance Training manager

RTOW charts, Frequently Asked Questions


FAQ about takeoff charts - Content

• Minimum speeds
• Acceleration altitudes
• V1 evolution
• Speeds checks
• Limitation Codes
• Flex corrections
• TMAX, TFLEXMAX
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

VMC, VMU…
FAQ about takeoff charts - Min Speeds
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

FAQ about takeoff charts - Min Speeds

What is the meaning of the grey bar ?


FAQ about takeoff charts - Min Speeds

What is the meaning of the grey bar ?

• A grey bar indicates that a takeoff speed is close to a VMC


limitation.
This limitation can be :
V1 limited by VMCG
V2 limited by VMCA

• This indication is given so that the pilot pays particular


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

attention to the aircraft control at these low speeds.


FAQ about takeoff charts - Min Speeds

How come V1 can be lower than the minimum


V1 given at the bottom of the chart ?
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
FAQ about takeoff charts - Min Speeds

How come V1 can be lower than the minimum


V1 given at the bottom of the chart ?

• Minimum V1 given at the bottom of the chart is calculated by adding


 the maximum VMCG on the global set of points (Complete chart)
+
 the maximum (V1-VEF) (Complete chart)

• For a given point, V1 can be less than this minimum value if (VEF =
VMCG) and
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

(V1- VEF) is less than max (V1 - VEF)


© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

FAQ about takeoff charts - Acceleration altitudes


FAQ about takeoff charts – Acceleration altitudes

Why are there stars in place of the


min and max acceleration altitudes ?
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
FAQ about takeoff charts – Acceleration altitudes

Why are there stars in place of the


min and max acceleration altitudes ?

• Minimum acceleration altitude is calculated as the


MAXIMUM of the ‘min acc. Altitude’ values on the global
set of points
• Maximum acceleration altitude is calculated as the
MINIMUM of the ‘max acc. Altitude’ values on the global
set of points
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

• It may then happen that the min acc. altitude is higher than
the max acc. altitude : in this case, stars are displayed in
the chart and the min and max acc. altitude values must be
read in a specific chart.
:----------------------:-------------------------:----------------------------------------:----------------:-------------------

FAQ about takeoff charts – Acceleration altitudes


: A340541 - JAA : RR TRENT 553 engines : airbus : 08L : 27.0.0 03-MAY-09
:----------------------:-------------------------: AIB - LFZZ : : AA541A05 V21
: QNH 1013.25 HPA :----------------------------------------: :-------------------
: Air cond. Off : Elevation 335 FT TORA 3664 M : : DRY
: Anti-icing Off : Isa temp 14 C TODA 3724 M :----------------: CONF 1+F
: Dry check : rwy slope -0.17% ASDA 3664 M : 3 obstacles : TOGA
: :----------------------------------------:----------------:
: : EOP - Standard :
: : :
: : :
:------------------------------------------------:---------------------------------------------------------:-------------------
: OAT : TAILWIND : WIND : HEADWIND : HEADWIND
: C : -10 KT : 0 KT : 10 KT : 20 KT
:-------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:----------------------------
: -10 : 385.7 : 400.0 : 400.0 : 400.0
: : 5016 5351 : 5089 5424 : 5043 5378 : 4999 5334
: : 6164 6499 : 5483 5818 : 5493 5828 : 5503 5838
:-------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:----------------------------
: 5 : 376.5 : 398.4 : 400.0 : 400.0
: : 4618 4953 : 4768 5103 : 4749 5084 : 4709 5044
: : 6510 6845 : 5405 5740 : 5334 5669 : 5343 5678
:-------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:----------------------------
: 20 : 367.4 : 389.5 : 396.6 : 400.0
: : 4286 4621 : 4406 4741 : 4450 4785 : 4452 4787
: : 6822 7157 : 5672 6007 : 5344 5679 : 5194 5529
:-------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:----------------------------
: 29 : 360.5 : 384.2 : 391.6 : 398.7
: : 4101 4436 : 4216 4551 : 4257 4592 : 4297 4632
: : 7085 7420 : 5841 6176 : 5489 5824 : 5172 5507
:-------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:----------------------------
: 34 : 350.5 : 373.6 : 380.7 : 388.0
: : 4058 4393 : 4177 4512 : 4219 4554 : 4269 4604
: : 6868 7203 : 5645 5980 : 5299 5634 : 4951 5286
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

:-------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:----------------------------
: 39 : 339.9 : 361.2 : 369.1 : 376.4
: : 4020 4355 : 4140 4475 : 4195 4530 : 4251 4586
: : 6602 6937 : 5436 5771 : 5043 5378 : 4689 5024
:-------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:----------------------------
: 44 : 329.2 : 348.5 : 356.0 : 363.7
: : 3993 4328 : 4110 4445 : 4170 4505 : 4239 4574
: : 6309 6644 : 5212 5547 : 4818 5153 : 4431 4766
:-------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:----------------------------
: 49 : 318.0 : 336.6 : 343.1 : 349.0
: : 3973 4308 : 4105 4440 : 4163 4498 : 4211 4546
: : 5926 6261 : 4880 5215 : 4535 4870 : 4264 4599
:-------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:-----------------------------:----------------------------
: 54 : 306.4 : 324.4 : 329.6 : 333.4
: : 3960 4295 : 4110 4445 : 4146 4481 : 4145 4480
: : 5574 5909 : 4541 4876 : 4311 4646 : 4220 4555
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

FAQ about takeoff charts - V1 evolution


FAQ about takeoff charts - V1 evolution

How come V1 can increase


while the weight decreases ?
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
FAQ about takeoff charts - V1 evolution

How come V1 can increase


while the weight decreases ?
• In this example, we are Obstacle and Brake energy limited.
• To reduce TOD, it may be interesting to increase V1 but V1 is limited
by Max Brake Energy speed
• The brake energy limitation depends on weight and the thrust
• When OAT increases, the Weight decreases and the thrust decreases
• When OAT increases, Max V1 limited by Max brake energy speed
increases.
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

FAQ about takeoff charts – Speeds checks


FAQ about takeoff charts – Speeds checks

When applying influence corrections,


do I have to check the speeds against
the minimum values given at the bottom
of the chart ?
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
FAQ about takeoff charts – Speeds checks

When applying influence corrections,


do I have to check the speeds against
the minimum values given at the bottom
of the chart ?
• Yes, when
More than one correction is applied

• If no correction or only one correction is applied, the


speeds are OK. No speed Check against ‘min speeds’.
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

V1
V2
FAQ about takeoff charts – Limitation Codes
FAQ about takeoff charts – Limitation Codes

On a weight chart, can I interpolate


between 2 weights with different
limitation codes ?
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
FAQ about takeoff charts – Limitation Codes

On a weight chart, can I interpolate


between 2 weights with different
limitation codes ?

• Yes, because
theautomatic temperature chart used to build the weight chart is
accurate enough (slight trend below Tref, step of 2°C above Tref)
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

FAQ about takeoff charts – Flex corrections


FAQ about takeoff charts – Flex corrections

When applying corrections on


TFlex for QNH or bleeds, why
isn’t there a correction on the speeds ?
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
FAQ about takeoff charts – Flex corrections

When applying corrections on


TFlex for QNH or bleeds, why
isn’t there a correction on the speeds ?
• The speeds are directly linked to the takeoff weight for a
given runway length and braking capability of the aircraft

• In case of QNH or bleed correction, the only affected item


is the engine thrust
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
FAQ about takeoff charts – Flex corrections

When applying corrections on


TFlex for QNH or bleeds, why
isn’t there a correction on the speeds ?
Weight Thrust
Flat rated Thrust

Actual TOW Needed Bleeds correction


Thrust

EGT Limit
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

ΔTFlex
Temp
correction

Flex Temp Flex Temp OAT


Bleeds ON full Thrust
FAQ about takeoff charts – Flex corrections

When applying corrections on


TFlex for QNH or bleeds, why
isn’t there a correction on the speeds ?
• The flex temperature correction is calculated so that the
thrust after TFlex and Bleeds correction is equal to the
thrust needed without bleeds.
• As the aircraft braking capability is not degraded, the
speeds don’t need to be modified.
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
FAQ about takeoff charts – TMAX, TFLEXMAX

Why do I have temperatures above


the TMAX indicated on the bottom
of the chart ?
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
FAQ about takeoff charts – TMAX, TFLEXMAX

• TMax is the MAX


certified OAT Why do I have temperatures above
For dispatch the TMAX indicated on the bottom
• The RTOW chart is of the chart ?
used for MTOW
determination and for
FLEX computation
• The range of temperature
covers OAT up to TMax
AND temperature
Above Tmax, Up to
TflexMAX
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Last value of OAT


for Dispatch

Temperature for
Flex only
54
FAQ about takeoff charts – TMAX, TFLEXMAX

I received new charts for a new aircraft .


Why is the max temperature displayed
on the chart much higher than before
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.
FAQ about takeoff charts – TMAX, TFLEXMAX

I received new charts for a new aircraft .


Why is the max temperature displayed
on the chart much higher than before
• To improve customers operations, The maximum Thrust
reduction has been increased
• This is available as ‘Extended Flex’ option
• On this example, the TFlexMax is increased from
ISA + 43°C to ISA + 72°C
• The new charts computed for aircraft equipped with
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Extended flex option will provide temperature much higher


than before
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Questions

Questions?
Questions

• Question:
For the same conditions, if there is the same TOW for
CONF 2 and CONF 3, which one is more favorable?

• Answer:
According to FCOM, use the configuration that gives the
highest flex. If both of them provide the same level of flex
thrust or if you cannot flex, use the one with the highest
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

flaps setting. This may change in specific conditions.


Please refer to FCOM 2.02.14. P2.
Questions

• Question:
I understand that when the code changes between 2
boxes, one can interpolate between the take off weights.
But can we also interpolate for the speeds, which at times
change dramatically?

• Answer:
Yes. Interpolation shall be done for all parameters (weight
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

and speeds).
Questions

• Question:
Sometimes, ATC requires the aircraft to enter the runway
using alternate runway entrance. The take off runway
distance available is then reduced. And the crew needs to
update the take off speeds accordingly.
How can we handle this?

• Answer:
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

There is no simple way to handle that with paper RTOW


charts. A specific chart may be used for a very often used
taxiway, but that increases the number of charts. The use
of LPC (software on board) allows this type of computation.
Questions

• Question:
I've checked the landing distance performance of our A320-211 using
the FOVE landing module.
The difference between normal landings distance vs. abnormal,
especially on contaminated runways seem to be negligible.

• Answer:
The impact of failure during the flight depends on the failure case. This
impact is given in the QRH with failure coefficients. Some of them are
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

low (1.1 or 1.2) because the failure only requires higher speed and has
no effect on braking capability of the aircraft. In any case, keep in mind
that the distances given by the QRH or the LPC are reference landing
distances and that the crew shall retain a runway with sufficient
margins.
Questions

• Question:
Similar for takeoff, how do you calculate MIN ACC ALT and
MAX ACC ALT for go-around with Engine Out?

• Answer:
There is no MIN ACC ALT or MAX ACC ALT definition for
go-around. What has to be checked in case of a go-around
is that the aircraft remains above the plane (i.e. surface)
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

defined by the missed approach gradient.


You can refer to the presentation held in Paris Conference
this year for more details on go-around procedure check.
Questions

• Question:
Why has the Bleed corrections to Flex increased a lot recently?

• Answer:
The Anti-ice corrections increase is linked to an Octopus change. You
can refer to PEP 4.4 reasons for change.
The principle of anti-ice corrections on takeoff charts have been
modified: the reduced temperatures list (below 10°C OAT) is used only
to determine weight and speed corrections, the complete temperatures
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

list is used for flex temp correction.


The same principle is used in the FCOM.
As a consequence, Flex corrections for anti-ice may have been
updated in the FCOM
and takeoff charts corrections must be recomputed.
Questions

• Question:
With TmaxFlex of ISA+75, for sure you would go below
25% max legal thrust reduction? Can you explain?

• Answer:
Airbus re discussed this 25% max reduction and obtained
a new certification from authorities for this modification.
Keep in mind that it was already possible for other
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

manufacturer to go beyond 25% using Flex on Derate.


Questions

• Question:
Can you please discuss Airbus philosophy for operations
with the A320 on runways with a width less than 45
meters?

• Answer:
Operating on a runway with a width lower than 45 m
implies an increase in VMCG to be able to control the
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

aircraft inside the limits of the runway as described in the


regulation. This VMCG increment is automatically taken
into by the software provided the runway width has been
correctly entered.
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