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Detedra Lynch
Alecia Forrester
Lauvana Tate
 Explain the general actions of hormones

 Describe how endocrine organs are controlled by negative feedback mechanisms

 Describe the location, hormones produced and functions of the following endocrine glands: pituitary,

thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, testis, ovary

 Describe the functions of the hormones secreted by the kidneys and digestive system

 Outline the effects of overproduction and underproduction of the hormones identified in 8.3 and 8.4
What are the general actions of hormones?
The main function of the endocrine system is to excrete hormones directly into the
bloodstream. Hormones are chemical substances that affect the activity of another part
of the body.

Hormones may serve as:

 Messengers or
 The control and coordinator of activities throughout the body
Actions of hormones Cont’d

Upon being released into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands a hormone
binds to a receptor, once the hormone has attached itself it transmits a
message which will in time cause a specific action or response.
Examples of responses/actions:
 Growth or development
 Birth or reproduction
 Lactation
 Stress or injury
 Hormones also influence the way the body uses and stores energy and levels of salts and
sugar(glucose) in the blood, they may also alter the metabolism of target organs by
increasing or decreasing their activity. However, diseases may result when hormone
concentrations are either too high or too low.
How are endocrine organs controlled by negative feedback
 What are negative feedback mechanisms?
These prevent the systems from becoming overactive or feeds back its own product to
decrease its production.
This type of feedback brings hormones back to normal whenever they start to become
too extreme. It keeps the concentration of hormones within a narrow range.
 Take for instance the thermostat in your home, if it is too cold the thermostat
detects it and turns on the heating. The room then warms up. The temp. is
prevented from rising too high because the thermostat will detect when the
optimum temperature has been exceeded.
 The hypothalamus secretes thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). TRH stimulates the pituitary
gland to produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH in turn stimulates the thyroid gland
to secrete its hormones. When the level of thyroid hormones is high enough, the hormones
feedback to stop the hypothalamus from secreting TRH and the pituitary from secreting TSH.
Without the stimulation of TSH the thyroid glands stop secreting its hormones.
 When bood concentartion of thyroid hormone increase above a certain threshold, TRH
secreting neurons in the hypothalamus are inhibited and stop secreting TRH.
Pituitary Gland
 Pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the based of the brain, just below the Hypothalamus, to which it attached via nerve


 Pituitary gland secrets chemical substances that controls bodily functions.

 Pituitary gland are divided into three sections: the Anterior Lobe, Intermediate Lobe and Posterior Lobe
Pituitary Gland

 The Anterior Lobe is mainly involved in development of the body sexual maturation, and reproduction.

It generates prolactin , which enables new mother to produce milk.

 Intermediate Lobe releases hormones that stimulates the melanocytes cells which control pigmentation-

like skin color- through the production of melanin.

 Posterior Lobe produces antidiuretic hormone, which reclaims water from the kidneys and conserves it

in the bloodstream to prevent dehydration. Oxytocin is also produced by the posterior lobe, aiding in

uterine contractions during childbirth and stimulating the production and release of milk.
Thyroid Gland

 The Thyroid Gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the base of your neck.

 The thyroid gland is about 2-inches long and lies in front of your throat below the prominence of thyroid

cartilage sometimes called the Adam's apple.

 The thyroid gland releases hormones that control metabolism—the way your body uses energy. The thyroid's

hormones regulate vital body functions, including: Breathing, heart rate, central and peripheral nervous

systems, body weight, muscle strength, menstrual cycles, body temperature, cholesterol levels, and much

Adrenal Gland

 Adrenal glands, also known as suprarenal glands, are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of both kidneys.

 Adrenal glands produce hormones that help regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, response to

stress and other essential functions.

 Adrenal glands are composed of two parts — the cortex and the medulla — which are each responsible for producing

different hormones.

 The adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla are enveloped in an adipose capsule that forms a protective layer around an

adrenal gland.
 The adrenal cortex is the outer region and also the largest part of an adrenal gland. It is divided into three separate

zones: zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. Each zone is responsible for producing specific


 The adrenal medulla is located inside the adrenal cortex in the center of an adrenal gland. It produces several “stress

hormones,” including adrenaline.

 The pancreas is a glandular organ in the upper abdomen, consisting of two glands, a hormone producing

endocrine gland and a digestive exocrine gland.

 The Function of the exocrine gland, the pancreas excretes enzymes to break down the proteins, lipids,

carbohydrates, and nucleic acids in food.

 The Function of the endocrine gland, the pancreas secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon to control

blood sugar levels throughout the day. Both of these diverse functions are vital to the body’s survival.
 The testes are twin oval-shaped organs about the size of a large grape. They are located within the scrotum,

which is the loose pouch of skin that hangs outside the body behind the penis.

 The testes (or testicles) are a pair of sperm-producing organs that maintain the health of the male

reproductive system. The testes are known as gonads. The male reproductive system, the testes also have

the distinction of being an endocrine gland because they secrete testosterone—a hormone that is vital to the

normal development of male physical characteristics.


 The ovaries are oval shaped and about the size of a large grape. They are located on opposite ends of the pelvic wall, on either side of

the uterus. The ovaries are each attached to the fimbria (tissue that connects the ovaries to the fallopian tube).

 Ovaries produce and release two groups of sex hormones—progesterone and estrogen. There are actually three major estrogens,

known as estradiol, estrone, and estriol.

 Progesterone and estrogen are necessary to prepare the uterus for menstruation, and their release is triggered by the hypothalamus.
Describe the functions of the hormone secreted by the kidneys and
digestive system
 The kidneys are small bean-shaped organs approximately 6 cm wide and 12 cm long and consist of two main layers –

an inner layer called the medulla and an outer layer called the cortex.

 Each kidney contains 1.0–1.5 million small tubes called nephrons. The kidneys filter blood through a network of small

blood vessels called the glomerulus.

 The kidneys make two main hormones, Vitamin D and Erythropoietin.

 Active vitamin D stimulates the uptake of calcium from food, it is important for the maintenance of healthy bones and

also helps to regulate the response of the immune system to infection.

Function of the hormone secreted by Kidneys cont’d

 Erythropoietin is produced when oxygen levels in the blood are low. It acts in bone marrow to stimulate the

production of mature red blood cells, to maintain healthy oxygen levels in our tissues.

 The kidneys also produce prostaglandins, hormone-like substances, made from lipid (fat). The substances

are one way in which the production of renin is stimulated. Renin is an enzyme, also produced by the

kidneys, that plays an important role in the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone hormonal system, which helps to

control blood pressure.

Function of the hormone secreted by the digestive system
What is an endocrine system disorder?
 Endocrine disorders are typically grouped into two categories:

 Endocrine disease that results when a gland produces too much

or too little of an endocrine hormone, called a hormone

 Endocrine disease due to the development of lesions (such as

nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may
not affect hormone levels.
Overproduction and Underproduction of hormones

Pituitary Gland
 Symptoms of both overproduction or underproduction of hormones secreted from the pituitary gland may
resemble other conditions or medical problems.

 Some symptoms are: headaches, vision problems, irregular menstrual periods, abnormal breast milk production,
decreased body hair, impotence, enlarged breasts, buildup of fat in the face, back and chest, weakened bones,
rapid growth and profuse sweating.
 Disorders of the pituitary gland are:

 Prolactinoma - A condition in which a noncancerous tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland in your brain overproduces the

hormone prolactin. This can cause menstrual periods in women to be irregular or stop, and can cause galactorrhea (abnormal breast

milk production). Men suffering from this pituitary disorder may experience impotence (erectile dysfunction, or ED) or a lack of

interest in sex.

 Acromegaly - The Greek word for "extremities" and "enlargement." When the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormones the

result is excessive growth, called acromegaly. The excessive growth occurs first in the hands and feet, as soft tissue begins to swell.

This rare pituitary disease affects mostly middle-aged adults.

Growth hormone deficiency occurs when Cushing syndrome occurs due to abnormally
the body doesn’t create enough growth
hormone which results in slow growth. high levels of the hormone cortisol.
Thyroid Gland

 Thyroid disorders can range from a small, harmless goiter (enlarged gland) that needs no treatment to life-threatening cancer. The

most common thyroid problems involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition

known as hyperthyroidism and insufficient hormone production leads to hypothyroidism.

 In hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland is overactive. It produces too much of its hormone. Graves’ disease is the most common cause

of hyperthyroidism. Nodules on the thyroid, a condition called toxic nodular goiter can also cause the gland to overproduce its


 Excessive thyroid hormone production leads to symptoms such as: restlessness, nervousness, racing heart, irritability, increased

sweating, shaking, anxiety, trouble sleeping, thin skin, brittle hair and nails, muscle weakness, weight loss, bulging eyes (in Graves’

 Hypothyroidism is the opposite of hyperthyroidism. The thyroid gland is underactive, and it can’t produce enough of its hormones.

 Hypothyroidism is often caused by Hashimoto’s disease, surgery to remove the thyroid gland, or damage from radiation treatment.

 Too little thyroid hormone production leads to symptoms such as: fatigue, dry skin, increased sensitivity to cold, memory problems,

constipation, depression, weight gain, weakness, slow heart rate, and coma.
Adrenal Gland

 Commonly, overproduction of aldosterone can occur, which causes a condition known as primary hyperaldosteronism.

This causes high blood pressure, which is resistant to conventional blood pressure control tablets, and salt


 In rare cases, the adrenal glands can become either overactive or underactive. The two main glucocorticoid-related disorders

resulting from these are Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease, respectively.

 Cushing's syndrome is due to overactive adrenal glands from excessive production of cortisol.

 Addison's disease or adrenal insufficiency is due to underactive adrenal glands associated with lack of hormones. Adrenal

insufficiency may be acute or chronic.

 Problems in the production or regulation of pancreatic hormones will cause complications related to blood sugar
 Of all the diseases and disorders of the pancreas, the most well-known is diabetes.

 Type 1 diabetes: If you have type 1 diabetes, then your body doesn’t produce any insulin to handle the glucose in

your body. Insulin deficiency causes a range of complications, so people with type 1 diabetes have to take insulin to

help their body use glucose appropriately.

 Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes is much more prevalent than type 1. People with type 2 diabetes may be able to

produce insulin, but their bodies don’t use it correctly. They might also be unable to produce enough insulin to handle

the glucose in their body.

 Other common diseases and disorders associated with the pancreas are:

 Hyperglycemia: This condition is caused by abnormally high blood glucose levels. It can be caused by

overproduction of the hormone glucagon.

 Hypoglycemia: This is caused by low blood glucose levels. It is caused by a relative overproduction of insulin.
Sex hormone
 Sex hormone disorders occur when there is either an overproduction or underproduction of the hormones responsible for sexual
characteristics and development.

 Ovary
Estrogen is one of the primary female sex hormones. Normally, estrogen is in balance with the other primary sex hormone, progesterone.
When the body has too much estrogen, from overproduction of estrogen or lack of progesterone, it enters a state referred to as
"estrogen dominance."

 Women also produce androgens (male-like hormones). Testosterone and DHEAS are two of the androgens women produce. When
these hormones are not in balance women may experience symptoms including: acne, changes in female body shape, decrease in
breast size, increase in body hair in a male pattern, such as on the face, chin, and abdomen, lack of menstrual periods (amenorrhea).
 In males, the main male hormone is testosterone. Testosterone is produced by the
testicles. When males do not produce enough testosterone they may experience a
decline in libido (sex drive), erectile dysfunction, loss of muscle and loss of body
 Erythropoietin is a hormone, produced mainly in the kidneys, which stimulates
the production and maintenance of red blood cells.

 Excess erythropoietin results from chronic low oxygen levels or from rare
tumours that produce high levels of erythropoietin. It causes a condition known as
polycythaemia which is a high red blood cell count.

 If you have too little erythropoietin, which is usually caused by chronic kidney
disease, there will be fewer red blood cells and you will have anemia.
Digestive System
Gastrointestinal hormones

 Gastrointestinal hormones are hormones produced from specialized endocrine cells of the stomach,
pancreas and small intestine, which are secreted directly into the bloodstream.


 Gastrin is a hormone produced by the stomach, which stimulates the release of gastric acid.

 An excess of gastrin can occur due to a gastrin-secreting tumour (gastrinoma, also known as Zollinger-
Ellison syndrome) occurring within the small intestine (specifically within the upper part known as the
duodenum) or in the pancreas. In gastrinomas, high levels of gastrin moving around the gut stimulate acid
release, leading to stomach and small intestine ulcers.

 It is rare to have too little gastrin. However, low levels of gastric acid may increase the risk of infection
within the gut and may limit the ability of the stomach to absorb nutrients.

 Cholecystokinin is a gut hormone released after a meal, which helps digestion and
reduces appetite.

 Individuals who have cholecystokinin levels that are too high suffer no known ill effects.
In fact, the lack of cholecystokinin side effects sparked research into using it as a weight-
loss drug option, because the hormone has an appetite-reducing result.

 Too little cholecystokinin can have an adverse outcome on the body. Obese people have
been found to have less than the average levels of cholecystokinin, which may contribute
to problems with increased appetite and further difficulty with weight loss.