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Components of Communication
By the end of this session, students are
expected to be able t
 Define communication
 Explain the concept and process of
 Describe barriers to effective communication
 Explain the components of the
communication process
 Utilize the components of communication
during patients/clients
 A two way process in which information,
knowledge, ideas and meanings are
transmitted by any means from one individual
or group to another individual or Group
 Sender
 Message
 Receiver
 Feedback
A sender creates a message for the receiver
 The sender uses a channel to relay the
 The receiver and the sender use feedback to
ask for more information, get answers and
 find out whether the message is understood
 Communication process.

Sender Message Receiver

 Effective use of communication will play an
important role in the nursing care career and
 personal life.
 It is the foundation on which interpersonal
relationship are built.
 The art of communication does not come
naturally, you must learn it.
 Effectivecommunication requires the ability
of sender and receiver to:
 Listen
 Pay attention
 Receive what the other is trying to
 Respond verbally or non-verbally (i.e. use
1.Telling or lecturing
 This is used in situations where new
information is given to client (as in health
education sessions).
 Lecturing can be boring.
 To avoid boredom information should be
clear, short, concise, complete and
convincing to get the attention of clients
 Asking question during communication
process is a skill which is vital to find out
if the message has been understood.
 It also assists in correcting misconceived
 Through questioning clients are involved in
communication process.
3. Listening
 A good educator should be a good listener.
 Listen help the educator to understand the
 When the health worker listens and gives
correct answers these motivates client to
express their needs freely.
4. Observing
 During communication process especially in a
health education sessions clients
should be observed for the following
reactions, smiling, yawning, sleeping, and
whispering to neighbors
 These reactions should be noted and
identified because they tell how the clients
receive information being delivered
 Consequences of Negative Non-verbal
 Information is not shared, understood
 The patient may ask fewer questions
 Problem may be difficult to understand
 Situation may be uncomfortable
 Lack of adherence to medical appointments
and/or treatment
 Messy desk, with other patients’ information
all over the table
 Interruptions and distractions
 Lack of privacy. E.g The door is open and
there are people nearby who can hear their
interaction, so there is no privacy to ensure
 Not looking directly at someone when he/she
is talking..
 Looking out the window
 Looking at the clock or watch
 Starting to speak to someone else
 Shuffling papers
 The sender has the primary responsibility for
starting an effective communication flow:
 Talking too much, not giving patient time to
express him or herself
 Being critical and judgmental
 Laughing at or humiliating the patient
 Showing signs of being upset
 Not listening or accepting feedback
 Using an inappropriate channel
 Not listening, not paying attention
 Lack of knowledge on the subject of
 Using difficult or different language
 Contradictory verbal information with non-
verbal gestures
 Using the inappropriate channel
 Not listening, not paying attention
 Interrupting before sender completes the
 Not sending feedback
 1. Sender. (Encoder, Source)
 Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the
 A sender makes use of symbols (words or
graphic or visual aids) to convey the
 message and produce the required response.
 Sender may be an individual or a group or an
 The views, background, approach, skills,
competencies, and knowledge of the sender
 have a great impact on the message.
 o The verbal and non-verbal symbols chosen
are essential in ascertaining interpretation
 of the message by the recipient in the same
terms as intended by the sender.
 2. Message.
 Message is a key idea that the sender wants
to communicate.
 It is a sign that elicits the response of
 Communication process begins with
deciding about the message to be conveyed.
 It must be ensured that the main objective of
the message is clear.
3. Medium or channel.
 Medium is a means used to exchange /
transmit the message.
 The sender must choose an appropriate
medium for transmitting the message else
 message might not be conveyed to the
desired recipients.
 oThe choice of appropriate medium of
communication is essential for making the
 message effective and correctly interpreted
by the recipient.
 The choice of communication medium varies
depending upon the features of
 Communication E.g Written medium is chosen
when a message has to be conveyed to a
small group of people.
 Some of the Communication channels are as
follow; Speaking, Writing, Body
Language, Sign language, Telephone, Media
(television, newspapers and radios
4. Receiver (decoder)
 Receiver / Decoder are a person for whom the
message is intended / aimed / targeted.
 The degree to which the decoder
understands the message is dependent upon
factors such as knowledge of recipient, their
responsiveness to the message, and the
reliance of encoder on decoder
 5. Interaction/Feedback.
 Feedback is the main component of
communication process as it permits the
sender to analyse the efficacy of the message
It helps the sender in confirming the correct
interpretation of message by the decoder.
 Feedback may be verbal (through words) or
non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs.
 It may take written form also in form of
memos, reports, etc
 Allthe senses can be involved in
 You see and hear other people through
conversations; you sometimes touch others
express concern or care.
 You smell or test to learn information
 Communication process has five components
which include sender, message, channel,
 receiver and feedback.
 Effective communication is when there is
shared meaning and understanding between
sender and receiver using the correct
 Effective communication can be either verbal
or non-verbal.
 Effective communication can be blocked by
barriers from the sender and/or the receiver.
 Effective communication enhances the
working relationship between the patient and
the health care worker.
.. END……