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Forensic Odontology
• can be defined in many ways.
• Forensic dentistry, or forensic odontology,
is defined as: “the area of dentistry
concerned with the correct management,
examination, evaluation, and presentation
of dental evidence in criminal or civil legal
proceedings in the interest of justice.”
• The term "forensic" is from the Latin,
meaning forum or a place where legal
matters are discussed
• forensic dentistry represents the
overlap between the dental and the
legal professions
Field study
• identification of an assailant by comparing
a record of their dentition (set of teeth)
with a record of a bite mark left on a
• Other uses : in law for dentists include the
identification of human remains, medico-
legal assessment of trauma to oral tissues,
and testimony about dental malpractice.
Dental Examination for DVI
• Has been used Nero (45 AD), to identify
the slaves
• dental records ultimately identified the
remains of Adolph Hitler and Eva Braun
• 1867 Oscar Amaedo, identifying
hundreds of great fire victims in paris
Actual issue
• Mass disaster in Indonesia: Bali
Bomb blaster, Tsunami aceh, Sukoi
superjet, Senopati , manggarai,
Morowali, etc.
• The more victims could not
Next Problem
• The victims could be evacuated
but couldn’t identified, because :
Loss, drowned, burned, buried,
• Social-legal problems : Insurance,
state of marital, heritage, etc.
• Criminal-legal : An investigation to an
criminal death victim cannot begin until
the victim has been identified
• Marriage : Individual from many
religions background cannot remarry
until the partner is confirmed
• Monetary : The pension, life insurance
& other benefits will not be pay until
the victims has been positive identified
• Religion-law (Syari’ah) :
Islam law : the bodies must be
burried as soon as possible
• Heritage : cannot be divided until
the victim has been positif
• As part of Universal Human Right
Identification technique :

• Simple : Visual inspection

• Scientific : (cannot recognized)
Primer : DNA, fingerprint, dental
Secunder : Attach properties : ID-
card, Bank card, Licence, ring,
cloth, tattoo etc.
Why ?
• Hardness of teeth > bone. Covered by
soft tissue & saliva, proof from fire &
other chemical substances.
• Individuality. Identical probability (1: 2
• Give more Information : age (eruption
time & Gustaffson), sex (Teeth shape,
DNA), face profile, blood group, race,
Social state, habit (job associated), etc.
• Accuracy > 50% (1-st Bali bomb
blaster 56%, GA-200 90%)

• How do you can determining the

age, sex, blood group & race of
victims ?
- Insisivus : Sekop (85-99%), Caucasoid
2-9%, Negro : 12%
- Accessories root 1-st Lower Molars
- Palatum : Ellips, Torus palatinus in
- Carrabelli cusp on 1-st Molars
- Palatum : Parabola shape

- Bimaxilarry protrusive
- Central diastem/spacing & openbite
Victim identification
Ante Mortem Post Mortem



Identified or not
• In victims identification procedure, the
dental record ante mortem is
absolutely needed.
• Dental record : Odontogram, dental
cast, X-photo, 3-D graphs, close up
photographs, testimony..
• (In Indonesia : not usually available)
Benefits vs weakness

• Fast, cheap, simple, accurate

• Absolutely need dental record ante
Bite marks
• In case : Sexual attack, KDRT
• Often found on the skin of the victim
: Neck, breast, vagina, …
• Described as an eliptical / circular
injury that record the specific
characteristic of the teeth.
Bite mark
• Sexual attack
Others legal evidence:

• Saliva : epithel, leucocyt  DNA of

persons suspected
• Other cases : Bite mark on : apple,
bubble gum, others
• Case report : Basuki Abdullah murdered

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