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Green Tea Extract

Introduction
• Tea, derived from Camellia sinensis L., is one of the most widely consumed
beverage in the world.
• Tea is categorized depending on degree of fermentation that takes place
during processing: both white tea and green tea being unfermented;
oolong tea semi-fermented and black tea fully fermented.
• Green tea is produced by inactivating the heat-labile enzyme polyphenol
oxidase in the fresh leaves by either applying heat or steam, which
prevents the enzymatic oxidation of catechins, the most abundant
flavonoid compounds present in green tea extracts.
Green Tea
• The immature, light-green leaves are
preferably harvested for tea production.
• Different leaf ages produce varying tea
qualities as their chemical compositions
are different.
• Typically, the buds (tips) and the first two
to three leaves are harvested by hand
picking for processing.
• To halt the fermentation action and remove the "grassy" odor, the tea
leaves are steamed using non-pressurized steam for 20-30 seconds.
• After steaming air blown on leaves to cool them down, if leaves are kept
as it is there are chances of loss of aroma and color.
• Enzyme-inactivated raw tea leaves goes under crushing-tearing-curling
processing.
• The leaves have a moisture content of approximately 10-13% after final
rolling, and this is reduced to 5% with hot-air drying.
• The differences of varieties, the environmental effects, various methods of
processing and modes of propagations cause the change of chemical
composition of tea leaves.

Chemical Structure of major polyphenols found in


The composition of fresh tea flush Green Tea extract
Extraction of Polyphenols from Tea
Inventors Title Method Results
Patents No.

Konishi, T., Funada, K. Preparation process of Extraction using a closed column Concentration of the non-polymer
US20070048430A1 GTE extractor designed by the inventors catechins in a range of 20 to 40wt.%
(solid content) with 40 to 60 wt.%
of gallate percentage

Prous, S.R., Villar, A., Extracts of Camellia Aqueous GTE is forced to pass (flow GTE comprising 45 to 55wt.% of
Garcia, A.G., Bernd, F. sinensis with low alkaloid rate 0.5 to 2BV/h) a cation exchange catechins and flavins, and less than
EP1618793A1 content resin (divinyl benzene copolymer types) 0.5wt.% of alkaloids
to give a low-alkaloid liquid fraction

Ekanayake, A., Bunger, GTE subjected to cation exchange Treatment of GTE with a food grade GTE especially useful in
J.R., treatment and cation exchange resin followed by suppressing the
Mohlenkamp J.M.J. nanofiltration to improve nanofiltration at 37.8 - 60ºC characteristic aftertaste of
US005879733A clarity and color aspartame in diet beverage

Quan, D., Xiong, W.W. GT formulation and method of Extraction in cold water (< 50ºC), GTE containing: (a) chlorophyll:
US007232585B2 preparation pulverization of the leaves, remotion of 0.1 - 5.0wt.%; (b) total polyphenol:
residue, drying the aqueous extract 15 - 95wt.%; (c) total free amino
component acid: 0.1 - 15wt.%
Inventors Title Method Results
Patents No.

Ekanayake, A., Li, Process for enriching A process for enhancing theanine Theanine-rich extract which
J.J. extracts of natural extraction from GT through a series of contains at least about 2 times the
US007303773B2 theanine extraction including crude extraction, concentration of the starting
exposing GTE to adsorbent and filtration composition based on the Brix
of the theanine containing eluate. measurement.

Ekanayake, A., Process for making a Extraction with an acidified aqueous Stable GTE, less astringent and
Kirksey, S.T., stable GTE solution; separation of extract from less harsh in taste, which does not
Pultinas J.E.P. residual tea material; mixing the extract become turbid or cause browning
US005427806A solution with gelatin; separation of the when incorporated into a shelf-
precipitates formed under nitrogen blanket stable beverage

Sugimoto, A., Bottleable GT Extraction with hot or cold water, coarse Green tea beverage for selling hot
Furuse, N., Nagata, beverage filtration, ultrafiltration using kieselguhr (50 - 70ºC) containing EGCG and
K., Hosoyama, H., filter with 0.05 to 0.1 Darcy, Combination GCG between 380 to 1500 mg/L
Takihara, T., to adjust the amount of EGCG, GCG, as a total value, glutamic acid
Kinugasa, H. glutamic acid between 20 to 120mg/L, and the
US20070224332A1 diffuse transmittance is 1.0% or
less, and the pH 5 to 7
Inventors Title Method Results
Patents No.

Iwasaki, M., Satake, Method for Extraction into contact with a mixed Stable purified GTE with low
N., Yamamoto, S., manufacturing refined solution containing an organic solvent and concentration of caffeine and
Hosoya, N., Hoshino, GTE water at a mass ratio of 65:35 - 97:3 and reduced amount of turbidity
E., Abe, T., Ueoka, H., active carbon and/or acid clay or active components
Maruyama, E. clay, adjusting the organic solvent/water
US20070059424 mass ratio of the resulting solution from
0:100 to 85:15, and then removing the
turbidity component thus separated

Fukuda, M., Refined green tea (a) Mixing GTE with 50-99 mass% of an The refined GTE has 35-55
Takahashi, H., Konishi extract ethanol aqueous solution, and bringing the mass% of non-polymerized
A. JP2007104967 mixture into contact with, at least, one kind catechin gallate body ratio in
selected from activated carbon, acid white non-polymerized catechins,
clay, and activated clay, and (b) a process and 0.001 - 0.09 of a mass
of treating the product with tannase ratio of caffeine to non-
polymerized catechins.

Choi, W., You, W., GTE having an Extraction in hot water; nanofiltration using The bitter or astringent tastes
Kim, O., Ahn, improved taste and a polymer with MWL (molecular weight are removed and transparency
S.,Chung, K., Lee, H. manufacturing limit) 500, 1000 and 3000 is increased using this method
WO2005122779A1 method thereof for manufacturing GTE
Inventors Title Method Results
Patents No.

Gosmann, G., Bergold, Process to obtain a herbal Freeze-dried GTE extracted using Methodology that extract s more
A.M., Brendel, M., extract comprising catechins water:acetone as a solvent and ultrasound EGCG (18% w/w) and ECG (4.8%
Pungartnik, C., Saito, S.T. assisted extraction w/w) with the same content of CAF
BRPI0801447-7 (5.7% w/w) without heating

Yamamoto, S., Iwasaki, Purified product of GT GTE purification by suspending it in water Packaged beverage containing >
M., Hosoya, N., Hoshino, extract and packaged or water:organic solvent, removing the 300mg nonpolymer catechins per
E. US20060141119A1 beverage of high-catechin precipitate, optionally treating with package. PH 2 to 6.5
content with the purified activated carbon or acid clay or cooling the
product mixed therein solution (< 5ºC) to cause creaming down,
removing the sediment using microfiltration
and ultrafiltration

Ohishi, S., Naitoh, K., Beverage having a Addition of quinic acid in purified GTE to Beverage containing (A) non-polymer
Iwasaki, M., Ogura, Y. concentrated or purified tea improve aftertaste catechins from 0.092 to 0.5wt.% and
US007029718B2 extract (B) quinic acid at a weight ratio of
[(B)/(A)] falling within a range of
from 0.01 to 0.1

Shiei, K., Kawamura, H. Method to produce green tea Subjecting GTE to tannase treatment and GTE free from causing turbidity or
JP2007195479 extract acid treatment followed by active carbon precipitation even if preserving in an
treatment. The range of pH in the acid acid condition
treatment is 2-4
Inventors Title Method Results
Patents No.
Abe, T., Ueoka, H., Process to produce Treatment of GTE with an enzyme GTE (A) non-polymer catechins
Shibata, K. purified GTE having tannase activity in a mixed content: 10- 60wt.%, (B) gallate
WO2007122818A1 solution containing an organic solvent percentage, in the non-polymer
and water at a mass ratio 60:40 - 90:10; catechins: 0 -50wt.%; (C)
and separation of the precipitate CAF/non-polymer catechins
(impurity) mass ratio: 0 - 0.25; (D) (protein
+ dietary fiber)/non-polymer
catechins mass ratio: < 0.12

Shimizu, M., Takatani, GTE treated with Treating GTE liquid containing a lot of Provide a highly concentrated
H., Ogura, Y. tannase gallates in non-polymer catechins with catechin-containing beverage
JP2004321105 tannase to control the content of the using the extract
gallates and subject the green tea extract
to pH adjustment
Alberte, R.S., Gow, Extracts and methods GT species plant material are extracted GTE substantially free of CAF,
R.T., Sypert, G.W., Li, comprising green tea by supercritical CO2 and using Direct oxalic acid, or tannins
D. US20080113044A1 species Analysis in Real Time (DART)-MS to
quality control for any fraction followed
by alcoholic extraction and water
extraction
General Extraction Techniques
1. Solvent Extraction:
• Solvent extraction is an old and time tested technique for extraction.
• The widely used conventional systems for phytochemical recovery are
mainly soxhlet, reflux, and hydro-distillation.
• Solvent extraction produces high yield on dry basis than other techniques.
• Extraction efficacies of this system mostly depend on solvent selection
according to polarity, and proper heat treatment.
• In case of solvent extraction there remains a chance of thermal
degradation of thermo-sensitive active molecules as well as incomplete
extraction.
• The technique poses threat to environment
• These limitations have driven people to search for new alternatives like
environment friendly green technologies
Solvent Extraction General Principle

Dried Tea
Leaves

Extraction

Solvent
Decaffeination
Removal

Solvent
Extraction

Purification
Solvent
Removal

Caffeine Tea
Polyphenols

Chlorophyll
2. Supercritical Fluid Extraction

• Higher selectivity, lesser time consumption and avoidance of toxic organic


solvents are the key advantages of this processes.

• Mostly CO2 is used as supercritical fluid. Supercritical fluid which possesses


lower viscosity and higher diffusivity than liquid.

• Tea components are extracted from a packed bed adsorption column with
help of fluidized CO2 by high pressure.

• SFE was proved to be the best method for decaffeination process, but
limitation of this method is unavoidable loss of tea catechins.

• Using ethanol as co-solvent increases efficiency of decaffeination process.

• Supercritical fluid treatment for decaffeination was also shown to improve


water brewing of green tea.

• SFE is carried out at low temperature and in less time, which decreases the
chances of loss of bioactive components.
3. Microwave Assisted Extraction

• An electromagnetic radiation of wavelength 0.001 to 1 m is considered as


microwave. When microwave passes through a biomass, drastic rise in
temperature causes vaporization of internal water and in turn disrupt the cell
wall and plasma membrane of the biomass.

• Increased permeability of solvent to cell matrix enhance the yield.

• The rate of MAE is affected by the above mentioned parameters in following


way:
microwave irradiation time > microwave intensity > tea/water ratio > number
of times for irradiation.

• MAE at 200–230 °C for 2 min, not only extracts 60–70 % of the polyphenols
but 40–50 % of polysaccharides and Cutin, a bio polyester also.

• The major limitation here is the high temperature which often causes
degradation of tea polyphenols.
4.Ultrasound Assisted extraction

• The mechanism behind UAE is mainly propagation of ultrasound pressure waves within
medium followed by cavitation bubble formation

• As the bubbles cannot expand after a certain limit, it implodes and micro turbulence is
formed, which in turn disrupt cell membrane, enhance permeability of biomass and
accelerate solvent dissolution of target component

• UAE is a preferred mode of tea catechins extraction due to increased efficacy of


extraction process at lower temperature retaining their medicinal values

• It was found that UAE can increase tea polyphenol yield at 65°C, compared with 85°C

• These properties often impel us to ignore the limitation of high time consumption and
less extraction efficacy
5. High pressure processing

• HPP is quite new technology used in food technology being low temperature technique
having microorganism inactivation, as well as freshness retention property

• The concept of adiabatic heating has been applied in this type of extraction

• The pressure is responsible for increasing permeability and solubility of the extracts

• The major disadvantage associated with this process are possibility of structural changes of
few food components, and protein degradation

• Another study does not support the concept of structural changes and they recommend the
process of ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) for avoiding the possibility of structural
damage of bioactive molecules

• Other attributes of UPE suggested by the study are short extraction time with high
reproducibility, high extraction efficacy with less impurity, and lowered consumption of
energy and solvent with mild extraction condition

• When antioxidant activity of tea is concerned, UPE assisted extract have shown the
maximum result among other extraction methods.
6. Subcritical water extraction

• SWE is also one of the newer methods for tea extraction in toxic organic solvent free
approach

• It is the method where hot water assisted extraction is performed at 100 ° C to 374 ° C,
and at 10 to 60 bar pressure until water is in liquid state

• The theory behind the process is at 250 ° C and appropriate high pressure, the
dielectric constant of water eventually decreases and becomes similar to that of
ethanol which helps in better extraction yield of polyphenol at organic solvent free
environment

• It was found that SWE has better decaffeination efficiency than conventional water
extraction approach
Products Specific oxidation issues
Raw meat Oxidation of red meat pigments, resulting in
an undesirable brown color
cooked meat, poultry, sea products Susceptible to oxidation, resulting in a
warmed-over flavor, discoloration and protein degeneration
ready to eat meals Reheating of meat promotes the oxidation process

cereals, bakery products, confectioneries Products are susceptible to oxidation due to long shelf-life
requirements
snack foods, nuts and nut products Products are susceptible to oxidation due to long shelf-life
requirements
oil in water emulsions (mayonnaise, salad dressings, soups Large oil–water interface and complex food matrix increase
and sauces) susceptibility
to lipid oxidation
water in oil emulsions (margarine and fat spreads) Large oil–water interface and complex food matrix increase
susceptibility
to lipid oxidation
vegetable oils, marine oils, frying oils and shortenings Low oxidative stability, due to trans fatty acid regulations,
increases the need for
enhanced antioxidant protection
Beverages (carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, Products are susceptible to oxidation due to long shelf-life
energy drinks, soft drinks and juices) requirements
Inventors Title Method Results
Patents No.

Burdick, D.C., Egger, H., Process for the EGCG was purified from Purified EGCG (91 to 97
Gum, A.G.; Koschinsk, I.; production of (-) - green tea extract by relative percentage%)
Muelchi, E., Prevolt-Halter, I. epigallocatechin gallate chromatography on a
US2007012149B2 macroporous polar resin

Unno, T., Kakuda, T., Method to improve Study of blood EGCG Level Ratio about 0.4 (C/E) give the
Miyazawa, T., Nakagawa, K. absorbability of in rats and human in a highest blood EGCG level in
EP1958521A1 epigallocatechin, food, variable Caffeine/EGCG human
drink and food/drink (C/E) mass ratios
material using the same
and method of
producing the same

Raederstorff, D., Teixeira, Novel nutraceutical Combination of EGCG, Composition that provide a
S.R., Weber, P. compositions comprising pantethine, daily dosage of EGCG: 0.3-
US20060165671A1 epigallocatechin gallate Coenzyme Q-10, phytanic 30mg; pantethine 1.0-50mg;
acid, policosanol and/or phytanic acid 1.0-100 mg, all
lipoic acid to achieving and of these, per kg body weight
maintaining target blood
glucose levels in diabetic
Inventors Title Method Results
Patents No.
Djang, A.H.K. Dietary supplement for Formulation based in herbal- Composition that contains: 5 to
US20060172020A1 promoting control of extract composition comprising about 20 wt.% of an aqueous G.
blood-sugar levels and extracts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract, about 20 to
associated pathology in pentaphyllum, Crataegus 40 wt.% of an aqueous C. sinensis
type 2 diabetics pinnatifidia, Camellia sinensis, extract, C.pinnatifidia extract and
Morus sp.and Monordica charantia M. charantia extract, and 0 to 15
wt.% of an aqueous Morus sp

Lee, B. Composition to Formulation based in a polyphenol Composition that contains: 50.0 to


US20060240120A1 lowering blood glucose extracted, isolated, and purified about 95.0 wt.% of GT polyphenol
from green tea, and calcium. powder and 3.0 to about 30 wt.%
of the calcium

Zhong, L. Compositions and Compositions comprising, at least, Composition that could be used as
US20070009615A1 methods to control two inhibitors selected from the an -amylase inhibitor:
glucose uptake group consisting of an alpha phaseolamin isolated or from
amylase inhibitor, an alpha white kidney bean extract or a
glucosidase inhibitor, and a wheat extract; as an - glucosidase
sodium dependent glucose inhibitor: 1-deoxynojirimycin or
transporter inhibitor mulberry leaf extract; and as a
sodium dependent glucose
transporter inhibitor: green tea
extract
Inventors Title Method Results
Patents No.
Xiong, W., Quan, D., Patel, Effervescent green tea GTE was mix with a lubricant, Solid state water soluble
D.C. extract formulation binding agent, an effervescent formulation comprising (% by
US2006299925B1 causing agent, and other weight): 10 - 50% of GTE, 5-30%
ingredients as vitamins, amino of a carbonate salt, 10-45% of a
acids, ionic minerals, anti pharmaceutical acceptable acid,
oxidants, flavoring and 1-10% of a lubricant, 1-10% of a
sweetening agents binding agent, 0.1-3% of a flavor
agent
Rombi, M. GTE for treating obesity Green tea stems (two leaves and Green tea extract comprising from
US2006830765B2 the bud) were extracted by 20% to 50% by mass of catechols
percolation using water:ethanol or expressed as EGCG and from 5%
other organic solvent, to 10% by mass of caffeine. The
concentrated under partial daily intake of the extract of green
vacuum gives a powder by spray- tea comprises from 250 mg to 50
drier mg of catechols and from 50mg to
200 mg of caffeine

Inaoka, S., Asabu, Y., Food product Enrichment of gallic acid in the Extract containing catechins (A)
Hanaoka, K., Ogura, Y., extract by chemical or enzymatic in an amount of, at least, 200 ppm
Meguro, S., Mizuno, T. hydrolysis of catechin gallates and gallic acid (B) at least 18 ppm
US20030096050A1 and mixing with GTE and the ratio by weight in relation
to catechins (A) and gallic acid
(B), specifically (B)/(A)+(B), falls
Inventors Title Method Results
Patents No.
Brown, W.S., Stubensey, T.N., Composition to promote Dietary supplement comprising an One gelatin capsule that contains:
Logan, A.C., Wojewnik-Smith, weight loss oral administered combination of conjugated
A. epigallocatechin gallate and linoleic acid (CLA) 567 mg and
US20040202732A1 conjugated linoleic acid EGCG 45 mg from GTE std. to
50%. The daily intake of CLA
from 1.7 g to 5.1 g, and from 135
mg to 405 mg of EGCG
Bragaglia, A.J. Nutraceutical A blend that includes green tea Quenching free radical: DPPH
US2006254898B1 composition to protect extract, lutein (zeaxanthin), lipoic scavenging ability and superoxide
against solar radiation acid and selenomethionine was quenching ability over a
evaluated in the followed models: concentration range of 0.00001-
quenching of free radicals 10%. Serine protease inhibitory
(phenazine methosulfate, - activity: activity (trypsin
NADH, mitroblue tetrazolium) inhibitory) over the concentration
and DPPH; Serine protease range of 0.01 - 0.00001% (IC50 =
inhibitory activity; inhibition of 0.174 mg). Inhibition of tyrosinase
tyrosinase activity; UV protective activity: activity at 0.01-0.001%
assay in fibroblast cell line concentration level (IC50 = 1.4
BALB/3T3 clone A31 mg). UV protective properties: At
0.00001% concentration, the cell
viability was nearly 50%
compared to 26% of the untreated
Global scenario
Tea production – 2016 Production (millions of ton)

Country

China 2.4

India 1.3

Kenya 0.5

Sri Lanka 0.3

Turkey 0.2

World 5.95
EXIM report
• India is the second largest producer of tea after China. From 2013-
16 India exported $66017157 worth of green tea.

• For the same time frame India exported $5142404 worth of green
tea extract

• Export values of green tea extract suggest that although there are
companies producing green tea extract, full capacity of green tea
extract production is not yet explored

• India exports most of its green tea extract to developed nations


which shows growing market in these countries driven by consumer
awareness and government regulations.
• Most of the green tea which is imported to India is for the purpose of re
exporting

• During the time period of 2013-16 India imported $1651928 worth of


green tea extract

• Unavailability of high grade green tea extract could be a reason behind


this trend. Import values suggest scope for production of high grade green
tea extract by application of sophisticated technology

• It also hints at growing domestic market


STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES
• Green tea extract has wide application • Production concentrated in South India
in Food, Pharma, Feed, Nutraceuticals and North eastern States
and Cosmetics. • Patented technologies
• Increasing demand worldwide. US is • Local competition
biggest importer
• Raw material is available easily in India

OPPORTUNITY THREATS
• Tea extract is in demand globally • Big players in competition
• Wide applications are possible • Competition increasing in Domestic
• Awareness of Tea extract is increasing market
among masses

3D SWOT ANALYSIS
Big Players
• Martin Bauer group
• Autocrat LLC
• Synthite
• Amax NutraSource
• Phyto Life Science Pvt Ltd
• AVT natural
• Finlays
• Alps Life sciences
Thank You!