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Cellular System Design

Fundamental

Cellular System Design Fundamental
Cellular System Design Fundamental

cellular Mobile System

based on 3 core principles

cellular Mobile System based on 3 core principles FundamentalIt

FundamentalIt

cellular Mobile System based on 3 core principles FundamentalIt
cellular Mobile System based on 3 core principles FundamentalIt

THREE CORE PRINCIPLES OF CELLULAR SYSTEM

  • There are three core principles which works behind cellular system

  • Small cells tessellate overall coverage area.

  • Frequency reuse

  • Handoff

T HREE C ORE P RINCIPLES O F CELLULAR SYSTEM  There are three core principles

CORE PRINCIPLE-1

  • Small cells tessellate ( pattern made of identical shapes) overall coverage area.

C ORE P RINCIPLE -1  Small cells tessellate ( pattern made of identical shapes) overall
  • Instead of

one cell(covering area) with

one high power transmitter ,the entire

city or covering area is broken up into smaller area which is call cell.

 Instead of one cell(covering area) with one high power transmitter ,the entire city or covering

CITY IS DIVIDED IN HEXAGONAL CELL

Cell

C ITY IS DIVIDED IN HEXAGONAL CELL Cell

City is divided into small regions

City is divided into small regions
  • Each of these smaller coverage areas has its own low power base station.

  • User phones in one cell communicate with the base station in that cell.

 Each of these smaller coverage areas has its own low power base station.  User

WHY HEXAGON CELL ?

W HY H EXAGON C ELL ?
  • Ideally base stations have identical, circular coverage areas

  • Circles may be good option but circles Don’t

Tessellate

  • The most circular of the regular polygons that tessellate is the hexagon.

  • Thus, early researchers started using hexagons to represent the coverage area of a base station which is called cell.

 Ideally base stations have identical, circular coverage areas  Circles may be good option but

WHAT IS CELL ?

  • A cell is the geographic unit of a cellular System

    • defined as the area where radio coverage is given by one base station.

W HAT IS C ELL ?  A cell is the geographic unit of a cellular

TYPES OF CELLS

  • on the basis of coverage area, cells may be following Types

  • Macro cell

  • Micro cell

  • Pico cell

  • Femto cell

T YPES OF C ELLS  on the basis of coverage area, cells may be following

Macro cell

  • radius (1-35)Km

  • used in rural areas or along highways

  • provide coverage to larger area .

  • The antennae for macro cells are mounted on ground-based masts, rooftops etc

 Macro cell  radius (1-35)Km  used in rural areas or along highways  provide
  • Micro cells

    • have the radius

(2-8)Km

  • used in a densely populated urban area

Pico cells

  • have the radius

100m - 1km

  • used in large office, a mall, or train station.

Femto Cells

  • have the

radius (10-100) m

  • used in homes or small offices.

 Micro cells  have the radius (2-8)Km  used in a densely populated urban area

Core Principle-2

Core Principle-2 T HE CORE PRINCIPLE -2 Frequency Reuse FREQUENCY RESUE FREQUENCY RESUE

THE CORE PRINCIPLE-2

Frequency Reuse

FREQUENCY

RESUE

FREQUENCY RESUE

  • A cell has one or several frequencies, depending on traffic load.

    • Frequencies are reused, but not used in neighboring cells due to interference.

 A cell has one or several frequencies, depending on traffic load.  Frequencies are reused,

NEED OF FREQUENCY REUSE

  • GSM is not used for voice communication, but it is use for data communications also.

  • e.g 900MHz band have 25 MHz frequency band which account to a maximum of 125 frequency channels

  • Within an eightfold time multiplex for each carrier ,a maximum of 1000 channels can be accommodated .

  • This number is further reduced by guard bands and the overhead required for signaling .

N EED O F FREQUENCY R EUSE  GSM is not used for voice communication, but

FREQUENCY REUSE - AN INTELLIGENT FREQUENCY ALLOCATION PLANNING

  • In order to be able to serve several millions of subscribers in spite of this limitation ,frequencies must be spatially reused .

  • This spatial frequency reuse concept led to the development of cellular technology ,

  • Which allowed a significant improvement in the economic use of frequencies .

F REQUENCY REUSE - AN INTELLIGENT F REQUENCY ALLOCATION P LANNING  In order to be

AN INTELLIGENT FREQUENCY ALLOCATION PLANNING

  • Due to the limited frequency spectrum a small number of radio channels are available for mobile system.

  • The solution ,the industry adopted is called frequency planning or frequency Reuse.

AN INTELLIGENT F REQUENCY ALLOCATION P LANNING  Due to the limited frequency spectrum a small
  • Each BTS is allocated a group of radio channels to be used within a cell.

  • BTS in adjacent cells are assigned different frequency than neighboring cell which is called frequency reuse.

  • The key characteristic of a cellular network is the ability to re-use frequencies to increase both coverage and capacity

 Each BTS is allocated a group of radio channels to be used within a cell.

FREQUENCY REUSE CONCEPT

  • Suppose a cellular system has

    • S total channels

    • k channels per cell (k < S)

  • Channels divided among N cells into disjoint groups

    • N=S/k

    • N cells which use all S channels called “cluster”( size, typically 4, 7, 12)

  • Clusters replicated M times in system

  • Total number of channels(C) = MkN = MS

  • F REQUENCY R EUSE CONCEPT  Suppose a cellular system has  S total channels 

    So, the capacity of a cellular system is directly proportional

    to the number of times a cluster is replicated in a fixed service area.

    So, the capacity of a cellular system is directly proportional to the number of times a

    BUT

    At what distance frequency may

    be reused to avoid interference ?

    B UT … At what distance frequency may be reused to avoid interference ?

    FREQUENCY REUSE DISTANCE(D) ?

    • The distance between two centre of co-

    channel cell is called frequency reuse distance (D)

    • Frequency reuse distance (D)is given by

    D= R
    D=
    R

    where

    N=i²+ij+j²

    R= Radius of the cell N=No.of cells in a cluster

    F REQUENCY REUSE D ISTANCE (D) ?  The distance between two centre of co- channel

    FREQUENCY REUSE DISTANCE(D)

    F REQUENCY R EUSE D ISTANCE (D)
     Co-channel cell ?
     Co-channel cell ?

    Co-channel cell

    ?

     Co-channel cell ?

    The cells which use the same set of frequency are called co- channel cell.

     The cells which use the same set of frequency are called co- channel cell.

    CO CHANNEL CELL

    CO C HANNEL C ELL

    LOCATING CO-CHANNEL CELL ?

    Move i cells along any chain of hexagon

    • Turn 60 degree counter clockwise.

    Move j cells

    • Let i=1,j=2 then N=7

    L OCATING CO - CHANNEL CELL ?  Move i cells along any chain of hexagon
    A A j i A A A A A
    A
    A
    j
    i
    A
    A
    A
    A
    A

    i=1, j=2 , N=1+2+4=7

    A A j i A A A A A i=1, j=2 , N=1+2+4=7

    A Group of cell is called cluster and denoted by N.

    N=i²+ij+j²

    Where i & j are non negative integers.

    • The factor N is called the cluster size.

     A Group of cell is called cluster and denoted by N.  N=i²+ij+j²  Where

    THE NUMBER OF CELL PER CLUSTER, N, CAN ONLY HAVE VALUES WHICH SATISFY THE EQUATION.

    N=i²+ij+j²

    (i, j)

    N

    (1,1)

    3

    (2,0)

    4

    (2,1)

    7

    (3,0)

    9

    (2,2)

    12

    (3,1)

    13

    (3,2)

    19

    THE NUMBER OF CELL PER CLUSTER , N, CAN ONLY HAVE VALUES WHICH SATISFY THE EQUATION

    DESIGN OBJECTIVES FOR CLUSTER FORMATION(SIZE)

    • High spectrum efficiency

    • Required : many users per cell

    • Remedy : small cluster size gives much bandwidth per cell

    • High performance

    • Required : Little interference

    • Remedy : Large cluster sizes

    D ESIGN O BJECTIVES FOR C LUSTER FORMATION (S IZE )  High spectrum efficiency 

    DESIGN OBJECTIVES FOR CLUSTER FORMATION(SIZE)

    4 3 5 1 2 6 7
    4
    3
    5
    1
    2
    6
    7

    N=7

    1 2 3 N=3
    1
    2
    3
    N=3

    PROBLEM WITH SMALLER CLUSTER SIZE

    • If interfering cells are closer, then the total interference power will be larger.

    With higher interference power, the quality of the speech signal will

    deteriorate.

    • To reduce the interference power, we can make the cells larger.

    P ROBLEM WITH S MALLER C LUSTER SIZE  If interfering cells are closer, then the

    PROBLEM WITH LARGER CLUSTER SIZE

    • interfering cells are farther away, the total interference power will be lesser.

    • With lesser interference power, the quality of the signal will be good.

    • But larger cluster size reduce high spectrum efficiency.

    P ROBLEM WITH LARGER C LUSTER SIZE  interfering cells are farther away, the total interference

    Trade off between frequency reuse and

    Quality

     Trade off between frequency reuse and Quality

    WHEN N INCREASE, D ALSO INCREASES THUS LESS INTERFERENCE BUT DECREASE EFFICIENCY

    N

    D

     

    4

    3.46 R

    7

    4.6 R

    12

    6R

     
    N D 4 3.46 R 7 4.6 R 12 6R

    SOME APPROACHES FOR FREQUENCY REUSE CELL PLANNING

    • 1) Coarse planning (no terrain data used)

    • 2) coverage limited

    • step 1: find coverage of base station

    • step 2: make interference matrix

    • step 3: find useful map coloring pattern

    • recursive approach:

    • change transmit powers

    • This changes coverage and interference;

    • we will get 1-2-3 then redo

    S OME APPROACHES FOR FREQUENCY REUSE CELL PLANNING  1) Coarse planning (no terrain data used)
    • 3) Interference limited

    • step 1: Assign frequencies and powers to BTS

    • step 2: Find coverage and interference zones

    • recursive approach: modify powers and frequencies

     3) Interference limited  step 1: Assign frequencies and powers to BTS  step 2:

    Hand Off Strategies in GSM

    Hand Off Strategies in GSM

    What is Handoff

    ?

    What is Handoff ?
    • When a mobile user moves from one cell(BTS) to other cell(BTS) while a conversation is in progress, then the call

    should be transferred to that cell , this is called Hand off .

    • MSC automatically transfers the call to a new cell,

    • Physical channel changed

     W hen a mobile user moves from one cell(BTS) to other cell(BTS) while a conversation

    NEED OF HANDOFF

    • Mobile phone users are by definition mobile

    • Thus, the network should be able to give them continuous access as they move any where.

    • Handoffs must be performed successfully, as

    infrequently as possible and not visible to users.

    • A crucial and important task in any cellular radio system

    NEED OF HANDOFF  Mobile phone users are by definition mobile  Thus, the network should
    Reason of Handoff ?
    Reason of Handoff ?
    • MS moves out of the range of a BTS.

    • When signal at current BS is below a threshold and

    signal at new BS is higher than at current BS

    • Load balancing i.e traffic in one cell is too high

    Reason of Handoff ?  MS moves out of the range of a BTS.  When

    DWELL TIME

    The time over which a call may be maintained within a cell without handoff

    • Governed by number of factors such as

    propagation, Interference, distance between the

    MS and BTs

    D WELL TIME  The time over which a call may be maintained within a cell

    IMPORTANT PERFORMANCE METRICS IN HANDOFF ?

    • Must be seamless to user

    • Probability of a new call being blocked

    • Probability that a handoff is executed while the reception conditions are inadequate

    • Rate of handoff number of handoffs per unit time

    I MPORTANT P ERFORMANCE M ETRICS I N H ANDOFF ?  Must be seamless to
     Hand over Contains two phases 1-Monitoring phase -measurement of the quality of the current and
     Hand over Contains two phases 1-Monitoring phase -measurement of the quality of the current and
    • Hand over Contains two phases

    1-Monitoring phase

    -measurement of the quality of the current and

    possible candidates radio link

    2-Handover handling phase

    -determination of a new point of attachment(PoA)

    i.e resource reservation

    -setting of new links,release of a old link- execution

     Hand over Contains two phases 1-Monitoring phase -measurement of the quality of the current and

    HANDOFF

    H ANDOFF
    (a) Improper Handoff Situation (a) Improper Handoff Situation Level at point A Level at point A
    (a) Improper Handoff Situation
    (a) Improper Handoff Situation
    Level at point A
    Level at point A
    Handoff threshold
    Handoff threshold
    P
    P
    n
    n
    Minimum acceptable
    Minimum acceptable
    P
    P
    m
    m
    signal to maintain the call
    signal to maintain the call
    Level at point B
    Level at point B
    (call is terminated)
    (call is terminated)
    Time
    Time
    P
    = ?
    P
    – – P P
    = ?
    A
    B
    A
    B
    n
    m
    n
    m
    ?
    should not be too large
    ?
    should not be too large
    BS1
    BS2
    BS1
    BS2
    Received signal
    signal level
    level
    Received
    • Handoff threshold (Pn) must be greater than Pm(Minimum acceptable signal to maintain the call)

    ∆= P n P m

    • ∆ too large:

    to MSC

    Too many handoffs, un necessary burden

    • ∆ too small:

    chance of call being lost, there may be

    insufficient time to complete a handoff before a call is lost due to weak signal condition

     Handoff threshold (Pn) must be greater than Pm(Minimum acceptable signal to maintain the call) ∆=
    (b) (b) P P roper roper Handoff Handoff Situation Situation Level at point B Level at
    (b) (b) P P roper roper Handoff Handoff Situation Situation
    Level at point B
    Level at point B
    Level at which
    Level at which
    handoff is made
    handoff is made
    Time
    Time
    A
    B
    A
    B
    BS1
    BS2
    BS1
    BS2
    Received signal
    signal level
    level
    Received

    TYPES OF HANDOFF ?

    • 1-Hard Hand off

    • 2-Soft Hand off

    T YPES OF H ANDOFF ?  1-Hard Hand off  2-Soft Hand off

    Hard Handoff (Break before make)

    • Connect new cell B after Breaking old cell A

    • Physical Channel changed

    switching Cell A Cell B
    switching
    Cell A
    Cell B

    SOFT HANDOFF (MAKE BEFORE BREAK)

    • A new BS is assign to handle control functions for the mobile

    • MSC can use received signal strength from

    multiple BSs to determine optimum receiver at

    each instant

    • Physical channel does not change

    • Used in CDMA system,

    S OFT H ANDOFF ( MAKE BEFORE B REAK )  A new BS is assign

    Break old cell A after connect new cell B

    transmitting same signal from both BS A and BS B simultaneously to the MS Σ Cell
    transmitting same signal from both BS A and BS
    B simultaneously to the MS
    Σ
    Cell B
    Cell A

    HANDOFF IN 1G CELLULAR MOBILE

    H ANDOFF IN 1G C ELLULAR MOBILE 1st generation analog systems takes 10 s

    1st generation analog systems takes 10 s

    H ANDOFF IN 1G C ELLULAR MOBILE 1st generation analog systems takes 10 s
    2G Handover
    2G Handover
     Mobile stations measure received power from surrounding BTSs  Inform current BTS of measurements 
    • Mobile stations measure received power from

    surrounding BTSs

    • Inform current BTS of measurements

    • Handoff initiated when power received from other BS exceeds power received from current BS by a certain level or for a certain period of time

    • Handoff much quicker (1-2)s only

     Mobile stations measure received power from surrounding BTSs  Inform current BTS of measurements 
     Handover process in GSM consists four steps 1-Measurement 2- Handover request 3-Handover decision 4-Handover execution

    Handover process in GSM consists four steps

    1-Measurement

    2- Handover request

    3-Handover decision

    4-Handover execution

     Handover process in GSM consists four steps 1-Measurement 2- Handover request 3-Handover decision 4-Handover execution

    HANDOVER PROCEDURE

    H ANDOVER PROCEDURE
    H ANDOVER PROCEDURE
    H ANDOVER PROCEDURE
    H ANDOVER PROCEDURE

    Priority Handoff

    Priority Handoff
    • An abrupt call termination due to failed handoff is

    more annoying than being blocked on a new call

    attempt.

    • So handoff become very important

    • There are two method of giving priority to handoffs

      • 1. Guard Channel Concept

      • 2. Queuing Handoff Requests

     An abrupt call termination due to failed handoff is more annoying than being blocked on

    1-GAURD CHANNEL CONCEPT

    • A fraction of the total available channels is reserved exclusively for handoff requests from ongoing calls which may be handed off into the cell.

    1-G AURD C HANNEL C ONCEPT  A fraction of the total available channels is reserved

    QUEUING HANDOFF REQUESTS

    • Handoff requests could be given queuing priority over new calls under the circumstances of lack of available channels

    Q UEUING H ANDOFF R EQUESTS  Handoff requests could be given queuing priority over new

    UMBRELLA CELL CONCEPT

    U MBRELLA C ELL C ONCEPT

    PRACTICAL HANDOFF CONSIDERATION

    • In practical , several problems arise when attempting to design for a wide range of mobile velocities.

    • High speed vehicle

    needs more handoff

    • While pedestrian do not require handoff.

    • Another practical limitation is the ability to obtain new cell

    sites.

    • Cell dragging

    • Several schemes are used to handle the situation.

    P RACTICAL H ANDOFF C ONSIDERATION  In practical , several problems arise when attempting to

    UMBRELLA CELL CONCEPT

    • High-speed mobiles require frequent handoffs

      • which Burdens to MSC

      • Can use “umbrella cells” to minimize handoff Pedestrian users covered in small cells High-speed users covered in large umbrella cell Minimizes handoffs for high-speed users while ensuring capacity for pedestrian users

    U MBRELLA C ELL C ONCEPT  High-speed mobiles require frequent handoffs  which Burdens to

    THE UMBRELLA CELL APPROACH

    T HE U MBRELLA CELL A PPROACH

    CELL DRAGGING

    • If a user has a good LOS path to BS, signal strength might be large even when user has left the cell

    • Causes interference and traffic management problems (user in new cell but managed by old BS)

    • To solve the cell dragging problems ,handoff threshhold and coverage parameters must be adjusted carefully.

    C ELL DRAGGING  If a user has a good LOS path to BS, signal strength

    Whenever a MS want to make a new call, it submit a request for a channel to BTS.

    BTS can grant such an access provided that channel is readily available and otherwise.

     Whenever a MS want to make a new call, it submit a request for a

    CHANNEL ALLOCATION SCHEME ?

    • The design process of selecting and allocating frequencies (channels) for all the BTS within a system is called channel Allocation .

    • Very important from a performance point of

    view.

    C HANNEL ALLOCATION SCHEME ?  The design process of selecting and allocating frequencies (channels) for

    ONE GOOD OPTION

    • Equal distribution of frequencies to all cells

    O NE GOOD OPTION  Equal distribution of frequencies to all cells

    WHAT…?

    • If there is dropped or blocking

    probability of calls in a particular cell due

    to lack of frequencies ?

    W HAT …?  If there is dropped or blocking probability of calls in a particular

    ANY SOLUTIONS

    ..

    ?

    • Increase the number of channels per cell.

    A NY S OLUTIONS … .. ?  Increase the number of channels per cell.

    DUE TO LIMITED RADIO FREQUENCY SPECTRUM ,WE CANT INCREASE THE CHANNELS PER CELL

    Kaash… ! We could have more radio frequency

    spectrum.

    D UE TO LIMITED RADIO FREQUENCY SPECTRUM ,W E CAN ’ T INCREASE THE CHANNELS PER

    ANY OTHER OPTION…?

    A NY OTHER OPTION …?

    Yes ….Frequency reuse

    Yes ….Frequency reuse

    BUT UNFORTUNATELY

    • It is against the philosophy of frequency reuse.

    BUT UNFORTUNATELY …  It is against the philosophy of frequency reuse.
    BUT UNFORTUNATELY …  It is against the philosophy of frequency reuse.

    Why… ????

    Why… ? ? ? ?
    Why… ? ? ? ?
    • Any reduction in the reuse distance increase the

    interference from co-channel cells

    4 3 5 1 2 6 7 4 3 5 1 2 6 7
    4
    3
    5
    1
    2
    6
    7
    4
    3
    5
    1
    2
    6
    7

    N=7

    1 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2
    1
    2
    3
    3
    1
    1
    2
    2
    3
    3
    1
    1
    2

    N=3

     Any reduction in the reuse distance increase the interference from co-channel cells 4 3 5

    ANY OTHER OPTION ?

    Yes, why not,

    because life is all

    about options…

    A NY OTHER OPTION ? Yes, why not, because life is all about options…

    CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT STRATEGIES

    • Various channel assignment strategies has

    be developed to achieve the objective such as

    • Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) schemes.

    • Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) schemes.

    • Hybrid Channel Allocation (HCA) schemes.

    CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT STRATEGIES  Various channel assignment strategies has be developed to achieve the objective such
    • A set of channel is permanently allocated to each cell of the system.

    • This allocation is static and can not be changed

    • FCA systems typically allocate channels in a manner that maximizes frequency reuse.

     A set of channel is permanently allocated to each cell of the system.  This

    

    Then Borrow free channels from

    neighboring cells.

    Then Borrow free channels from neighboring cells.
    • There are many possible channel borrowing schemes:

    Simple Borrowing Schemes Complex Borrowing Schemes

    • Note: The borrowing process must make sure that there is no interference.

     There are many possible channel borrowing schemes:  Simple Borrowing Schemes  Complex Borrowing Schemes

    SIMPLE CHANNEL BORROWING (CB) SCHEMES

    • Select a donor cell from among adjacent cells that has the largest number of free channels.

    • Select the first free channel found for borrowing when the search follows a predefined sequence.

    S IMPLE C HANNEL B ORROWING (CB) S CHEMES  Select a donor cell from among

    SIMPLE CHANNEL BORROWING (CB) SCHEMES

    Donor Cell for Sector X

    Cell 3 1 X Y 2 Z • A call initiated in the sector X of
    Cell 3
    1
    X
    Y
    2
    Z
    • A call initiated in the sector X of cell
    3 can borrow a channel from adjacent
    cells 1 or 2.

    Divide the channels into two groups:

    One group assigned to each cell permanently The second group kept reserved as donors.

    The ratio between groups can be determines a priority or based on the estimated traffic in the system.

     Divide the channels into two groups:  One group assigned to each cell permanently 

    The easiest one, but provides the complexity and worst channel utilization

    Used in Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS)

     The easiest one, but provides the complexity and worst channel utilization  U sed in
    • All channels are kept in a central pool and allocated dynamically as new call arrives .

    • Each time a call request is made, a serving BTS request a Channels from MSC

    When call completed, channel will be returned to central pool.

    • Free channel can be allocated to any cell, as long as interference constraints in that cell can be satisfied.

     All channels are kept in a central pool and allocated dynamically as new call arrives

    TYPES OF DYNAMIC CHANNEL ALLOCATION SCHEMES

    • 1.Centralized schemes

    • 2.Distributed schemes.

    T YPES OF D YNAMIC C HANNEL A LLOCATION S CHEMES  1.Centralized schemes  2.Distributed

    CENTRALIZED CHANNEL ALLOCATION SCHEMES

    • Channel is selected for a new call from a central pool of free channel

    • The centralized DCA scheme involves a single controller selecting a channel for each cell;

    C ENTRALIZED C HANNEL A LLOCATION S CHEMES  Channel is selected for a new call
     Select the first available free channel that can satisfy the reuse distance – the simplest.
     Select the first available free channel that can satisfy the reuse distance – the simplest.

    Select the first available free channel that can satisfy the reuse distance the simplest.

    Select a free channel that can minimize the future blocking probability

    Channel reuse optimization, maximizes the use of every channel

     Select the first available free channel that can satisfy the reuse distance – the simplest.

    DISTRIBUTED DYNAMIC CHANNEL ALLOCATION SCHEMES

    • The distributed DCA scheme involves a number of controllers scattered across the network (MSCs).

      • The allocation is primarily based on one of these three parameters:

      • Co channel cell-based distributed schemes:

    Use a table to indicates if other co-channel cells in the neighborhood are not use and select one of them.

    • Signal strength measurement

      • - anticipated CIR above threshold

    • Signal to noise interference ratio

      • - satisfy desired CIR ratio

    D ISTRIBUTED D YNAMIC C HANNEL A LLOCATION S CHEMES  The distributed DCA scheme involves
     Reduced probability of blocked call  Better signal quality of calls
    • Reduced probability of blocked call

    • Better signal quality of calls

     Reduced probability of blocked call  Better signal quality of calls
     Storage and computational load on the system  MSC continuously collect information about Channel Capacity,
    • Storage and computational load on the system

    • MSC continuously collect information about Channel Capacity, Traffic Distribution ,Radio Signal Strength indication(RSSI) of all channels

    • Behaves worse performance than FCA under heavy loads

     Storage and computational load on the system  MSC continuously collect information about Channel Capacity,

    COMPARISON BETWEEN FCA AND DCA

    FCA

    DCA

    • Performs better under heavy traffic

    • Performs better under light/moderate

    • Flexible channel allocation

    • Low flexibility in channel assignment

    traffic

    • Maximum channel reusability

    • Not always maximum channel

    • Low to moderate forced call

    • High forced call termination probability

    • Suitable for large cell environment

    reusability

    termination probability

    • Low flexibility

    • Suitable in microcellular environment

    • High flexibility

    105
    105

    COMPARISON BETWEEN FCA AND DCA

    FCA

    DCA

    • Radio equipment covers all

    • Radio equipment covers the temporary

    channels assigned to the cell

    channel assigned to the cell

    • Independent channel control

    • Fully centralized to fully distributed

    • Low computational effort

    control dependent on the scheme

    • Low call set up delay

    • High computational effort

    • Low implementation complexity

    • Moderate to high call set up delay

    • Complex, labor intensive frequency planning

    • Moderate to high implementation complexity

    • Low signaling load

    • No frequency planning

    • Centralized control

    • Moderate to high signaling load

    • Centralized, distributed control depending on the scheme

    C OMPARISON BETWEEN FCA AND DCA FCA DCA  Radio equipment covers all  Radio equipment

    OTHER CHANNEL ALLOCATION SCHEMES

    Based on different criterion being used as a

    potential way of optimizing the performance, many other channel allocation schemes have been suggested.

    • Hybrid Channel Allocation (HCA)

    • Flexible Channel Allocation (FCA)

    • Handoff Channel Allocation (HCA)

    O THER C HANNEL A LLOCATION S CHEMES Based on different criterion being used as a

    HYBRID CHANNEL ALLOCATION (HCA)

    • HCA schemes are the combination of both FCA and DCA techniques.

    • The total number of channels available for service is divided into fixed and dynamic sets.

      • The fixed set contains a number of nominal channels that are assigned to cells as in the FCA schemes and, in all cases, are to be preferred for use in their respective cells.

      • The dynamic set is shared by all users in the system to increase flexibility.

    Example: When a call requires service from a cell and all of its nominal channels are busy, a channel from the dynamic set is assigned to the call.

    H YBRID C HANNEL A LLOCATION (HCA)  HCA schemes are the combination of both FCA

    HYBRID CHANNEL ALLOCATION (HCA)

    • Request for a channel from the dynamic set is initiated only when the cell has exhausted using all its channels from the fixed set.

    • Optimal ratio: ratio of number of fixed and dynamic channels ,

    • 3:1 (fixed to dynamic),

    • Provides better service than fixed scheme for 50% traffic.

    • Beyond 50% fixed scheme perform better.

    • For dynamic, with traffic load of 15% to 32%, better results are found with HCA.

    H YBRID C HANNEL A LLOCATION (HCA)  Request for a channel from the dynamic set

    FLEXIBLE CHANNEL ALLOCATION (FCA)

    • Similar to hybrid scheme channels divided into fixed and flexible (emergency) sets.

    • Fixed sets used to handle lighter loads.

    • schedule emergency channels are needed when there is variations in traffic (peaks in time and space)

    • Two types: Scheduled and Predictive

    • Scheduled: Prior estimate is done about traffic change

    • Predictive: Traffic intensity and blocking probability is monitored in each cell all the time.

    F LEXIBLE C HANNEL A LLOCATION (FCA)  Similar to hybrid scheme channels divided into fixed

    VARIATION OF CALL FROM 8 A.M. TO MIDNIGHT

    V ARIATION OF C ALL FROM 8 A.M. TO M IDNIGHT

    Handoff Channel Allocation (HCA)

    Call initiated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 d a b c e Reuse
    Call initiated
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    d
    a
    b
    c
    e
    Reuse distance D

    If a new call is initiated in cell 1, with the current location of channels a,

    b, c, d, e as shown.

    Handoff Channel Allocation (HCA) Call initiated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 d a

    Handoff Channel Allocation (HCA)

    Call initiated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 d a b c e Reuse
    Call initiated
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    d
    a
    b
    c
    e
    Reuse distance D

    It is better to assign channel e to mobile in cell 1.

    Assuming that as cell 1 moves to cell 2, MS in cell 7 moves to

    cell 8.

    Handoff Channel Allocation (HCA) Call initiated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 d a

    115

    OVERLAPPED CELLS-BASED ALLOCATION

    • Cell splitting into number of smaller cells (pico , micro cells) ,to handle increased traffic.

    • For fast moving MS, if channels are assigned from micro cell , no of handoffs will increase.

    • Therefore Highly mobile cells are assigned channels from the cell.

    • MS with low mobility are assigned to micro or pico cells.

    115 O VERLAPPED C ELLS - BASED A LLOCATION  Cell splitting into number of smaller

    OVERLAPPED CELLS-BASED ALLOCATION

    Cell 7 2 6 1 5 3 4
    Cell
    7
    2
    6
    1
    5
    3
    4

    Microcell

    O VERLAPPED C ELLS - BASED A LLOCATION Cell 7 2 6 1 5 3 4
    • In Frequency reuse concept that in a given coverage area, there are several cells that uses the same set of frequencies .

    • These cell are called co channel cell.

    • Interference between signals from these cells is called co-channel interference.

     In Frequency reuse concept that in a given coverage area, there are several cells that

    CO-CHANNEL INTERFERENCE

    1 2 6 3 5 4
    1
    2
    6
    3
    5
    4
    How to Reduce Co-channel Interference ?

    How to Reduce Co-channel Interference ?

    How to Reduce Co-channel Interference ?

    OBVIOUSLY BY INCREASING SIR

    • But co-channel interference cannot be reduced by increasing SIR.

    • Because an increase in carrier transmit power

    increases the interference to neighboring co- channel cell.

    O BVIOUSLY B Y INCREASING SIR  But co-channel interference cannot be reduced by increasing SIR.

    ANY OTHER OPTION

    • Co-channel must be separated by a minimum distance.

    Which is defined in terms of reuse ratio (Q) and given by

    Q

    D  3 N R
    D
     3 N
    R

    FREQUENCY REUSE RATIO(Q)

    By Increasing the

    ratio (Q), co-channel interference can be

    reduced

    (i,j)

    N

    Q

    (1,1)

    3

    3.00

    (2,0)

    4

    3.46

    (2,1)

    7

    4.58

    (3,0)

    9

    5.20

    (2,2)

    12

    6.00

    (3,1)

    13

    6.24

    (3,2)

    19

    7.55

    7.55

    BUT WHATS ABOUT CAPACITY…?

    • Though a Large value of Q improves

    transmission quality or reduced interference.

    • But large value of Q reduced capacity(since the cluster size N is more)

    • So A trade off must be made between these two objectives in actual cellular design.

    B UT WHAT ’ S ABOUT CAPACITY …?  Though a Large value of Q improves

    INTERFERENCE AND SYSTEM CAPACITY

    • Let i 0 be the number of co-channel interfering cells

    • Then the SIR for a mobile receiver which monitors a forward channel can be expressed as

    S

     

    I

    S

    • i o

    • i 1

    I

    i

    • Where S is the desired signal power from the desired BTS.

    • Ii is the interference power caused by the ith interfereing co-

    channel cell .

    I NTERFERENCE AND S YSTEM CAPACITY  Let i be the number of co-channel interfering cells

    FREE SPACE PROPAGATION MODEL

    • The free space power received by receiver antenna which is separated from Tx by a distance d is given by

    FREE SPACE PROPAGATION MODEL  The free space power received by receiver antenna which is separated

    or

    P

    P ( d ) K t

    r

    d

    • 2 Watts

    • where P t is the transmitter power in Watts

    • K is a constant factor depends on antenna gain, system loss factor, and the carrier wavelength

    FREE SPACE PROPAGATION MODEL  The free space power received by receiver antenna which is separated

    PROPAGATION MEASUREMENT IN A MOBILE RADIO CHANNEL

    • Shows that the average received signal strength at any point decay

    as the power law of the distance of separation between

    Tx/Rx and is given by

    P r (d)= Pr(d o ) (d /d o ) -n Where n is path loss
    P r (d)= Pr(d o ) (d /d o ) -n
    Where n is path loss exponent

    FREE SPACE

    F REE S PACE

    SIGNAL TO INTERFERENCE WHEN MS IS AT THE CENTER OF THE CELL

    . First Tier . . D . Interfering Cell R . . (Downlink) . (Uplink)
    .
    First Tier
    .
    .
    D
    .
    Interfering Cell
    R
    .
    .
    (Downlink)
    .
    (Uplink)

    R=radius of the cell D=Distance from interfere cell

    S IGNAL TO INTERFERENCE WHEN MS IS AT THE CENTER OF THE C ELL . First
    • Considering forward link where the desired signal is the serving base station and where the interference is due to co- channel BTS.

    • If Di is the distance of the ith interfere from the mobile, the received power at a given mobile due to the ith interfering cell be proportional to (Di )-n

     Considering forward link where the desired signal is the serving base station and where the
    • When each transmitter power of each BTS is equal and path loss exponent n is the same throughout the coverage area then S/I for a mobile is given by

    i 0  S / I = R -n / ( Di) -n  i 0
    i
    0
    S / I = R -n /
    ( Di) -n
    i 0 =1
     When each transmitter power of each BTS is equal and path loss exponent n is

    i 0 = total no. of first layer interfering cell if the mobile is in the centre of cell Di=D

     When each transmitter power of each BTS is equal and path loss exponent n is

    S

     

    I

    n n   ( D R / ) 3 N  i i o o
    n
    n
    (
    D R
    /
    )
    3 N
    i
    i
    o
    o
    • S/I relates to the cluster size N which in turn relates

    with the overall capacity of the system i.e

    • Capacity (C )= MkN

    • By various experiments and study we know that SIR > 18 dB = 63 needed for acceptable quality of voice

    S  I n n   ( D R / ) 3 N  i
    • If n = 4 and i o = 6

    n   n S ( D R ) / 3 N   I i
    n
    n
    S
    (
    D R )
    /
    3 N
    I
    i
    i
    o
    o
    4
    S
    3
    N
     63 
    63
     N 
    I
    6

    6.5

    Above Equation is a valuable rule of thumb for

    detemining the appropriate frequency reuse ratio or

    cluster size. Also it tell us separation between adjacent co- channel cells.

     If n = 4 and i = 6 n   n S ( D

    S/I FOR SOME VALUES OF N

    S/I FOR SOME VALUES OF N
    Worst Case Of Interference ?
    Worst Case Of Interference ?

    WHEN MS IS AT BOUNDARY OF CELL

    WHEN MS IS AT BOUNDARY OF CELL
    • Assuming n=4,S/I for the worst case can be closely approximated as

     Assuming n=4,S/I for the worst case can be closely approximated as

    S/I IN TERMS OF Q

    S/I IN TERMS OF Q

    ADJACENT CHANNEL INTERFERENCE

    1-Imperfect receiver filter allow nearby frequencies to leak in cellular band 2-Perform degrade seriously due to near far effect

    A DJACENT CHANNEL I NTERFERENCE 1-Imperfect receiver filter allow nearby frequencies to leak in cellular band

    HOW TO REDUCE ADJACENT CHANNEL INTERFERENCE

    • Adjacent channel interference is minimized through careful filtering and channel assignment.

    H OW TO REDUCE A DJACENT CHANNEL I NTERFERENCE  Adjacent channel interference is minimized through

    ASSIGN MENT-1

    • 1-Discuss evolution and revolution of 2G mobile system.

    • 2-Draw the block diagram of a cellular system and explain it in detail.

    • 3-Prove that for a hexagonal geometry,the co-channel

    3N
    3N

    reuse ratio is given by Q= Where N=i2+ij+j2

    • 4-What is frequency reuse and cell splitting ? Discuss

    • 5-A signal to interference ratio of 15 dB is required for satisfactory forward channel performance of a cellular system, what is the frequency reuse factor and cluster size that should be used for maximum capacity if the path loss exponents (i) n=4

    (ii) n=3

    Assume that there are six co-channel cells in the first tier and all of them are at the same distance from the mobile. Use suitable approximation

    A SSIGN MENT -1  1-Discuss evolution and revolution of 2G mobile system.  2-Draw the

    IMPROVING COVERAGE AND CAPACITY IN CELLULAR SYSTEM

    IMPROVING COVERAGE AND CAPACITY IN CELLULAR SYSTEM

    HOW CAPACITY CAN BE INCREASED ?

    • By Adding new channels

    • By Borrowing Frequencies from adjacent cells

    • By Cell splitting cells in areas of high usage can be split into smaller cells

    • By Cell sectoring cells are divided into a number of sectors, each with their own set of channels

    • By Microcell Zoning :distributes the coverage of cell and extends the cell boundary to Hard to-reach areas

    H OW CAPACITY CAN BE INCREASED ?  By Adding new channels   By Borrowing

    Cell Splitting

    Cell Splitting
    • Cell splitting allows a system to grow by

    replacing large cells with smaller cells.

    • But not upsetting the channel allocation scheme required to maintain the minimum co-channel reuse ratio (Q) between co- channel cells.

     Cell splitting allows a system to grow by replacing large cells with smaller cells. 

    CELL SPLITTING FROM RADIUS

    R TO R/2 AND R/4

    R R/2 Large cells R/4 Medium cells Small cells
    R
    R/2
    Large cells
    R/4
    Medium cells
    Small cells

    CELL SPLITTING

    • In this figure , the area served by a particular cell assumed to be saturated with traffic i.e blocking of that BTS exceeds acceptable rates .

    • Therefore there is a need to split the cell for increasing the number of channels in that area

    C ELL S PLITTING  In this figure , the area served by a particular cell

    AFTER CELL

    SPLITTING

    • New BTS is surrounded by six new

    micro cells

    • The smaller cells are added in such a

    way as to preserve the frequency reuse

    plan of the system.

    AFTER CELL SPLITTING  New BTS is surrounded by six new micro cells  The smaller

    FOR EXAMPLE ,THE MICRO CELL BTS” G” IS PLACED HALFWAY BETWEEN TWO LARGER STATION UTILIZING THE SAME CHANNEL SET G

    F OR EXAMPLE , THE MICRO CELL BTS” G” IS PLACED HALFWAY BETWEEN TWO LARGER STATION
    • To ensure the frequency reuse plan for the new microcells , the Tx power of the new cell can be calculated

    • Radius of old cells =R

    • Radius of new cells=R/2

    • Pr(at old cell boundary)αPt1R -n

    • Pr(at new cell boundary) αPt2R -n

      • Pt1 and Pt2 are the transmit power of the larger and smaller cell BTS and n is path loss exponent

     To ensure the frequency reuse plan for the new microcells , the Tx power of

    Taking path loss exponent (n)=4 & equating both, we have

    • Pt2=Pt1/16

    • So the transmitted power must be reduced by 1/16 factor in order to fill in the old coverage area with micro cell, maintaining the S/I requirement.

    Taking path loss exponent (n)=4 & equating both, we have  Pt2=Pt1/16  So the transmitted

    ADVANTAGES

    • More capacity

    • Less power is used by mobiles and base stations.

    A DVANTAGES  More capacity  Less power is used by mobiles and base stations .

    DRAWBACKS

    • More Handoffs

    Load on MSC

    • New BTS are needed, increasing

    system complexity.

    D RAWBACKS  More Handoffs  Load on MSC  New BTS are needed, increasing system

    CAN WE HAVE SOME OPTION FOR THIS DRAWBACK

    To prevent handoffs and dropped calls, umbrella cells are used for high speed traffic.

    C AN WE HAVE SOME OPTION FOR THIS DRAWBACK  To prevent handoffs and dropped calls,

    PROBLEM

    • Suppose each base station is allocated 60 channels regardless of cell size. Find the number of channels contained in

    a 3 x 3 km 2 area around (small ) cell “A” for the following cases:

    • a) Without cell splitting (i.e. just the original large cells)

    • b) With cell splitting (using the small cells)

    P ROBLEM  Suppose each base station is allocated 60 channels regardless of cell size. Find

    SOLUTION

    • To cover a 3 x 3 km 2 area centered as around cell A, we need to cover 1.5 km to right, left, top and bottom.

    S OLUTION  To cover a 3 x 3 km area centered as around cell A,

    CELL SPLITTING EXAMPLE WITH R = 1 KM

    R A R/2
    R
    A
    R/2

    .SOLUTION

    Number of large cells in this 3 x 3 km 2 area (approx.) = 4

    Number of small cells in this 3 x 3 km 2 area

    = R 2 ( R/2 ) x number of large cells = 4 x 4 =
    =
    R
    2
    (
    R/2
    )
    x number of large cells = 4 x 4 = 16 small cells
    • a) With base stations, the number of channels equals 4 x 60 = 240

    • b) With 16 small cells, the number of channels in the square, with cell splitting equals 60 x 15 = 900

    .S OLUTION      Number of large cells in this 3 x 3

    SOLUTION

    • Number of large cells in this 3 x 3 km 2 area (approx.) = 4

    R 2 ( ) R/2
    R
    2
    ( )
    R/2
    • Number of small cells in this 3 x 3 km 2 area = large cells = 4 x 4 = 16 small cells

      • a) With base stations, the number of channels equals 4 x 60 = 240

    x number of

    • b) With 16 small cells, the number of channels in the square, with cell splitting equals 60 x 15 = 900

    S OLUTION  Number of large cells in this 3 x 3 km area (approx.) =

    CONCEPT OF CELL SPLITTING

    • By decreasing the cell radius R and keeping the Co- channel reuse ratio D/R unchanged.

    C ONCEPT OF CELL SPLITTING  By decreasing the cell radius R and keeping the Co-

    SECTORING

    • To keep the cell radius R unchanged and seek methods to decrease the D/R ratio.

    • By sectoring approach first SIR is improved using directional antenna.

    • Then capacity improvement is achieved by reducing the number of cells in a cluster thus increasing the frequency reuse.

    S ECTORING  To keep the cell radius R unchanged and seek methods to decrease the

    OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA HAS SIX INTERFEREING CELLS

    O MNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA HAS SIX INTERFEREING CELLS

    SECTORING

    • The cell is divided into sectors.

    • Common sectoring methods divide cells into 3 or 6 sectors.

    • These sectors use directional antennas in place of omni-directional antenna.

    • Sectoring increases SIR.

    S ECTORING  The cell is divided into sectors.  Common sectoring methods divide cells into

    ANTENNA

    SECTORIZATION

    1 1 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 3 6 5 4 2 3 6
    1
    1 2 3
    2
    1
    3
    1
    2 3
    6 5 4
    2
    3
    6
    5 4
    a. 3 sectors of 120˚ each
    b. 6 sectors of 60˚ each

    SECTORING ANTENNA

    S ECTORING A NTENNA

    SECTORED ANTENNA

    S ECTORED A NTENNA

    DECREASING CO-CHANNEL CELL INTERFERENCE BY SIX TO TWO

    Sectoring Decrease co-channel cell interference by six to two. A1 A1 A3 A3 A2 A2 A1
    Sectoring Decrease co-channel cell interference by six
    to two.
    A1 A1
    A3 A3
    A2
    A2
    A1 A1
    A3 A3
    A2 A2
    A1
    A3
    A2
    A1 A1
    A3
    A3
    A2 A2
    A1
    A3
    A2
    A1
    A3
    A2
    A1
    A3
    A2
    • By Taking N=7 i0=2 and

    n=4

    S

    I

    n n   ( D R / ) 3 N  i i o o
    n
    n
    (
    D R
    /
    )
    3
    N
    i
    i
    o
    o
    • S/I= 24.2 dB

    • While in omni directional antenna this value comes for N=12

    • So using sectored scheme capacity can be increased by

    12/7=1.714

     By Taking N=7 i0=2 and n=4 S   I n n   (

    ADVANTAGE

    • The S/I ratio increases because interference is received from only one direction rather than all directions.

    • Around 7dB SIR improvement.

    • With sectorization a lower value of N can be used i.e. overall capacity will be increased.

    • Around 1.174 times more capacity.

    A DVANTAGE  The S/I ratio increases because interference is received from only one direction rather

    DRAWBACKS

    • Decreased trunking efficiency due to fewer channels per sector.

    • Hand off rate increases due to intracell handoffs (between sector’s of same cell).

    • Does not work well in high density urban areas due to reflections.

    • Increased complexity at base station due to additional antennas

    D RAWBACKS  Decreased trunking efficiency due to fewer channels per sector.  Hand off rate

    ANTENNA DOWN TILTING

    • S/I further can be improved by down tilting the

    antenna.

    • The vertical radiation pattern of a BTS can be directed towards the ground in order to reduce the power of co-channel interference.

    • Parameters as radiation pattern, antenna height, cell coverage area affect on the selected down-tilt angle.

    A NTENNA D OWN TILTING  S/I further can be improved by down tilting the antenna.

    ANTENNA DOWNTILTING

    RADIATION WITHOUT ANTENNA DOWNTILTING CREATING INTERFERENCE IN COCHANNEL CELL

    RADIATION WITH ANTENNA DOWNTILTING
    RADIATION WITH ANTENNA
    DOWNTILTING
    A NTENNA D OWNTILTING R ADIATION WITHOUT A NTENNA D OWNTILTING C REATING INTERFERENCE IN COCHANNEL

    ANTENNA DOWNTILTING

    • Downtilt can be performed either mechanically or electrically.

    • Mechanical downtilt relies on physical movement of an antenna where electrical down relies on relative phase shifts of different elements in an antenna array.

    A NTENNA D OWNTILTING  Downtilt can be performed either mechanically or electrically.  Mechanical downtilt

    ANTENNA DOWNTILTING

    A NTENNA D OWNTILTING

    MICROCELL ZONE CONCEPT

    M ICROCELL Z ONE C ONCEPT

    PROBLEMS WITH SECTORING

    • Increases the number of antennas at each BS

    • Decrease in trunking efficiency due to sectoring

    • Increase number of handoffs(sector-to sector)

    P ROBLEMS WITH S ECTORING  Increases the number of antennas at each BS  Decrease

    MICROCELL ZONE CONCEPT

    Increased number of handoffs results in an increased load on the MSC.

    Lee proposed concept of microcell zones

    M ICROCELL Z ONE C ONCEPT  Increased number of handoffs results in an increased load

    WHAT IS MICROCELL ZONES CONCEPT ?

    Cell is divided into 3 or more zones all served by the same BTS.

    Zones are connected by coaxial cable, optical fiber or microwave link.

    W HAT IS M ICROCELL Z ONES C ONCEPT ?  Cell is divided into 3
    • Each zone uses a directional antenna.

    • Each zone radiates power into the cell.

    MS is served by strongest zone.

    • As mobile travels from one zone to another, it retains the same channel,i.e no hand off

     Each zone uses a directional antenna.  Each zone radiates power into the cell. 
    MICROCELL ZONE CONCEPT C B A
    MICROCELL ZONE CONCEPT
    C
    B
    A

    ADVANTAGES OF MICROCELL ZONES CONCEPT

    • Mobile travelling between zones retains the same channel.

    • No need of handoff

    • Especially useful along highways and urban traffic corridors

    • Decreased co-channel interference improves the signal quality and increase system capacity without reducing trunking efficiency.

    A DVANTAGES OF M ICROCELL Z ONES C ONCEPT  Mobile travelling between zones retains the

    DRAWBACKS

    Base stations are more complex as they must coordinate multiple antennas.?

    D RAWBACKS  Base stations are more complex as they must coordinate multiple antennas.?

    Illustration of extent of Capacity Increase in Microcell zone concept

     Illustration of extent of Capacity Increase in Microcell zone concept

    As we know for the satisfactory system performance desired S/I=18 dB with path loss exponent of n=4

    • By a system of N=7,a D/R of 4.6 ,8dB can be achieve .

     As we know for the satisfactory system performance desired S/I=18 dB with path loss exponent

    CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT BY MICROCELL ZONE

    • Transmission at any instant is confined to one zone(group of 3 cell)

    • Therefore, Q( Dz/Rz) =4.6

    • Each hexagon represents a zone and 3 hexagons represent a cell

    CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT BY M ICROCELL Z ONE  Transmission at any instant is confined to one
    • In the above figure ,each individual hexagon represents a zone, while group of three hexagon represents a cell.

    • Value of co channel reuse is 3

    • D/R = 3 corresponds to N=3

    • Reduction in cluster size from N=7 to N=3

    • Increase in capacity is 7/3=2.33 times

     In the above figure ,each individual hexagon represents a zone, while group of three hexagon