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Industrial Valves

Engr. Bilal Shahid


WAY TO END
 What valve means ?
 How it works ?
 Classification of valves with examples ?
INTRODUCTION TO VALVES
 Mechanical devices specifically designed to control flow of fluid and
pressure within a system or process. In any system or Process a valve
perform one of the following functions:
 Stopping and starting fluid flow
 Varying (throttling) the amount of fluid flow
 Controlling the direction of fluid flow
 Regulating downstream system or process pressure
 Relieving component or piping over pressure
 Manufactured from various materials, mostly made from steel, iron,
plastic, brass, bronze and special alloys.
BASIC PARTS OF A VALVE
• Valve body
• Actuator
• Packing
• Bonnet
• Stem
• Disc
• Seat
CLASSIFICATION OF VALVES

Valves Classification According To:


1. Motion
2. Function
3. Application
CLASSIFICATION BY MOTION

Categorized into two:


1) Linear-motion Valves
2) Rotary-motion Valves
CLASSIFICATION BY MOTION

 Linear-motion Valves
 Had a sliding-stem design that
pushes a closure element into an
open or closed position.
 Simple design, easy maintenance,
and versatile with various sizes,
pressure class and design options.
 Example: gate, globe, diaphragm,
three-way
CLASSIFICATION BY MOTION
 Rotary-motion Valves
 Used a closure element that rotates through a quarter-turn range to
open and block the flow.
 Limited to certain pressure drops.
 Prone to cavitations and flashing problems.
CLASSIFICATION BY FUNCTION
 Categorized into three areas

1. On-Off Valves
2. Non-return Valves
3. Throttling Valves

 Specific valve-body designs may fit into one, two


or all three category.
CONTINUE…
 On Off valves
 Start or stop the flow of the medium through the process.
 Examples (gate, plug, ball and pressure-relief valves).
 Can be hand-operated or automated with the addition of an
actuator.
CONTINUE..

On off valves..
 Usedin mixing applications where a number of fluids are
combined for a predetermined amount of time (exact
measurements are not required).
 Usedfor immediate shut down of a system when an
emergency situation occurs.
GATE VALVE

A gate valve is a linear motion valve used to start or stop fluid flow;
however, it does not regulate or throttle flow. The name gate is derived
from the appearance of the disk in the flow
 Used when there must be straight-line flow of fluid w/ min. resistance.
 The disk of a gate valve is completely removed from the flow stream
when the valve is fully open.
 When the valve is fully closed, a disk-to-seal ring contact surface exists for
360°, and good sealing is provided
 a partially open gate disk tends to vibrate from the fluid flow
GATE VALVE
GATE VALVE

 Adv:
 No flow restrictions.
 Little Pressure drop.
 Very little or no leakage.
 Disadv:
 It is not suitable for throttling applications.
 It is prone to vibration in the partially open state.
 It is more subject to seat and disk wear than a globe valve.
 Repairs, such as lapping and grinding, are generally more difficult to
accomplish
GLOBE VALVE

 A globe valve is a linear motion valve used to stop, start,


and regulate fluid flow.
 globe valve disk can be totally removed from the flow
path or it can completely close the flow path.
 The essential principle of globe valve operation is the
perpendicular movement of the disk away from the seat.
 Globe valves are named for their spherical body shape
with the two halves of the body being separated by an
internal baffle.
GLOBE VALVE WORKING
BUTTERFLY VALVE
a rotary motion valve that is used to
stop, regulate, and start fluid flow
 Used in water, fuel, and ventilation
systems.
 fully
closed to fully opened position
requires 90 degree movement of disk.
 Adv: small, light-weight, & quick-acting
 Disadv: leaks early, only low-flow throttle,
suitable for low pressure
BUTTERFLY VALVE
PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE
 Pressure-relief valves are self-actuated on-off valves that open
only when a preset pressure is surpassed.
 Used for guarding against over pressurization of a liquid service.
 Opens automatically when fluid pressure becomes too high
(pressure acts against spring pressure)
 Relieving pressure set by an adjusting screw
 Usually Applied in gas applications
CLASSIFICATION BY FUNCTION

 Non return Valves


 Allow the fluid to flow only in the desired direction
 Any flow or pressure in the opposite direction is mechanically
restricted from occurring
 All check valves are non return valves
 Backflow of fluid is prevented to ensure the safety of equipment and
the desired dynamic of the process
 Applied in process systems that have varying pressures, which must
be kept separated
CHECK VALVES
 Check valves are designed to prevent the reversal of flow in a piping
system. These valves are activated by the flowing material in the
pipeline.
 The pressure of the fluid passing through the system opens the valve,
while any reversal of flow will close the valve.
 Closure is accomplished by the weight of the check mechanism, by
back pressure, by a spring, or by a combination of these means
 Types:
 Swing check valves
 Tilting Disk Check Valves
 Lift Check Valves
 BALL CHECK VALVES
SWING CHECK VALVE
 The valve allows full, unobstructed flow and automatically closes as pressure
decreases.
 These valves are fully closed when the flow reaches zero and prevent back
flow.
 Turbulence and pressure drop within the valve are very low
CLASSIFICATION BY FUNCTION

 Throttling Valves
 Used for regulating the flow or pressure of the service
 Can be moved to any position within the stroke of the valve
and hold that position, including the fully-open or fully-closed
positions.
 Also provided with actuation system for greater thrust and
positioning capability (automatic control).
 Example: pressure regulator varies the valve’s position to
maintain constant pressure downstream (close to decrease
and open to increase the pressure).
VALVES ACTUATION
 Actuators are used for the automation of industrial valves.
 The valves to be automated vary both in design and dimension.
The diameters of the valves range from a few inches to a few
meters.
 Valve actuators are selected based upon a number of factors
including torque necessary to operate
 the valve and the need for automatic actuation.
 Classification of actuators
 According to their source.
 According to their movement
ACTUATION BY SOURCE

 The actuators are divided into three categories


 Electric actuators.
 Hydraulic actuators.
 Pneumatic actuators.
PISTON ACTUATORS

 Piston actuators
 Piston actuators are generally used where the stroke of a
diaphragm actuator would be too short or the thrust is too small.
 The compressed air is applied to a solid piston contained within a
solid cylinder.
 Piston actuators can be single acting or double acting, can
withstand higher input pressures and can offer smaller cylinder
volumes, which can act at high speed.
CONTINUE…
 Electric actuators.
 Electric power is used as source supply in Electric actuators.
 Example: AC and DC motors.
 Hydraulic actuators.
 Pressurized fluid is used as source supply in Hydraulic actuators.
 Example: piston actuator
 Pneumatic actuators.
 Pressurized Air is used as source supply in Pneumatic actuators.
 Examples: piston actuators and diaphragm actuators.
PISTON ACTUATORS WORKING
DIAPHRAGM ACTUATORS
 Diaphragm actuators
 Diaphragm actuators have
compressed air applied to a flexible
membrane called the diaphragm.
 Figure shows a rolling diaphragm
where the effective diaphragm area
is virtually constant throughout the
actuator stroke.
 These types of actuators are single
acting, in that air is only supplied to
one side of the diaphragm, and they
can be either direct acting (spring-to-
retract) or reverse acting (spring-to-
extend).
ELECTRIC MOTOR ACTUATORS
 Electric motors permit manual, semi-
automatic, and automatic operation of the
valve.
 Motors are used mostly for open-close
functions, although they are adaptable to
positioning the valve to any point opening.
 The motor is usually a, reversible, high
speed type connected through a gear
train to reduce the motor speed and
thereby increase the torque at the stem.
 Limit switches are normally provided to stop
the motor automatically at full open and
full closed valve positions.
ELECTRIC MOTOR ACTUATOR
Valve Selection Considerations

1. Pressure.
2. Temperature.
3. Type of fluid.
A. Liquid.
B. Gas, i.e., steam or air.
C. Dirty or abrasive (erosive)
D. Corrosive.
4. Flow Considerations
A. On-off or Throttling.
C. Is the valve needed to prevent
backflow.
D. Concern for pressure drop.
E. Velocity.

5. Operating conditions
A. Frequency of operation.
B. Accessibility.
C. Overall space/size available.
D. Manual or automated control.
E. Need for bubble-tight shut-off.
F. Concerns about body joint leaks.
G. Fire safe design.
H. Speed of closure.