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UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA

FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS

INDIVIDUAL FACTORS LEADING TO


INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR IN
ORGANIZATION

Session 03 – Organizational Behavior


An Model of Individual Differences
The Big Five Personality Dimensions
Remember acronym “OCEAN”
Characteristics of a Person
Personality Dimension Scoring Positively on the
Dimension
1) Openness to experience Intellectual, imaginative, curious,
broad minded
2) Conscientiousness Dependable, responsible,
achievement, oriented, persistent
3) Extraversion Outgoing, talkative, social,
assertive
4) Agreeableness Trusting, good natured,
cooperative, soft hearted
5) Neuroticism/Emotional Relaxed, secure, unworried
stability 5-3
Locus of Control
 External Locus of Control  Internal Locus of
one’s life outcomes attributed to
environmental factors such Control belief that one
as luck or fate controls key events and
consequences in one’s life.

5-4
Implications of Personality at Work

 Overall the relationship between


personality and job performance is…….
 Which of the Big Five dimensions is most
strongly related to job performance?
 Should personality tests be used to make
hiring decisions?
5-5
Contributors to Performance

Ability

Effort Performance

Skill
5-6
Positive and Negative Emotions
Positive
Anger Happiness Emotions
Fright/
/Joy (goal
anxiety
congruent)
Guilt/ Pride
shame
Love/
Sadness affection
Envy/
jealousy
Relief
Negative Emotions Disgust
(goal incongruent) 5-7
SOCIAL PERCEPTION AND
ATTRIBUTES
Perception
 The process of
interpreting one’s
environment
 Social perception
involves observing and
interpreting
information about
others to be able to
understand them and
prepare our responses
to them.
7-9
Perception: An Information Processing Model

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4


Selective Encoding and Storage and Retrieval and
Attention/Comprehension Response
Simplification Retention

A
Competing B
environmental C
stimuli Interpretation A
Judgments
D and C Memory C and
 People categorization
 Events E F
decisions
 Objects F
Stereotypes
 Stereotype is an
individual’s set of
beliefs
about the
characteristics of a
group of people
 What are some
commonly held
stereotypes?

7-11
Stereotyping: A Mental Shortcut
1) Begins by categorizing people into groups
2) Infer that all people in a category possess
similar traits or characteristics
3) Form expectations of others and interpret their
behavior according to stereotypes
4) Stereotypes are maintained by
1) Overestimating the frequency of stereotypic
behaviors exhibited by others
2) Incorrectly explaining expected and unexpected
behaviors
3) Differentiating minority individuals from oneself
7-12
Characteristics of Stereotypes
• Their nature is not always
negative
 Women are nurturing
 Asians are smart
• Based on generalizations
(often inaccurate)
 Older workers are more
accident prone
 Disabled workers cost a lot
of money to accommodate
 Women are more emotional
• Can lead to poor decisions
and discrimination 7-13
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
 Pygmalion Effect
 Someone’s high expectations for
another person result in high
performance
 Galatea Effect
 An individual’s high self-
expectations lead to high
performance
 Golem Effect
 Loss in performance due to low
leader expectations
7-14
A Model of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Supervisor
5 expectancy 1

Performance Leadership

4 2

Subordinate
Motivation 3 self-
expectancy

7-15
Causes of Behavior
 Internal factors –
Personal characteristics
that cause behavior
(e.g., ability, effort)
 External factors –
Environmental
characteristics that
cause behavior (e.g.,
task difficulty,
good/bad luck)

7-16
Kelley’s Attribution Model
 Consensus – Involves the comparison of an
individual’s behavior with that of his or her peers
Low High

A B C D E A B C D E
7-17
People People
Kelley’s Theory of Attribution
 Distinctiveness is determined by comparing a
person’s behavior on one task with his or her
behavior on other tasks.
Low High

A B C D E A B C D E 7-18
Tasks Tasks
Kelley’s Theory of Attribution
 Consistency is determined by judging if the
individual’s performance on a given task is
consistent over time.
Low High

Time Time 7-19


How Kelley’s Model Works
 External Attribution
 High consensus

 High distinctiveness

 Low consistency

 Internal Attribution
 Low consensus

 Low distinctiveness

 High consistency

7-20
Attributional Tendencies
 Fundamental  Self-Serving Bias
Attribution Bias taking more personal
ignoring environmental responsibility for success
factors that affect than failure
behavior  My success is because of
 Your performance is my effort/ability
caused by you  My poor performance is
caused by something
else (difficulty; bad luck)

7-21