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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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History of the Internet and
World Wide Web
 ARPANET
 Implemented in late 1960’s by ARPA (Advanced

Research Projects Agency of DOD)


 Networked computer systems of a dozen

universities and institutions with 56KB


communications lines
 Grandparent of today’s Internet

 Intended to allow computers to be shared

 Became clear that key benefit was allowing fast

communication between researchers – electronic-


mail (email)
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History of the Internet and World
Wide Web (Cont.)

 ARPA’s goals
 Allow multiple users to send and receive info at same time

 Network operated packet switching technique

 Digital data sent in small packages called packets

 Packets contained data, address info, error-control info

and sequencing info


 Greatly reduced transmission costs of dedicated

communications lines
 Network designed to be operated without centralized

control
 If portion of network fails, remaining portions still able to

route packets
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History of the Internet and World
Wide Web (Cont.)
 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
 Name of protocols for communicating over
ARPAnet.
 Ensured that messages were properly routed
and that they arrived intact.
 Organizations implemented own networks
 Used both for intra-organization and
communication.

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History of the Internet and World
Wide Web (Cont.)
 Huge variety of networking hardware and software
appeared
 ARPA achieved inter-communication between all

platforms with development of the IP


 Internetworking Protocol

 Current architecture of Internet

 Combined set of protocols called TCP/IP

 The Internet
 Limited to universities and research institutions

 Military became big user

 Next, government decided to access Internet for

commercial purposes
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History of the Internet and World
Wide Web (Cont.)
 Internet traffic grew
 Businesses spent heavily to improve Internet

 Better service to their clients

 Fierce competition among communication carriers and hardware


and software suppliers
 Resulted in massive bandwidth increase and plummeting costs

 Tim Berners-Lee invents Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML)

 Also writes communication protocols to form the backbone new

information system = World Wide Web


 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)—a communications protocol

used to send information over the web


 Web use exploded with availability in 1993 of the Mosaic browser

 Marc Andreessen founds Netscape

 credit with initiating the explosive Internet of late 1990s.

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World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

 W3C Founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee


 Homepage at www.w3.org
 Goals
 Internet universally accessible

 Standardization

 W3C Recommendations:

Technologies standardized by W3C


include the Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language
(XHTML), Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), Hyper Text Markup
Language (HTML—now considered a “legacy” technology)
and the Extensible Markup Language (XML).

not an actual software product, but a document that


specifies a technology’s role, syntax rules and so forth.
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Services in the Internet

 FTP
 E-mail
 Telnet
 Chat
 Bulletin Board System

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File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
 Set of rules by which computers transfer data over the Internet
 URL begins with ftp:// rather than http
 Accessed either with the web browser or software that supports FTP
 Filezilla (http://filezilla.sourceforge.net)

 FF2 FireFTP (http://fireftp.mozdev.org)

 FTP site can be browsed as though they were files on the local computer
 Files can be downloaded
 FTP site may require login
 FTP can also be used on the Internet for
 Uploading files
 Downloading files
 File-managing tasks

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Fig.1.1| FTP site access.
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Introduction to Web browsing
 Internet is an essential medium for worldwide
communication
 Web browsers

 Software programs that access web’s rich content


 www portion of the Internet
 hyperlinked documents written in XHTML and rich media
 Popular web browsers
 Microsoft’s Internet Explorer
 Mozilla’s Firefox
 Apple’s Safari
 Opera Software’s Opera
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Internet Explorer Features

 Web browser
 Software that allows the user to view certain types of Internet files in an
interactive environment
 URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
 Each web page on the Internet has unique URL

 Usually begin with http:// or https://

 Hyperlinks
 Visual elements on web pages that when clicked, load a specified web
document
 Images and text

 Can reference other web pages, e-mail addresses, files and more
 Download files
 Tabbed Browsing
 Allows the user to browse multiple pages without many windows
 Page Organization
 Using the History Feature
 List of previously visited URLs in chronological order
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Internet Explorer Features (Cont.)

 AutoComplete
 URLs from the history can be displayed in a drop-down list when a user
types a URL into the Address bar
 Off-Line Browsing
 Web pages can be saved directly to the computer’s hard drive for off-
line browsing
 Not connected to the Internet

 Downloads
 Files from the Internet may be copied to a computer’s hard drive
 Applications

 Plug-ins

 Extensions

 Viewing Source Code


 Understand how the programmer created the page
 Learn how to develop your own pages

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Internet Explorer 9
Features
Pinned Web Sites
 IE 9 allows you to pin your favourite web sites
to the Windows 7 taskbar in a manner that is
similar to the way you pin favourite applications.
 So your taskbar can contain a mixture of
shortcuts for both local, Windows-based
applications and web-based applications like
Gmail, Amazon, and even the SuperSite for
Windows.
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Internet Explorer 9
Features
Notification Bar
 Internet Explorer 9 includes a completely
redesigned Notification Bar that now appears on
the bottom of the browser window, allowing you to
continue reading and browsing the web and deal
with notifications on your own schedule.
 As with many other new IE 9 features, the
Notification Bar is less distracting than the feature
it replaces.
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Internet Explorer 9
Features
Download Manager
 With Internet Explorer 9, Microsoft is finally
adding a download manager to the dominant
web browser line.
 And while they may be late to the game, IE

9's download manager is, as you might


expect, quite a bit more capable than those
of its rivals.
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Internet Explorer 9
Features
Add-On Performance Advisor
 The Add-on Performance Advisor is a new UI in the browser
that provides a handy way to help users decide which add-ons
to disable.
 The more add-ons you have installed and enabled, the slower
the browser gets. But because the previous UI for determining
add-on performance was essentially hidden, few users took
advantage of this functionality.
 So in IE 9, a new Add-on Performance Advisor notification will
pop-up automatically when you launch the browser and one
or more add-ons exceeds a pre-set performance threshold.
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Internet Explorer 9
Features
Tracking Protection
 Tracking Protection is a new IE 9 feature that limits

the browser's communication with certain web


sites, which in turn prevents content on those sites
from tracking your online activities.
 Tracking Protection performs its magic using one
or more tracking protection lists, each of which
works like a combination white list and black list.

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Customizing Browser Settings
 Browser settings
 Determine how sites are displayed

 How security measures are applied

 How outputs are rendered

 Privacy settings for IE7 can be set under the Privacy tab. In IE7 there are
six levels of privacy
 Many levels lenient to strict

 Security options
 Specify how much information you want to hide from unfamiliar
sites
 How much of the site’s content will be blocked from a computer

 Personal home page


 Web page that loads when the browser is first opened

 History options
 Web page cache

 Previously viewed sites


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Fig. 1.6 | Internet Options in Internet Explorer 7. 22
Searching the Internet
 Internet is wealth of information
 Search engines help locate more specific information on a given
topic
 Google (www.google.com)

 Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com)

 MSN (www.msn.com)

 AltaVista (www.altavista.com)

 Ask.com (www.ask.com)

 Use databases that facilitate quick information retrieval


 Metasearch engines (do not maintain databases)
 Send the search criteria to other search engines and aggregate

the
 MetaCrawler (www.metacrawler.com)

 Search engines can help resolve programming errors

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Fig. 1.7 | Searching the Internet with Internet Explorer 7. 24
Keeping Track of Your Favorite Sites

 Organize and track Web browsing history (URL and


title)
 Bookmarking
 IE7 - Favorites menu’s

 Favorites can be categorized and grouped

into folders
 Most browsers have their own version of Favorites or
Bookmarks.

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Fig. 1.8 | The Favorites menu helps organize frequently visited websites in Internet Explorer 7. 26
Online Help

 Built-in help features for browsers


 Answers to frequently asked questions
about using browsers such as IE7
 Contents and Index menu item in IE7

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Fig. 1.9 | Internet Explorer 7 Help dialog. 28
Email Clients
 To send and receive email, both the sender and recipient
must have the right tools: an Internet connection, an email
client, and an email address.
 An email client (sometimes referred to as a composer) is
software that runs on a personal computer, and relies on
an Internet connection to perform some of its operations.
 Email clients work with any ISP (Internet Service Provider)
that uses standard Internet email protocols. These
protocols make it possible for people using different email
client software to communicate with one another. For
example, if I use Microsoft OutlookTM, I can send and
receive email with someone who uses QUALCOMM
EudoraTM.

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Email Clients are Different
Most email client software allows you to:

 Display a list of received messages. Each message


header shows you who sent the mail, the subject line, the
time and date it was sent, and at times, the size of the
message.
 Select the message header and read the message.
 Create new messages.
 Reply to, forward, and delete messages.
 "Attach" files (called attachments) to messages you send.
 Save the attachments you receive
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Some email clients offer:

Address book/Contacts: Use the electronic address book


to track personal information such as name, title, email
addresses, home and work addresses, phone numbers, and
much more.

Newsgroup functionality: You can use your email client


to access Usenet, an online public bulletin board system
(BBS). Usenet features a broad range of discussion topics
called newsgroups.

Calendaring: Schedule important dates, appointments,


tasks, and electronic reminders.
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Mail Server
 An ISP provides a variety of services by allowing
you to connect to specific computers and
programs (servers).

 A mail server is a specialized mail program, with


an amount of space on a computer, which stores
incoming mail until you pick it up, processes and
sends outgoing mail, and checks that people are
using the right address.

 It's a computerized post-office.


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File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a network
protocol used to transfer data from one
computer to another through a network such as
the Internet.

 FTP is a file transfer protocol for exchanging and


manipulating files over a TCP computer network.

 An FTP client may connect to an FTP server to


manipulate files on that server.

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File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
 Allows a user to copy files to/from remote
hosts
 Client program connects to FTP server
 … provides a login id and password
 … allows the user to explore the directories
 … and download and upload files with the server

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FTP Objectives
• promote sharing of files
• encourage indirect use of remote computers
• shield user from variations in file storage
• transfer data reliably and efficiently
• “FTP, although usable directly by a user at a
terminal, is designed mainly for use by
programs”
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Example Commands
 Authentication
 USER: specify the user name to log in as

 PASS: specify the user’s password

 Exploring the files


 LIST: list the files for the given file specification

 CWD: change to the given directory

 Downloading and uploading files


 TYPE: set type to ASCII (A) or binary image (I)

 RETR: retrieve the given file

 STOR: upload the given file

 Closing the connection


 QUIT: close the FTP connection 36
Server Response Codes
 1xx: positive preliminary reply
 The action is being started, but expect another reply
before sending the next command.
 2xx: positive completion reply
 The action succeeded and a new command can be sent.

 3xx: positive intermediate reply


 The command was accepted but another command is
now required.
 4xx: transient negative completion reply
 The command failed and should be retried later.

 5xx: permanent negative completion reply


 The command failed and should not be retried.
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Server Response Codes
• 2nd digit indicates function groupings.
‘0’: Syntax (problem with command syntax).
‘1’: Information (reply to help or status cmds).
‘2’: Connections (problem with a connection).
‘3’: Authentication (problem with login).
‘4’: Unspecified.
‘5’: File system (related to file system).
• 3rd digit indicates specific problem within
function group.
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Data Transfer Modes

• STREAM: file is transmitted as a stream of


bytes.
• BLOCK: file is transmitted as a series of blocks
preceded by headers containing count and
descriptor code (EOF, EOR, restart marker).
• COMPRESSED: uses a simple compression
scheme - compressed blocks are transmitted.

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What is an FTP Client?

 An FTP Client is software that is designed to


transfer files back-and-forth between two
computers over the Internet.

 It needs to be installed on your computer


and can only be used with a live connection
to the Internet.

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What is anonymous FTP?

 Anonymous FTP servers can be logged in


with 'anonymous' as username and email
as password.

 Access to all the data which has been


placed in the anonymous FTP section.

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FTP Data Transfer
 Separate data connection
 To send lists of files (LIST)

 To retrieve a file (RETR)

 To upload a file (STOR)

control

data 42
Creating the Data Connection
 Client acts like a server
 Creates a socket

 Assigned an short time port number by the kernel

 Listens on socket

 Waits to hear from FTP server

control

socket 43
Creating Data Connection
 But, the server doesn’t know the port number
 So after listening, client tells it to the server
 Using the PORT command on the control connection

PORT <IP address, port #>

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Creating Data Connection
 Then, the server initiates the data connection
 Connects to the socket on the client machine
 … and the client accepts to complete the connection
 Data now flows along second connection; first connection remains open
for more commands/replies

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Telnet
 TELNET is a protocol that provides “a general, bi-
directional, eight-bit byte oriented communications
facility”.
 telnet is a program that supports the TELNET
protocol over TCP.
 Many application protocols are built upon the
TELNET protocol
 Telnet is a very useful protocol when properly used
but lacks graphical user interface.

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Advantages of TELNET over FTP

 ability to chat with users,


 pinpoint problems in CGI scripts,
 delete directories that are not empty,
 edit files without downloading them from
the server.

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The TELNET Protocol

 TCP connection
 Data and control over the same connection.
 Network Virtual Terminal
 Negotiated options

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Search engines or Directories

 Most people are primarily interested in


tools for finding information on the World
Wide Web.
 Originally there were two kinds of search
services on the Web:
Directories
Engines

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Search directories
 Search directories are hierarchical databases with
references to websites.

 The websites that are included are hand picked by living


human beings and classified according to the rules of that
particular search service.

 Yahoo is the mother of all search directories. However, in


order to search the directory you must go to their special
directory page.

 Their regular search results are not fetched from the


directory, but from their search engine.
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Search directories (Continued)
 The first page normally gives you the most general
categories (like "Computers and Internet" or "Education").
 Click your way down the hierarchy to the right category,
select the website you find the most interesting and start
reading.
 If you use the search form when exploring a directory,
remember that you are not searching the text of the actual
web pages of a particular site.
 Instead you are searching the text contained in the site title
and the description of the site.
 These are composed by the directory editors, and are often
based on suggestions from the site owners themselves.
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Search engines
 Search engines are -- well -- "engines" or "robots" that crawl
the Web looking for new web pages.
 These robots read the web pages and put the text (or parts
of the text) into a large database or index that you may
access.
 None of them cover the whole Net, but some of them are
quite large.
 The major players in this field are Google, Yahoo! Search
(which is not the same as the Yahoo! Directory), Live Search
and Ask.
 Search engines should be your first choice when you know
exactly what you are looking for.
 They also cover a much larger part of the Web than the
directories. 52
Internet Search engine : A four-step
process

1. Crawling the Web, following links to find


pages.
2. Indexing the pages to create an index from
every word to every place it occurs.
3. Ranking the pages so the best ones show
up first.
4. Displaying the results in a way that is easy
for the user to understand.
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Meta search engines

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Meta search engines
 Search several search engines and directories at the same
time, trying to extract the most relevant hits from all of them.
 Meta-search engine try to "translate" your query into a
language that each search engine will understand.
 For more complex searches, you should go directly to the
relevant search engine. Also note that the meta search engines
will give you but a small part of the results from each
individual search engine.
 The main reason for using meta search engines today, is that
some of them provide special features not found in the regular
search engines.
 Clusty, for instance, uses a special clustering technology that
sorts the results into different groups or "clusters" that might
help you pinpoint the right set of web sites more easily.
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Specialized search engines
 Specialized search engines focus on one type of information.
 Some of them just presents sub-sets of what is found in the
regular search engine results, while others may provide
information not found there.
 There are especially two kinds of specialized search engines you
might want to take a look at: news search engines and blog
search engines.
 The reason for this is that news sites and blog search engines
will rank fresh information much higher than the regular search
engines.
 News and blog articles form the most popular sites and blogs
may appear in these search engines less than an hour after they
have been published.
 So, if you are looking for up to date information on what is
happening right now, try search engines like Google News and
Google Blog Search. 56
Specialized search engines

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http://webquest.sdsu.edu/searching/specialized.html
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