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ERIK ERIKSON

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FREUD
Psychosexual Development

ERIKSON
PSYCHOSOCIAL Development

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EPIGENETIC PRINCIPLE
There Is A Natural, Predetermined
Order To Development.

Personality growth follows a sequence


of inner, predetermined laws.
Each person develops through a
sequence of stages that emerge in
accordance with this preset plan.
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At each stage a person is confronted
with a CRISIS that must be resolved.
Each crisis is represented by a healthy
versus an unhealthy resolution that can
be represented as polar opposites on a
straight line.
Trust---------------------------------------------------------Mistrust

A person’s social environment has an


extremely important effect on how each
crisis is resolved, but it does not
determine the order in which stages
emerge! 4
Thus, there is a predetermined, genetic
plan of what constitutes a healthy
personality (a positive resolution at
each stage).
What constitutes a healthy personality
is not arbitrary or socially determined.
The epigenetic principle states that
there is a universal, biologically
determined conception of what a
healthy personality is. 5
The stages are sequential but they are
NOT HIERARCHICAL.
Each new stage emerges according to
the predetermined biological plan
irrespective of how successful the
resolution of the previous stage was.
However, the unhealthy resolution of a
stage negatively affects the resolution
of all subsequent stages.
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THE STAGES
8. Integrity vs. Despair

7. Generativity vs. Stagnation

6. Intimacy vs. Isolation

5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (Diffusion)

4. Industry vs. Inferiority

3. Initiative vs. Guilt

2. Autonomy vs. Shame

1. Trust vs. Mistrust


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COMPARISON OF STAGES
FREUD ERIKSON
• Genital 5. Identity vs. Role Diffusion
• Latency 4. Industry vs. Inferiority
• Oedipal 3. Initiative vs. guilt
• Anal 2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
• Oral 1. Trust vs. Mistrust

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ERIKSON’S ADULT STAGES

8. Integrity vs. Despair

7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (self-absorption)

6. Intimacy vs. Isolation

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STAGE AND AGE
8. Integrity vs. Despair Old age

7. Generativity vs. Stagnation Adulthood

6. Intimacy vs. Isolation 20s

5. Identity vs. Role Diffusion 12-18 (approx.)

4. Industry vs. Inferiority 6-12 (approx.)

3. Initiative vs. Guilt 3-6

2. Autonomy vs. Shame 2-3

1. Trust vs. Mistrust 0-1


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SIGNIFICANT RELATIONS
8. Integrity vs. Despair humankind (my kind)
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation divided labor, shared
household
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation partners: friends,
sex,competition, cooperation
5. Identity vs. Role Diffusion peer and other groups
4. Industry vs. Inferiority neighborhood, school
3. Initiative vs. Guilt basic family
2. Autonomy vs. Shame parental persons
1. Trust vs. Mistrust maternal person
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GOALS OF EACH STAGE
Stage Ideal Achievement
8. Integrity vs. Despair Wisdom, Inner peace
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation Care
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation Love
5. Identity vs. Role Diffusion Fidelity
4. Industry vs. Inferiority Competence
3. Initiative vs. Guilt Purpose
2. Autonomy vs. Shame Will Power
1. Trust vs. Mistrust Hope
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