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The construction standard for

sub-grade , sub-base and

embankment are precise and
almost typical for all pavement
The AASHTO Interim Guides,
recommend that the sub-base must
be extended from 30-60 cm
outside the pavement edge to serve
as an edge support.
For the heaviest traveled
facilities, a treated cement asphalt
sub-base is recommended because
it increases the fatigue life and
reduces joint failure.
 Pavements that are expected to carry 200 trucks
or fewer per day (or less than 1,000,000 18-
kip(80kN) ESAL’s over the course of the service
life of the pavement) do not typically require a
subbase to prevent pumping.
 A subgrade soil that is naturally free draining
typically will not pump.
 Subgrade soils with less than 45% passing a No.
200(0.000075mm) sieve and with a PI of 6 or less
are adequate for moderate volumes of heavy
truck traffic without the use of a subbase layer.
 The guide allows the use of either
graded granular materials or suitably
stabilized materials for the sub base
 AASHTO suggests that the first five
types-A through E-can be used within
the upper 4 in. layer of the sub base,
whereas type F can be used below the
uppermost 4 in. layer.
 Unstabilized (granular) – 4in. (100mm) min.
 Stabilized
 Cement-Stabilized
1. Cement-Treated (CTB) – 4in. (100mm) min.
2. Lean Concrete (LCB) – 4in. (100mm) min.
 Asphalt-Stabilized (ATB)- 2in. (50mm) min
 The subgrade is the natural ground, grade
and compacted, on which the pavement is
built. Preparation of the subgrade includes:

1. Compacting soils at moisture contents and

densities that will ensure uniform and stable
pavement support.
2. Whenever possible, setting gradelines high
enough and making side ditches deep
enough to increase the distance between
water table and pavement.
3. Cross-hauling and mixing of soils to
achieve uniform conditions in areas
where there are abrupt horizontal
changes in soil type.
4. Using selective grading in cut and fill
areas to place the better soils nearer to
the top of the final subgrade elevation.
5. Improving extremely poor soil by
treatment with cement or lime, or
importing better soils, whichever is
more economical.
 Option for any subgrade:

Chemical stabilized
 General guidelines for a good
A minimum CBR of 6in. In the top
24in.(610mm) of subgrade provides an
adequate working platform for
construction, while limiting subgrade
rutting under construction traffic to
1/2in.(13mm) or less.
Typically, a specified percentage of
compaction of 95 percent will provide an
adequate working platform for
construction equipment and for excellent
in-service performance of the subgrade
portion of a concrete pavement structure.