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Wechsler Adult

Intelligence Scale-Revised
By
Faryal Farooq
Introduction

• Intelligence. The capacity to understand the world, think


rationally and use resources effectively when faced with
challenges.
• Intelligence Tests.
Psychometric devices, that is,
Set of standardized questions and tasks for assessing an
individual’s potential for purposeful behavior.
They are designed to measure major mental abilities,
cognitive, educational, vocational and other competencies.
History

• First intelligence tests were developed by Alfred


Binet (1857-1911).
• Concept of mental age, chronological age and
formula of IQ.
Development
• The first Wechsler intelligence scale, was developed in
1939, two years after the 1937 version of the Stanford-
Binet. WAIS-R was published in 1955.
• Developed in reaction to problems with the 1937
Stanford-Binet
• SB items had been selected for use with children, & weren’t
really appropriate for adults
• SB had lots of timed tests, which made it difficult for older
adults
• SB did not consider that intellectual performance can
deteriorate as a person grew older
• SB produced only 1 score
VRSIONS OF THE TEST

• There have been four different versions of the


WAIS:
• Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale (1939)
• WAIS (1955)
• WAIS-R (1981)
• WAIS-III (1997)
• WAIS-IV (2008)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence
Scale (WAIS-R)

Takes 60 to 90 minutes to administer.


• Physical conditions (Room well lit, quiet, ventilated,
distractions free)
• Standardization (US adult population, age range 16
yrs-74yrs (9 groups), variables included (age, gender,
race, geographic region, occupation, education,
urban-rural residence).
Organization of scale

VERBAL TESTS PERFORMANCE TEST


Information Picture Completion
Digit Span Picture Arrangement
Vocabulary Block Design
Arithmetic Object Assembly
Comprehension Digit Symbol
Similarities
• Sequence. Verbal and Performance tests are
systematically alternated
• Material. Stopwatch, two lead pencils without
erasers
INFORMATION

• Directions.
Explain what you mean or tell me more about it
• Discontinue. (after five consecutive failures).
• Scoring (1 point for each correct response).
• Total Questions. 29
• Maximum Scores. 29 points
Picture Completion

• Material. 20 Cards printed with pictures and bound


into a booklet
• Directions. Now look at this picture. What important
part is missing?
• Discontinue (after five consecutive failures).
• Scoring (1 point for each correct response).
• Total Questions. 20
• Maximum Scores. 20 points
Digit Span

Two types two parts. Administered Separately.


Time 1 per second.
2 points if subject passes both trials
1 point if the subject passes only one trial
0 point if the subject fails both trials
Maximum score. 28
1- Digits Forward
Discontinue (after failure on both trials of any item).
Each item is scored 2,1, or 0
Max points. 14
2-Digits Backward
Each item is scored 2,1, or 0
Max points. 14
Picture Arrangement

• Material: 10 set of cards printed with pictures.


• Discontinue (after four consecutive failures, starting
with item 2).
• Time. (item 1-4: 60 seconds, item 5-8 :90 seconds,
item 9-10: 120 seconds).
• Only one trial for 2-10
• Maximum score 20 points
• Total Questions. 20
Vocabulary

• Material : Word List


• Directions. I want you to tell me the meanings of the
some words, what does ……. Means?
• Discontinue (after five consecutive failures )
• Scoring . 2, 1, 0
• Maximum score 70 points.
• Total Questions. 35
Block Design
• Material. 9 blocks (cubes) colored red on two sides, white
on two sides and red/white on two sides.
• Block model to a point approx. 7 inches from the
subject’s.
• Demonstration
• Two trials if first fail.
• Rotation of a design by about 30 degrees or more is
considered a failure.
• Design Numbers 1-9
• Discontinue (after three consecutive failures, a two-trial
design is considered failed only if both trials are failed)
• Time limit (design 1-5: 60 seconds, design 6-9:120
seconds)
• Scoring
Design 1-2: 2 (1+1) points for both
Design 3-9: 4 points each
Bonus points: 3 for quick response
Max points. 51
Total Designs. 9
Arithmetic
• Materials. 7 blocks (cubes) colored red on two sides, white on
two sides and red/white on two sides
• Time limit for each problem
• A problem may be repeated once if the subject requests
• Subject may not use pencil and paper (can use his finger)
• Discontinue (after four consecutive failures)
• Scoring
1 point for each correct response
Bonus points (1 or 2) for item 10-14
Maximum score. 19 points
Total Questions. 14
Object Assembly

• 4 object Assembly items, each in a separate box.


Object assembly layout shield
• Time Limit (item 1-2: 120 seconds, 3-4: 180 seconds)
• Discontinue. Give the entire test to all subjects
• Directions. Now put these pieces together as quickly
as you can.
• The score for each item is equal to the number of CUTS
correctly joined.
• Plus a max of 3 bonus points per item for quick response
• 1. MANIKIN: 5 cuts
• 2. PROFILE : 9 cuts
• 3. HAND : 7 cuts
• 4. ELEPHANT : 8 cuts
• Maximum score: 41 points
Comprehension
• Read questions slowly
• Record verbatim
• Discontinue (after four consecutive failures, responses
scored 0).
• Scoring (each item is scored 2,1, or 0).
• Maximum score. 32 points.
• Total Questions 16
Example of Test questions.
Q. Why do people who are born deaf have trouble learning
to talk?
Digit Symbol

• Material. Digit symbol worksheet, printed on the last page of


the record form.
2 pencils without erasers, (for use of the subject and examiner).
Digit symbol scoring stencil
A smooth drawing surface must be provided
• Directions. Hand the subject a pencil without an eraser, place
the worksheet in front of the subject.
• Look at these boxes. Notice that each has a number in the
upper part and a special mark in the lower part
• Scoring. 1point for each item
• Maximum points 93
Similarities

• Directions.
• For ex. In what way are an orange and banana alike?
• Record verbatim
• Discontinue (after four consecutive failures)
• Scoring. Each item is scored 2, 1, or 0.
• Maximum score. 28 points
• Total Questions. 14
Scoring

• There are separate norms for ages 16-17; 18-19; 20-


24; 25-29; 30-34; 35-44; 45-54; 55-64; 65-69; 70-74;
75-79; 80-84; 85-89
Converting Raw Scores to Scaled Scores
Qualitative Descriptions

Score Classification
130 and above Very Superior
120–129 Superior
110–119 High Average
90–109 Average
80–89 Low Average
70–79 Borderline
69 and below Extremely Low
Plotting Subtest Scores (IQ)

15
• If scores from only 5 verbal tests or 4 performance
tests are available, the sum of scaled scores must be
prorated to derive the verbal and performance scores
that will be used to obtain the full scale score and the
IQ.
Full-Scale IQ Score

• To obtain full-scale IQ, sum scaled scores of 11


verbal and performance non-optional subtests, and
use table based on standardization sample
Reliability
Split-Half Test-Retest
Full Scale .98 .90
Verbal IQ .97 .86
Performance IQ .94 .85
• They range from low .70’s to low .80’s, with some in the .60’s
Validity of the WAIS
• Convergent validity. With Standford Binet .85
• Content Validity.
With WAIS –B
Factor Analysis (three factors, verbal comprehension,
perceptual organization, memory)
Interpreting the WAIS

• Verbal-Performance IQ Comparisons
• Neurological impairment may be indicated when
one of the scales falls in the low average or lower
range, and the other in the average or higher range
• Emotional trauma may be indicated if the client has
a low verbal or performance IQ that does not seem to
match their past level of functioning
• Language-related learning difficulty may be
indicated by an low verbal IQ and average or high
performance IQ
Difficulties

• Cultural differences
• Incorrect administrations
• Scoring
• Guidline
Implications

• Educational settings
• Clinical Settings
• Career selection
• Competitive Exams
• Organizational Settings
•Thank you