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p.s.: ang dili maminaw sa discussion

• Food plays a central role in the survival of species.
Food gives organisms energy that enables them to
carry out the many activities they do each day.

• DIGESTION OF FOOD is carried out by the organs

and substance of the Digestive System.

• During digestion, food is broken down to smaller

parts – a fraction of which is made up of nutrients,
and are circulated to the different parts of the
body through the bloodstream and assimilated by
• Ingestion - Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by
an organism. In animals, it normally is accomplished by
taking in the substance through the mouth into the
gastrointestinal tract, such as through eating or drinking.
• Digestion - the process by which ingested (food) material is
broken down in the earlier stages of the alimentary canal
into a form that can then be absorbed and assimilated
into the tissues of the body.
• Absorption / Assimilation – the process of pulling in
digested molecules into the cells of the digestive tract,
then into the blood.
• Elimination - Undigested material are excreted off the
• Digestion begins in the mouth. Chewing is very important
to good digestion. When chewed food is ground into
fine particles, digestive juices which contain enzymes
can react more easily. As the food is chewed, it is
moistened and mixed with saliva, which contains the
enzyme Ptyalin which converts some of the starches to
• After the food is swallowed, muscles of the pharynx push
the food into the esophagus. Then from the esophagus,
the food will move down into the stomach. In the
stomach, food is thoroughly mixed with digestive juices
by a vigorous chuming motion.
• The digestive juice in the stomach is called gastric juice
which contains hydrochloric acid and enzyme pepsin.
Digestion of protein begins in the stomach. Food that is
partly digested and changed to thick liquid in the
stomach is called chyme. Chyme passes from the
stomach into the small intestine.
• Digestion is completed in the small intestine.
Juices from the pancreas, liver and intestine
help complete the digestive process.
Pancreatic juice is produced by the
pancreatic duct. Pancreatic juice contains
the enzymes trypsin, amylase, and lipase.

• Trypsin breaks down protein into amino acids,

Amylase converts the starch into sugars, and
Lipase changes fats into fatty acids and

• Intestinal juice is produced by the walls of the

small intestine.
Human Digestive System
• The intestinal juice contains the enzymes
sucrase, lactase, and maltase. Bile is
produced in the liver, stored in the gall
bladder and flows into small into the small
intestine through the bile duct.
• The small intestine is lined with the mucous
membrane made up of tiny finger-like
projections called villi. Villi increases the
area through which absorption can take
place. When the food is completely
digested, it is absorbed by tiny blood vessels
in the walls of the small intestine and then
carried to all parts of the body.
The Small Intestine
• Almost no digestion takes place in the large
intestine. It stores waste food products and absorbs
small amounts of water and minerals. The wastes
that accumulate in the large intestine are
roughage that cannot be digested in the body.

• Bacterial action produces the final waste products

called feces. Feces then passes out of the body
through the rectum, and finally anus.
The Large Intestine