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Lecture Series on Tribology

Dr. Alejandro Toro


Tribology and Surfaces Group
School of Materials Engineering
Faculty of Mines
National University of Colombia at Medellín

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Series summary
 Basic concepts (2)
 Wear mechanisms, wear processes, wear maps
 Surface engineering (1)
 Surface analysis, surface modification and contact mechanics
 Surface properties (1)
 Friction (1)
 Physical concepts and engineering models
 Sliding wear and lubrication (2)
 Abrasion, Erosion and Cavitation (2)
 Surface Fatigue (1)
 Tribochemical Action (2)

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Basic Concepts and Terminology

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


The Pioneers
Ancient Surface Engineers

Ancient Egypt, Syria


2000 B.C.
Lubrication with water for rock
transport

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Introduction
Tribology tribos = rubbing
Study of the interaction of rubbing surfaces
Friction Wear Lubrication Contact Mechanics
3000 B.C. 2000 B.C. 1000 B.C.-300 A.D.
Hinges and other
Mineral oil
THE WHEEL friction-reducing lubrication
devices
Neolitic Bronze Age Iron Age
Period
Rock transport
Water lubrication

Mesopotamia
Egypt Greece-Rome
Stonehenge

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Introduction

The Renaissance The Industrial


Revolution
XV-XVIIIth N XIXth Century XXth Century
e
Centuries
w
Wingquist Hardy
t
o
Timken Archard
n Tabor

Vapor Age Oil Age Nuclear Age Space Age

Leonardo Amontons Babbit Petrov


da Vinci Coulomb Hertz Kragelskii
Reynolds Stribeck

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Damage
Type

Material loss
No material exchange Material gain • Extrusion
• Microstructural • Adhesion • Cutting
changes • Brittle Fracture
• Corrosion
• Plastic deformation • Fatigue Fracture
• Cracking • Diffusion and/or dissolution

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Surface Damage Chart

Plastic
Deformation Cracking

Degradation

Structure
Changes Wear

Corrosion

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Wear
Failure of a component caused by
an excessive stress in the
immediate vicinity of its surface

Usually not catastrophic Changes in shape and


size
Causes reduction of
efficiency Vibration, misalignment

Crack propagation
Fracture

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Before going any further….

Define a
strategy

Do not be too
confident!
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
WEAR DIAGNOSIS FLOWCHART

Stachowiak-Batchelor, 2001
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
Wear and Economy
 Wear and friction losses account for up to
3% of GNP in industrialized countries
 In USA, tribological improvements in cars
can lead to energy savings of about 18%
(more than 15 billions per year!)
 Areas of major impact of wear and friction
losses: transportation, power generation,
turbo machinery and industrial processes

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Wear Assessment Strategy
 Analysis of the worn surface

 Mechanical interactions (cutting, ploughing,…)

 Physical interactions (asperities interlocking,


plastic strain, cracking,…)

 Chemical interactions (oxidation, corrosion)

 Complex processes (nucleation and growth of


cracks)
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
Surface Analysis
How to identify the type of damage?
Usually, a combination of 2 or more types of
damage is present:
• Synergistic effects (corrosion + sliding wear;
oxidation + erosion)
• Sometimes, this combination can be helpful, e.g.
oxide layers reduce friction and cause wear
regimes to change from severe to mild

The analysis of the surface not necessarily reveals the


cause of the damage
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
Surface Analysis
m

100 - 10-3 Change of dimensions and shape


1st order irregularities
10-4 - 10-8 Surface quality
2nd to 5th order irregularities
Real Contact Area

10-7 – 10-11 Microstructure-Nanostructure

10-12 Atomic Interactions


Mass/Volume losses
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
Economic Impact of Wear on Industry

Abrasive>50%
Adhesive (15%)

INDUSTRIAL
WEAR

Chemical (5%) Erosive (8%)

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Wear Processes
Low-stress Seizure Scuffing Fretting
2-body
Galling
Abrasive Adhesive
3-body Rolling
Scoring
High-stress
Industrial
Wear
Solid
Pitting impingement

Tribochemical Liquid
Erosive impingement
Oxidative
Impact
Slurry
Corrosive
erosion
Cavitation

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Wear Processes
(According to the kinematics of the tribo-system)

Sliding Rolling Oscilating Impact Erosion

Erosion

Particles + Drops + Jet Low-angle High-angle


L,G L, G (L, G) erosion erosion

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Wear processes vs. Wear Mechanisms

4 Basic WEAR Mechanisms, DIN 50320 Standard


Adhesion
Abrasion
Surface Fatigue
Tribo-chemical reaction Other classifications
Zum-Gahr
Hutchings
ASM Metals Handbook
Godfrey
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
Other classifications
I.M. Hutchings
 Wear involving hard particles: abrasion and erosion
 Sliding Wear

No single wear mechanisms!


K.H. Zum Gahr

• Grooving wear
• Sliding wear
• Rolling and sliding wear
• Erosive wear

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Other classifications
ASM Handbook, Vol. 18, Tribology:
 Wear caused by particles or fluids
 Abrasive wear
 Erosion
 Solid particle erosion
 Liquid erosion

 Slurry erosion

 Cavitation Erosion
 Sliding Wear
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
Other classifications
Godfrey
• Adhesive, abrasive, erosive, fatigue,
delamination, corrosive wear, electro-corrosive,
fretting, cavitation, electric descharge, polishing

Rice
• Adhesive, abrasive, fatigue, corrosive, oxidative,
electrical

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Wear Mechanisms
4 Basic Mechanisms

A Hard particle

Adhesion Abrasion
Formation and failure Mass removal due to
of interfacial joints ploughing and / or
scratching

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Wear Mechanisms
Chemical
agent

Tribochemical action
Surface Fatigue
Corrosion of the
Plastic strain surfaces in contact due
accumulation and to environmental
formation of cracks conditions
beneath the surface

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


I. Adhesion
Systems where adhesive wear typically occurs

Cams and Gears


plungers

Journal Bearings
Draw dies

Cutting tools
Slides

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Events sequence in adhesive wear

1. High local
contact pressures 2. Plastic
between asperities deformation of
asperities

3. Adhesion and
formation of 4. Failure of joints
joints and material
transfer

High loads and sliding speeds increase wear rates

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Adhesion micro-mechanisms

Asperities
interlocking
(metal-metal)

Difusion through the


contact interface
(some polymers and metals)

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Adhesion micro-mechanisms
Electron transfer
through the contact - - - - - -

interface + + + + +

(metals with different electron


band distributions)

Adsorption and
secondary bonding
- + - + - +

+ - + - + -

effects
- + - + - +

+ - + - + -

(polymers)

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Adhesion
The Archard´s model :

m W
K
t H
K = probability of formation of a wear particle, or
Fraction of asperities in real contact
K<1
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
Adhesion

Adhesion +Oxidative Wear on a tool steel


surface after sliding against a plain carbon steel
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
II. Abrasion
Extruders Jaw crushers

Hydraulic Dies for Powder


systems Metallurgy

Chutes Slides

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Abrasion
Micro-mechanisms
a) Groove formation
b) Prow formation
c) Prow formation +
Cutting
d) Cutting

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Abrasion – Ductile Response

Typical abrasive
wear particle in
ductil materials

High 2-D or 3-D


plastic strain

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Abrasion – Brittle Response

Abrasion marks on the surface of a watch glass

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Abrasion

Transition from microploughing to Microcutting as a


function of the attack angle to critical attack angle ratio
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
Abrasion
Micro-mechanisms

Micro Ploughing:

The abrasive particle causes


lateral strain, which leads to
intense strain hardening
and high energy transfer.

Micro ploughing fab=0

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Abrasion
Micro-mechanisms

Micro-cracking
Micro cracking
fab>1
 Seen in brittle materials
 Great amount of debris
 Removed volume > Plow volume

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
Erosion

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Erosion Marks

Normal incidence Grazing incidence

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


APPLICATION PROBLEM

Chisel plows are


extensively used for
preparation of soils in
flatlands with very good
results in terms of
power consumption
efficiency and
homogeneity of the
soil.

•What is the dominant wear mechanism acting on these tools under normal operation?
•What materials would you recommend to manufacture them?
•Please consider as many variables as possible (manufacturing process, required
mechanical and physical properties, etc.).
•What information related to the soil would you need to consider?
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
APPLICATION PROBLEM
The shafts shown in figure were
removed from a hydraulic motor
due to excessive wear,
especially in regions marked A B
and B. In A, circumferential
marks are observed, while in B
the surface exhibits a
hammered-like aspect with A
disperse brown-colored spots.

•Please comment on the possible causes of these damages


•What would be the main wear mechanisms acting on the surfaces?
•What are the commonly-known wear types associated to this kind of components?
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
III. Surface Fatigue

Rails/wheels Bearings

Gears
Rollers

Printing
devices:
Pumping
Hammers,
systems
types,
platens

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Surface Fatigue

SEM image showing fatigue cracks at the surface of an AISI


D1 tool steel used for cutting stainless steel sheets

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Surface Fatigue
Fatigue pitting

Sub-surface cracks

Hertz Contact Stresses


Stress concentration in
Notch
internal deffects (inclussions,
precipitates).
Cracks When the crack reaches the
surface a pit is formed

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Surface Fatigue
Fatigue pitting

Usually linked to abrasive or adhesive wear

Repeated sliding contact can


cause creation and propagation
of cracks at or nearby the
surface
Delamination model:
(Adhesion or Abrasion)
+
grieta
Surface Fatigue

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


IV. Tribochemical reactions
Clutches
Bearings

Slides Chains

Riveted Plate
joints springs

Tight-fitting surfaces are more vulnerable


Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
Tribochemical reactions

Corrosion-erosion in Stainless steel

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Tribochemical reactions
Substrate Kinetics of layer’s
Material formation

kinetics of
Layer’s VARIABLES Load
Removal

Layer-Substrate Layer-Substrate
Adhesion Fracture Toughness

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Wear Maps

Typical Wear Map for unlubricated sliding

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


PV Wear Maps

Pin-on-disc tests, Steel-Steel pairs

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Wear Maps

Wear modes Effect of temperature

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


EXAMPLES OF
INDUSTRIAL
PROBLEMS

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Railway Systems

165000 Km
Wavelength 12 cm
Depth 0.1 mm 12000 Km
Noisy First undulation marks
Almost noiseless

Wheel diameter 85 cm
26 peaks around the contact periphery, Amplitude 0.1 mm
Flats 25- 40 mm long, 2 - 4 mm deep → Impact Forces > 400 KN

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


EXCENTRICITY

COMMON
DEFECTS
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
Hydraulic Systems

Erosion marks
(Beach Marks)

Rotors and housings of centrifugal pumps

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Hydraulic Systems

Hardfacing Repair

Rotor of centrifugal pump for slurry transportation

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Cavitation

Inadequate operating
conditions

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


SWIMMING ROLLS IN DYE PADDERS
(TEXTILE INDUSTRY)
Tribo-chemical attack

Lack of
adherence

Surface
Fatigue

Abrasion
Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009
SWIMMING ROLLS IN DYE PADDERS
(TEXTILE INDUSTRY)

Fracture

Solidified Lye Surface fatigue

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Mining Industry
Dredge buckets, Gold mining industry

Complex carbide hardfacing repair

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009


Amphibious Excavators

Lectures on Tribology - University of North Carolina at Charlotte - Fall 2009