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If you are good at math

Statistician Electrical engineer

Surveyor Then look at these possible careers


Cost estimator Actuary


What is this job like?

•Statisticians help to design surveys and experiments. They also
collect, analyze, and interpret numerical data. Some work for
businesses and some work in government.
•To give an example, some statisticians may collect data to learn how
safe new products are. This must be done before the product can be
•Statisticians often use samples to collect information. A sample
provides information about a small group within a much larger group.
They can then take what they learned about the small group and
apply it to the larger group.
•Statisticians decide where and how to gather the data. They choose
the sample size. They decide about the type of survey. They tell
workers who gather the data how to do their job. They process the
collected data and reach conclusions about the data. They do this with
the help of computer software.
•Statisticians usually work regular hours in comfortable offices. Some
have to travel to give advice to people. Some have to travel to set up
surveys or gather data. Others have a lot of different duties. These
include things such as setting up experiments and doing fieldwork.
Some teach and do research.

How do you get ready?

•Some people with only a bachelor's degree in statistics are
able to get entry-level jobs as statisticians. However, a
master's degree is needed for most of the jobs in this field.
Research and teaching jobs usually require at least a
master's degree in statistics, and generally a Ph.D. is
needed. A master's degree and several years of experience
are usually needed to get a job in industrial research.

•In 2004, about 230 universities had degree programs in


•Statisticians use computers a lot. So, it is very important to

have a good background in computers if you are interested
in this field. Good speaking and writing skills are also
needed. This is because statisticians must often explain their
work to others who don't know that much about statistics.
Are there other jobs like
What about the future?

Slower than average growth is •Civil engineers
expected in the number of jobs in •Computer programmers
this field from 2004 to 2014. •Computer scientists
•Computer software engineers
However, those with degrees in •Database administrators
statistics should have a good chance •Economists
for jobs in other fields. •Financial analysts
•Market and survey researchers
This is especially true of jobs that •Mathematicians
deal with the analysis of data and •Operations research analysts
forming an opinion about it. •Personal financial advisors
•Systems analysts
Electrical engineer

What is this job like?

•A global positioning system that can pinpoint a car's
location. Giant generators that can power entire cities. A new
design for an airplane's electrical system. Electrical and
electronics engineers work on high-tech projects like these.
•Electrical engineers design new and better electronics. They
also test equipment and solve problems. A project starts by
deciding what the new electronics will do. Then, the engineer
designs the circuits and other parts of the electronics.
Engineers might draw their designs using a computer.
•Later, the engineers test their designs and make them
better. Many projects don't work at first. The engineers have
to figure out why and then fix them.
•Electrical engineers work on many kinds of products. They
might work on cars, robots, cell phone systems, the lighting
and wiring in buildings, and radar and navigation systems,
for example.
•Engineers work in offices, labs, or industrial plants. Many
work a normal 40-hour week. At times, they work longer to
meet deadlines.
Electrical engineer

How do you get


You need a college degree in engineering for almost all

engineering jobs.

Getting into engineering school takes good grades in

math and science. Students also need courses in
English, social studies, and computers.

Engineers should be creative, curious, logical, and

detail-oriented. They should also be able to work as
part of a team.
Electrical engineer

What about the


Electrical engineers should have good job prospects. Jobs for

electrical engineers are expected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through 2014. There will be a need for
more electronic devices like giant electric power generators or
wireless phone transmitters

Are there other jobs like

•Civil engineers
•Computer hardware engineers
•Aerospace engineers
•Industrial engineers
•Mechanical engineers
What is this job like?
Do you know where your backyard ends and your neighbor's yard
begins? Have you ever wondered how maps are created? These are
questions for a surveyor. Surveyors measure and draw what the earth's
surface looks like.
Surveyors do different types of work. Some measure land, air space, and
water areas. They describe where a certain area of land is. They explain
what it looks like, and how much is there. They put these facts in deeds,
leases, and other legal documents. They also define air space for
airports. In addition, they measure construction and mineral sites.
Surveyors might lead survey parties (or surveying projects).
Geodetic surveyors measure large areas of the earth's surface.
Geophysical prospecting surveyors mark sites for exploration below the
earth's surface, usually related to petroleum. Marine or hydrographic
surveyors study harbors, rivers, and other bodies of water.
Another type of worker is a surveying and mapping technician. Survey
technicians help land surveyors when they go to a site. Survey
technicians use special tools and collect facts. They might hold measuring
tapes and chains. Survey technicians write notes. They also make
sketches and enter the facts into computers. Some survey parties include
helpers. They move bushes from sight lines, stick stakes in the ground,
and carry equipment.
Another group of worker is cartographers. They collect facts about the earth's surface.
They prepare maps of large areas. Their work is like land surveyors, but they cover
larger areas. Some specialists, called photogrammetrists, prepare maps from aerial
photographs. This group works mainly in offices. They seldom visit the sites they are
A new type of worker is called a geographic information specialist. This new
occupational group started because of the new technology in satellites and computers.
Geographic information specialists combine the jobs of mapping scientists and
Surveyors study legal records. They look for previous boundaries. They record the
results of the survey. They make sure that their facts are correct. Afterwards, they draw
what the area looks like. They make maps and write reports. Surveyors who set up
boundaries must be licensed by the State in which they work.
Surveyors usually work an 8-hour day, 5 days a week. They spend a lot of their time
outdoors. Sometimes they work longer hours during the summer, when the weather is
good and the sun stays up longer.
Land surveyors and technicians often stand for long periods. They have to climb hills
and walk long distances. Sometimes they have to stay overnight. They carry heavy
packs of instruments and equipment. They face all types of weather when they are
Surveyors also spend time in offices. While in an office, they have to make plans, read
their facts, and prepare reports and maps. Most of the time, surveyors use computers
to do math problems and draw maps. Cartographers spend almost all their time in
How do you get ready?
To become a licensed surveyor, most persons take surveying
courses, pass tests, and get on-the-job training. However, as
technology advances, a 4-year college degree is becoming more
important for surveyors and related workers.

Junior colleges, technical institutes, and vocational schools offer

1-, 2-, and 3-year programs in surveying and surveying
High school students interested in surveying should take courses
in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing,
and computer science.

Surveyors should be able to see objects, distances, sizes, and

other forms in their minds. Their work has to be correct all the
time, because mistakes can cost a lot of money. Surveyors have
to be able to work with people and to work as part of a team.
Learning to lead others is another important skill.
Members of a survey party must be in good physical shape to
work outdoors and carry equipment. They need good eyesight
and hearing to communicate by hand and voice signals.
What about the future?

The number of jobs for surveyors, cartographers,

photogrammetrists, and surveying technicians is expected
to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations
through the year 2014.
Job opportunities will be best for those with at least a
college degree and strong technical skills, such as the ability
to use geographic information systems.
Are there other jobs like this?

•Civil engineers
•Environmental scientists
•Landscape architects
•Urban planners
What is this job like?
Physicists study the natural world, from the tiniest subatomic particles to the
largest galaxies. They do experiments to discover the laws of nature. They study
what things are made of (matter) and how things behave. They also study
energy. They learn how it changes from one form to another.
Some physicists focus on theories. They ask big questions. They might ask what
causes gravity, for example, or what the shape and size of the universe is. Then,
they use observation and mathematics to find the answers.
Many physicists do experiments. Some, for example, ram atoms into each other
in an accelerator to break them apart. They look for clues about what particles
come out of atoms when they split.
Other physicists apply theories to practical problems. They might create
advanced materials, new electronic and optical devices, or medical equipment.
Physicists also design research equipment. Some of this equipment is used in
surprising ways. For example, the first laser was created for research, but people
later discovered that lasers could be used in surgery as well.
Most physicists work in research and development. Some do basic research to
increase knowledge. Others do applied research. They take what is learned in
basic research and use it to create new devices, products, and processes.
Astronomy is sometimes considered a part of physics. Astronomers study the
stars, planets, and other parts of the cosmos.
Physicists often work regular hours in labs and offices. At times, they may work
long or irregular hours doing research. They may travel to use special equipment
in other places.
How do you get ready?

You usually need a doctoral degree (Ph.D.) to work as a physicist. A

doctoral degree takes several years of college to complete. People
who want permanent jobs in basic research at universities and
government labs need even more training. Many Ph.D. holders teach
at colleges or universities.
People with a master's degree in physics often get jobs in
manufacturing and applied research and development. Some teach
in high schools or at 2-year colleges.
Those with a bachelor's degree often work as technicians or
research assistants. Some may be able to work in applied research
jobs in private industry or in nonresearch positions in the
government. Some become science teachers in middle schools or
high schools.
If you want to be a physicist, you should study math and science.
You must be good at solving problems. And you should be curious.
Physicists are self-starters. Speaking and writing abilities are also
important. Sometimes, physicists have to write research papers or
proposals. And some physicists share ideas while working in a team.

What about the future? Are there other jobs like this?

Employment of physicists is
expected to grow more slowly than •Atmospheric scientists
the average for all occupations •Chemists
through 2014. •Civil engineers
•Computer programmers
The limited amount of money to •Computer scientists
do research means that physicists •Database administrators
will have to compete for basic •Electrical engineers
research jobs. •Environmental scientists
But there will continue to be •Mathematicians
demand for people with physics •Systems analysts
knowledge to work with computers
and in other applied sciences.
Cost estimator
What is this job like?
Cost estimators figure out how much a project or product will cost. This helps
business owners and managers decide whether to build a structure or manufacture a
product. If a business doesn't think it can make enough money, it will not do it. Cost
estimators also find out which jobs are making a profit. The exact method of figuring
out the cost varies, depending on the industry in which you work.
They study information on all of the things that can change the cost of a project.
This includes supplies, labor, location, and special equipment, like computer
hardware and software.
In construction, they look at drawings and visit the site of the project. They
determine the amount of materials and labor the firm will need. They also consider
the costs of things like unused materials, delays due to bad weather, and shipping
delays. They tell the architect, construction manager, or owner if they think the
project will be profitable or not, and write their findings in a detailed report. In large
companies, they may specialize. For example, one may estimate only electrical work
and another may focus on concrete.
In manufacturing and other firms, they are assigned to the engineering, cost, or
pricing departments. They estimate the cost of making products, including materials
and labor. They make a list of parts to see if it is better to make or purchase the
parts. The cost of computer software development is one of the fastest growing and
hardest to estimate. Some specialize in this.
Estimators use computers a lot to do all of the necessary paperwork. This allows
them more time to study and analyze potential projects or products.
They spend most of their time in an office. However, construction estimators visit
project worksites. They can be dusty, dirty, and sometimes unsafe. In
manufacturing, they spend time on the factory floor. It can be noisy and dirty.
Estimators sometimes work extra hours. They work under pressure because if they
make a mistake, their firm can lose a lot of money.
Cost estimator
How do you get ready?

How to prepare for this occupation depends on the industry in

which you want to work in. In construction, employers want
people with a college degree in building construction, construction
management or science, engineering, or architecture.
In manufacturing, employers prefer to hire individuals with a
degree in engineering, physical science, operations research,
mathematics, or statistics. They can also have a degree in
accounting, finance, business, economics, or a related subject.
Math and computer skills are very important.
Strong communication and analytical skills are also important.
Cost estimators must present their estimates to supervisors and
They need training on the job because every company has its own
way of handling estimates. During training, cost estimators usually
work with an experienced inspector.
After years of experience, some move into management positions,
while others may go into business for themselves as consultants.
They get paid to provide estimates to government or to
construction or manufacturing firms.
Cost estimator

What about the future?

Are there other jobs like
The number of cost estimators is this?
expected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations
through the year 2014. •Accountants
•Budget analysts
Jobs should be best for those with •Claims adjusters, appraisers,
work experience and a bachelor's examiners, and investigators
degree in a related field. •Construction managers
The expected increase in •Financial analysts
construction and repair projects •Industrial production managers
on buildings, roads, airports, and •Insurance underwriters
other structures will lead to more •Loan officers
jobs for estimators. •Market and survey researchers
•Operations research analysts
This means that the best job •Personal financial advisors
opportunities will be in the
construction industry.
What is this job like?

Actuaries deal with risk. They decide how likely things such as
death, sickness, injury, disability, and loss of property are to
occur, as well as the costs of these things.
Actuaries also decide how much money it will take in order to get
a certain amount of retirement income. They help design
insurance policies and pension plans and try to make sure that
they are sound. Actuaries may need to explain their findings to
company executives, government officials, and the public. They
may also testify in court as an expert.
Most actuaries work for insurance companies. Some work in life
and health insurance. Others work in property and casualty
insurance. Actuaries make tables that show how likely it is that a
claim will be made by a customer. They use these tables to decide
how much the company will have to pay in claims. They make
sure that the company charges enough to pay these claims. This
amount must be enough for the company to make a profit. It must
also be in line with what other insurance companies are charging.
Actuaries work in offices. They often work at least 40 hours a
week. Some actuaries may travel to meet with clients.

How do you get ready?

Actuaries need to know a lot about math and general business.

Those just starting in the field often have a college degree in math,
actuarial science, or statistics. Some have a degree in economics,
finance, or accounting.

There are about 100 colleges and universities that have an actuarial
science program. Most colleges have degree programs in math,
statistics, economics, or finance. Some companies hire people who
have degrees in other areas. However, these people must be good
at math and able to pass the actuarial exams.

The exams are held two times a year and it is good to pass all of the
exams as soon as possible. More companies are hiring people who
have some training in liberal arts and business. It is also important
to be able to communicate well. Computer skills are becoming more
important too.

Are there other jobs like

What about the future?

Employment for actuaries is

expected to grow faster than the
average for all jobs through 2014. •Accountants
•Budget analysts
Examinations to become an actuary •Economists
are very difficult; those who pass •Financial analysts
have a good chance for a job. •Insurance underwriters
•Market and survey researchers
Actuaries working on health care •Mathematicians
issues will have good chances for a •Personal financial advisors
job because many more people will •Statisticians
need health care in the future.

Actuaries also will be needed to work

on other issues.