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IRRIGATION OUTLETS

An outlet may be defined as a hydraulic structure at the head of water course

IRRIGATION OUTLETS An outlet may be defined as a hydraulic structure at the head of water

which connects it with a supply canal. The

supply canal is usually under the control of an irrigation authority. The authority

may be a Government department, a public, or semi-public organization. Thus the farm outlet is the
may be a Government department, a
public, or semi-public organization. Thus
the farm outlet is the connecting link

between the canal operator representing

the authority and the farmer or user.
the authority and the farmer or user.

Non- modular outlet

It is the outlet in which the

discharge depends on the

difference of water levels in the supply canal and watercourse.

Semi-Modular outlet

It is the outlet in which the discharge is independent of water

level in the water course but

dependent on the water levels in

the disrtibutary

Modules

It is also called Modular outlet or

Rigid Module. It is an outlet in

which discharge is independent of

the water levels in the distributary and the water course

Outlets of Punjab

Total number of outlets in the Punjab are

50,000.

Out of these, more than 75% are A.O.S.M, 20% are Open Flume and 5% are Pipe or

Scratchley type Outlet.

A.O.S.M is commonly used, Open Flume Outlet are used in the tail reaches While

Pipe or Scratchley are used when other

types can not be used.

Adjustable orifice Semi-Module

Pipe Outlet
Pipe Outlet

Figure No. 2.19

Submerged pipe outlet

Scratchley Outlet
Scratchley Outlet

Figure No. 2.20

Scratchley outlet

Characteristics of Outlets
Characteristics of Outlets
Characteristics of Outlets  Flexibility :The capacity of an outlet to vary its discharge with a

Flexibility :The capacity of an outlet to vary its discharge with a change in the discharge of the distributary is called flexibitity. It may also

Characteristics of Outlets  Flexibility :The capacity of an outlet to vary its discharge with a

be defined as the ratio of the rate of change of

outlet discharge to the rate of change of discharge in the parent channel F = [dq/q]
outlet discharge to the rate of change of
discharge in the parent channel
F = [dq/q] / [dQ/Q]

Sensitivity
Sensitivity
Sensitivity  This is defined as the fractional increase or decrease of module supply per rise

This is defined as the fractional increase or decrease of module supply per rise or fall in channel surface. It may also be defined as the ratio of the rate of change of discharge of an outlet to rate of change in the level of distributary water surface

S = (dq/q)/ (dG/D)
S = (dq/q)/ (dG/D)

Efficiency
Efficiency

This is defined as the ratio of head recovered to

head put in.
head put in.

In case of weir type outlet efficiency is same as the drowning ratio.

Efficiency  This is defined as the ratio of head recovered to head put in. In

Drowning ratio = (Height of water above the

crest d/s) / (Height of water above the crest u/s).
crest d/s) / (Height of water above the crest
u/s).
Minimum Modular Head
Minimum Modular Head
 The necessary minimum difference of water level or pressure between supply and delivery sides to
The necessary minimum difference of
water level or pressure between
supply and delivery sides to enable a
Module or Semi-Module to work as
designed.
Coefficient of Discharge
Coefficient of Discharge
In order to use the outlet as measuring device the C. d should remain constant in
In order to use the outlet as measuring
device the C. d should remain constant in
full Modular Range. For a weir type Semi-
Modular outlet the one with along throat is
better than with a short throat, since the C.
d may increase with the head in the latter
and is uncertain in value.

Silt drawing capacity
Silt drawing capacity
It is vital that the outlets draw their fair share of silt. This avoids silting or
It is vital that the outlets draw their fair
share of silt. This avoids silting or scouring
and consequently remodeling of the
distributaty. In a distribution system the
absorption losses are generally taken as
10% and therefore the silt conducting power
of outlets should be around 110% as
compared to 100% of the distributary to
enable them to draw their proportional
share.

Ajustability
Ajustability
The adjustment of Modules may range from complete reconstruction to the provision of some mechanical arrangements
The adjustment of Modules may range from
complete reconstruction to the provision of
some mechanical arrangements by which
readjustment can be made at little cost i.e in
the case of Crump's A.P.M it can be adjusted
by lowering or raising a roof block at little
cost.

Setting of an Outlet
Setting of an Outlet
 (H/D) is known as the setting of an outlet and for an open flume outlet
(H/D) is known as the setting of an
outlet and for an open flume outlet to
behave proportional the head over the
weir H must be 0.9 D.
Similarly for an orifice type outlet, H
would be 0.3D for the module to be
proportional.
Open Flume Outlet
Open Flume Outlet
 There are various types of outlets, varying in certain details but the basic principle remains
There are various types of outlets,
varying in certain details but the basic
principle remains that of producing a
super critical flow and allowing for the
formation of hydraulic jump to make
the discharge independent of the level
in the watercourse.

Flexibility

It will thus be seen that proportionality in discharge can be secured by fixing the crest of

Flexibility It will thus be seen that proportionality in discharge can be secured by fixing the

the outlet at 0.9 of the depth of the supply canal. If the crest be higher
the outlet at 0.9 of the depth of the supply
canal. If the crest be higher than this, the
outlet become more flexible

To decrease the defect of high flexibility, a roof

block is fitted in the filled of an open flume, at the vena contracta, clear of the water surface in the gullet when the outlet is drawing its full

supply discharge
supply discharge

Flexibility (continued

This clearance is set at 1.5 cm in the head reach and 3cm in the tail
This clearance is set at 1.5 cm in the head
reach and 3cm in the tail reach of the
distributing canals. The roof block should be

fixed at a distance equal to H(Crest) below the upstream end of he throat and the bottom the

roof block should be at a height of 0.75 H(Crest) above the crest plus the clearance
roof block should be at a height of 0.75
H(Crest) above the crest plus the clearance of
1.5 cm to 3 cm. The roof block should have a
square edge at the bottom and it may be of
brick masonry or reinforced concrete, the

height up to the top of the side walls and length along the flow varying from 12 cm to 23

cm.

Silt drawing capacity

Higher the crest with respect to the channel bed the lower is the silt drawing capacity. Therefore,

it is desirable to have a lower crest, which also

suits flexibility requirements, but hydraulically

this may not be possible and the crest has to be

kept much higher to meet the discharge

requirement. For example for a 3 ft deep cannel,

a 0.2 ft wide outlet if placed at the bed would pass a minimum discharge of 3.01 ft3/sec. This

means that if it is desired to reduce the discharge

further to the normal 2 ft3/sec or less, then H has to be reduced or the crest has to be raised.

The working head (i.e. M.M.H) required is small

which is 10%-20% of the depth of water above the crest. If the outlet has a higher setting,

The working head (i.e. M.M.H) required is small which is 10%-20% of the depth of water

these outlets can work with a small fraction of

H.
H.

This is a good proportional distributor of water

and hence most suitable for tail clusters. Silt drawn can be controlled by modifying the intake
and hence most suitable for tail clusters.
Silt drawn can be controlled by modifying the
intake of the outlet.
If the setting is kept below 0.9D then it tends
to be sub-proportional (which is desirable) and
draws its fair share of silt.

Design formula

 The design formula used for an open flume outlet is  q = K ×
The design formula used for an open flume
outlet is
q = K × B(t) × H(Crest)
B(t) =
width of the throat in cm or ft (throat
width less than 6 cm or0.22 ft must not be
adopted
K = 2/3 cd.√2g= coefficient.
C.d. = coefficient of discharge
K has the following values for different widths
of throat ( in metric and British units)
 B(t) cm K  6 to 9.0 16  9.1 to 12.0 16.24  over
B(t) cm
K
6 to 9.0
16
9.1 to 12.0
16.24
over 12.0
16.53
0.2 to 0.29
2.9
0.3 to 0.39
2.95
0.40 and over
3.00
Designing procedure
Designing procedure
 The minimum modular head adopted is 0.2H(crest) when designing, it is necessary to assume a
The minimum modular head adopted is
0.2H(crest) when designing, it is
necessary to assume a particular value of
B(t)or H(crest), then calculate the other,
and work out the minimum modular head,
and then see if the latter is less than the
available Working head. To find B(t)or
H(crest) for a given discharge and a
working head, figure (2.11) may be used.

Example 1: Design an open flume outlet with a discharge of 50 liters per second, for

a canal with a full supply depth of 100 cm.

The working head available for the outlet is

15 cm.

Solution
Solution

q = 50 litres/sec

D = 100 cm

H(wk) = 15 cm

H(Crest) = 100 - 20 = 80 cm With H(Crest) = 80 cm and q =
H(Crest) = 100 - 20 = 80 cm
With H(Crest) = 80 cm and
q = 50 l/sec
The width
B(t) will be 4.8 cm, i. e less than 6 cm.
So, Adopt minimum value of B(t) = 6 cm

( as H(wk)min = 0.2H = 0.2×100= 20 cm)

Fig-2.11

Fig-2.11
 for which  H(wk) min = 0.2 H(crest) = 0.2× 64.73 =12.946 cm  Against
for which
H(wk) min = 0.2 H(crest) = 0.2×
64.73 =12.946 cm
Against 15 cm available.
The design is suitable but setting of
the outlet is 64.7/100 = 0.647
This is not too high but the outlet will
not take its fair share of silt.
Should it be necessary to conduct silt

effectively it is possible, though costly, to build a combined and open flume outlet.

Example 2: Assume the outlet in example

1 is located just above or within a short distance of a fall or drop in the canal which has a depth over crest under full supply

condition of 50 cm. Let the available workin

head of the outlet be 70 cm. Design a suitab outlet.

Longitudinal Cross Section

Figure 2.5 Jamrao Type Orifice Semi-Module

Figure No. 2.7

Gibb’s module

Figure 2.6 Jamrao Type Orifice Semi-Module



Solution: Since the outlet is above or close to a control point in the canal, H (crest) of the open flume outlet should be the same as

that of the fall, viz: 50 cm. This will ensure proportional distribution.  Thus q= 50
that of the fall, viz: 50 cm. This will ensure
proportional distribution.
Thus
q= 50 l/sec
H(crest)
= 50 cm.
B(t) = 8.84 cm ( from fig No5-18)
H(wk) = 70 cm
H(wk)min =0.2 H(crest ) = 0.2×50 =10 cm
Which is much less than the available
working head.

Example 3

 Design a three-way tail cluster open flume outlet in accordance with the following data .
Design a three-way tail cluster open flume
outlet in accordance with the following
data .
Tail right outlet:
and H (wk)
q = 50 l/sec
= 12 cm
Tail Centre outlet:
q = 80 l/sec
and H(wk)
= 30 cm
Tail left outlet:
q = 30 l/sec
and H(wk)
= 15 cm
The full supply depth of the distributing
canal at the tail is 40 cm, and full supply
depth is 100 cm
SOLUTION  An examination of the available working heads of the three outlets shows that if
SOLUTION
An examination of the available working heads of
the three outlets shows that if H(Crest) be 30 cm,
all the outlets will work modularly .
H(wk)min = 0.2 H(Crest) =0.2× 30=6 cm
Tail right outlet q = 50 l/sec
H(Crest )= 30cm
B(t) = 18.3cm ( from figure 2.11)
Adopt crest level= 99.64 m (axis assumed parallel
to flow in supply canal
Tail centre outlet) q = 80 l/sec
H(Crest )=
30cm
B(t) = 29.3 cm
Figure-2.11

Figure-2.11

 ( from figure 2.11)  Adopt crest level = 99.70 m  Tail left outlet
( from figure 2.11)
Adopt crest level = 99.70 m
Tail left outlet
q = 30 l/sec
H(cres)=30 cm
B(t) = 11.2cm
( from figure 2.11)
Adopt the crest level
=
99.64 m
The crest of the central outlet with its
axis parallel to the flow in the supply
canal will be 0.06 m higher than the
other two or three side outlets.

Example 4: Design an Open Flume Outlet for proportional distribution in a supply

canal, the normal supply of which is 55%

of the full supply.

D = 120 cm, q = 45 l/sec, H(wk) = 55 cm
D = 120 cm, q = 45 l/sec,
H(wk) = 55 cm

As H(wk) is more than 0.42D i.e. 50.4 cm, the open flume will draw proportional discharge

from 55% to 100% of the supply in the main canal.
from 55% to 100% of the supply in the main
canal.
H (crest) = 0.9D = 0.9× 120 =108 cm. B(t) = 2.51 cm (from figure 2.11)
H (crest) = 0.9D = 0.9× 120 =108 cm.
B(t) = 2.51 cm (from figure 2.11)
Since B (t) = 6 cm,
The value of H(crest) = 60.3 cm
(from

Adjustable Orifice Semi-Module (AOSM) Structurally, the AOSM may be regarded as a long  throated flume

Adjustable Orifice Semi-Module

(AOSM)

Structurally, the AOSM may be regarded as a long
Structurally, the AOSM may be regarded as a long

throated flume with a roof block capable of vertical adjustment in the upstream end of the parallel throat as shown in figure (2.12) &(2.13). The upstream face

wall or upstream wing wall on the supply canal is
wall or upstream wing wall on the supply canal is

curved and flared, the curvature ending 7.5 cm upstream of the start of the crest. The downstream face wall or downstream wing wall on the supply canal is set forward inside the canal by a distance, which is generally equal to q/Q (B+ D/2).

Adjustable Orifice Semi-Module (AOSM) Structurally, the AOSM may be regarded as a long  throated flume

Setting forward should only be done when the bed width of the canal is reduced below the outlet, keeping the down stream wing wall at

the down stream end and the upstream wing wall upstream toe slope. The length of the
the down stream end and the upstream wing
wall upstream toe slope. The length of the
parallel throat is 60 cm (2 ft) for all cases.
There is no horizontal crest portion of the
throat and a glacis sloping at 1 in 15 starts
right from the upstream end of the parallel
sides of the throat.

Roof Block



The roof block may be of cast iron but is generally of reinforced cement. The face of the roof block is set 5 cm from the starting point of the parallel throat. It has a lamniscate

curve at the bottom with a tilt of 1 in 7.5 in order to converge the
curve at the bottom with a tilt of 1 in 7.5 in
order to converge the water instead of a
horizontal base which would diverge it. The

cast iron roof block is 30 cm thick. The parallel

throat has a cast iron bed and check plates.
throat has a cast iron bed and check plates.
Side walls
Side walls
 The side walls down stream of the throat are given a splay of 1 in
The side walls down stream of the
throat are given a splay of 1 in 10, i.e
up to 150 cm (5ft) after which they
are straight up to a length depending
on the bank width.

Flexibility

 This type of outlet is instantaneously proportional when the bottom of the roof block is
This type of outlet is instantaneously
proportional when the bottom of the roof
block is at 0.3 of the full supply depth of the
supply canal. With a rise in the full supply
level the flexibility which is equal to
3/10×D/H(crest) , is reduced and the outlet
becomes sub-proportional. Similarly with a
fall in the full supply level the flexibility is
increased and the outlet becomes hyper
proportional.

Flexibility

  • When the outlet is set near the bed level, with any rise in the full supply level, the value of D /

H(crest) ,falls and the outlet tends to move further from proportionally in the direction or rigidity.
H(crest) ,falls and the outlet tends to move
further from proportionally in the direction or
rigidity. A fall in the full supply level similarly

increase the flexibility and the outlet moves towards proportionality. With the outlet set at bed level the flexibility remains constant at 0.3.

Silt drawing capacity

With the improvement in the approach conditions of the upstream wall the silt drawing capacity is
With the improvement in the approach
conditions of the upstream wall the silt
drawing capacity is increased by 7-8% over
the crump’s APM. The silt drawing capacity
also increase with a deeper setting and the
following results have been observed.
6/10 setting
8/10 setting
10/10 setting
99.5%
109.7%
113.7% to 121.9%
So, this outlet draws at bed level about 14 %
and below bed level at 12/10th setting about
29% more silt than it would draw at 6/10th
setting when it is proportional.

Range of operation

It can work semi-modularly for all discharges from 28 l/sec to 150 l/sec i.e. the discharge
It can work semi-modularly for all
discharges from 28 l/sec to 150 l/sec i.e.
the discharge range generally required for
outlets.
Minimum Modular Head
Gulhati has derived an empirical formula
for the minimum modular head
Hm = 0.83 Hs
- 0.5 Bt
 Efficiency  As per efficiency is = J / Hs  Where J and Hs
Efficiency
As per efficiency is = J /
Hs
Where J and Hs are shown in fig .
J = Height of hydraulic jump.
Y = Conjugate on upstream side of hydraulic
jump.
J+Y = conjugate depth d/s side of the jump.
Conjugate depth d/s of jump = - Y/2 +√y2/4
+ 2v2/g × Y

= - Y/2 +√y2/4 + 2v2 Y/g

J+y

J = - 3Y/2 +√y2 /4 + 2v2Y/g J= - 3Y/2 +√y2 /4 + 4 HsY
J = - 3Y/2 +√y2 /4 + 2v2Y/g
J= - 3Y/2 +√y2 /4 + 4 HsY
Khosla has derived the above formula
(2.11)
E = j/ Hs
in the following form ignoring
friction.
Dividing (2.11)by Hs and putting Hs /Y = R
= Depression ratio.
J/ Hs = E = - 3y/2 Hs + (√y2 /4 + 4 Hs Y )
×1/Hs

J/ Hs = E = - 3/2R+ (√y2 /4 Hs2+ 4 Y /Hs)
J/ Hs = E = - 3/2R+ (√y2 /4 Hs2+ 4 Y /Hs)

J/ Hs = E = - 3/2R + (√1/4R2 +4/R)

 J/ Hs = E = - 3/2R  J/ Hs = E = - 3/2R
J/ Hs = E = - 3/2R
J/ Hs = E = - 3/2R
+ (√1+16R /4R2)
+ (√1+16 R) /2R
E = [(√1 +16R)-3)] / 2R
If R = ½ =Hs/Y
Then
E = 3-3 =0 or j = 0
Therefore there will be no jump formation
and the outlet will cease to perform as
semi-module.

Adjustment

 The outlet is easily adjustable at a small cast, either by raising or lowering the
The outlet is easily adjustable at a small cast,
either by raising or lowering the roof block or
by dismantling one side wall.
Tampering
The roof block is raised bodily and refixed but
the tampering is easily detected.
Design formula
(According to crump)
q = K× B(t) ×√ H (sof)
Where
K = constant
K = c. d √2g
c. d = 0.62
H(sof) = H (crest)
- H (ori)
= height of the
full supply level in the supply canal above the
bottom of the roof block .
 Also, M.M.H = 0.82 H (orf) - 0.5 B (t)  It should be noted
Also,
M.M.H = 0.82 H (orf) - 0.5 B (t)
It should be noted that recent research carried
out on the A.O.S.M in Pakistan has shown that
c. d varies with the throat with of the structure
i.e with the ratio D/ H(rest) and D/ B(t).
Consequently the structural shape of the outlet
differs slightly from the design presented here.
EXAMPLE:
EXAMPLE:
 Design an orifice semi - module having a discharge of 60 l/sec on a canal
Design an orifice semi - module having
a discharge of 60 l/sec on a canal with
full supply depth of 90 cm available
working head is 54 cm.
Solution
q = 60 l/sec
D = 90 cm
H(wk)
= 54 cm.
EXAMPLE (CONT…)
EXAMPLE (CONT…)
 If it is desired that the orifice semi-module should be proportional then  H(crest) =
If it is desired that the orifice semi-module
should be proportional then
H(crest) = 0.6 D = 0.6 × 0.9 = 54 cm
An examination of the curves of (fig 2.14)
shows that for B(t)
= 6 cm and q = 60
l/sec
H (crest) must be more than 54 cm.
For B(t)= 12 cm (Fig 2.17 ) the intersection
of H(crest) = 54cm and Q = 60 l/sec gives
H(crest) = 54 cm and q=60 l/s gives
EXAMPLE (CONT…)
EXAMPLE (CONT…)

FIG. 2.17

EXAMPLE (CONT…)  H(orf)=21 cm  H(sof) = 54-21=33 cm  H(wk)min = 0.82 H(sof) -
EXAMPLE (CONT…)  H(orf)=21 cm  H(sof) = 54-21=33 cm  H(wk)min = 0.82 H(sof) -
EXAMPLE (CONT…)
H(orf)=21 cm
H(sof) = 54-21=33 cm
H(wk)min = 0.82 H(sof) - 0.5 B(t)
= 0.82×33 - 0.5×12 = 21 cm
The setting being 0.6 D, the outlet is likely its
draw its fair share of silt. For canals carrying
clear water the setting at 0.6 D is ideal for
proportionality.
For rigidity and better silt drawing capacity,
the outlet should be set at bed level, viz
H(crest) = 90 cm
From ( figure 2.17 ), with B(t) =12 cm and
60 l/sec
q=

H(orf) should be 14.2 cm

EXAMPLE (CONT…)  H(sof) = 90 - 14.2 = 75.8  H(wk)min = 0.82 H(sof) -
EXAMPLE (CONT…)
H(sof) = 90 - 14.2 = 75.8
H(wk)min = 0.82 H(sof) - 0.5 B(t)
= 0.82×75.8 – 0.5× 12
=56.1 cm > H(wk) = 54cm
It is,therefore, necessary to reduce H(sof)
An inspection of (fig no 2.14) shows that
with B(t)=7.5 cm and H(crest)=90 cm
For a discharge of 60 l/s
H(orf) should be 24.5 cm
And H(wk)min=50 cm < H(wk) = 54 cm
EXAMPLE (CONT…)
EXAMPLE (CONT…)
 Another suitable size is  H(orf) = 33 cm and B(t) = 6 cm (figure
Another suitable size is
H(orf) = 33 cm and B(t) = 6 cm
(figure 2.14 )
With H(wk)min = 45 cm
Should the working head be very low
and no suitable size of orifice semi-
module with a reasonably deep setting
can be designed, it would be
necessary to resort to another type of
outlet such as a combined pipe and
semi- module.
EXAMPLE (CONT…)
EXAMPLE (CONT…)

FIG. 2.14

Example
Example


An orifice semi-modularly is found to be working working non-modularly during an inspection of an outlet. The actual working head on measurement

is found to be 30 cm. How can the outlet be adjusted to give its design
is found to be 30 cm. How can the
outlet be adjusted to give its design
discharge?
EXAMPLE (CONT…) Solution   q = 60 l/sec  H(crest) = 90 cm  H(Orf)
EXAMPLE (CONT…) Solution   q = 60 l/sec  H(crest) = 90 cm  H(Orf)
EXAMPLE (CONT…)
Solution
q = 60 l/sec
H(crest)
= 90 cm
H(Orf)
= 29.5 cm
B(t) = 6 cm
(fig 2.15 ) shows that for the given data,
H(wk)min should be 47 cm against only 30
cm actually available.
The first immediate remedy is to clear silt
from the water course if possible, and to
increase the available head to 47cm. If this
is not possible, then the roof block may be
raised so that the orifice working under
submerged conditions gives the requisite
discharge, which can be calculated roughly

by adopting K = 0.0354 in the formula

EXAMPLE (CONT…) q = K× B(t) H(orf) √H(wk)
EXAMPLE (CONT…)
q = K× B(t)
H(orf) √H(wk)

FIG. 2.15

EXAMPLE (CONT…)
EXAMPLE (CONT…)
 If neither of the two alternatives are possible, it is essential to provide a temporary
If neither of the two alternatives are
possible, it is essential to provide a
temporary outlet to supplement the
discharge of the existing outlet.
The final remedy lies in redesigning the
outlet with H(crest) = 75 cm and H(orft)
= 36.5 which gives
h(wk)min = 29 cm
This would involve raising the crest of
the outlet by dismantling one side wall.
PIPE OUTLET
PIPE OUTLET
 General  The pipe outlet is the simplest and oldest known type of outlet. Originally
General
The pipe outlet is the simplest and oldest
known type of outlet. Originally the pipes
were of earthen ware but were gradually
replaced in most places by rectangular
wooden and masonry barrels. Cast iron,
steel and concrete pipes were progressively
introduced at later stages.
This outlet can be built as free fall type if
sufficient head is available. It is generally

used where the silt charge is low and the canal is running in high filling. When the head available is very small, the submerged

pipe outlet is the obvious choice.

PIPE OUTLET (CONT…)
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…)
 Structural and design characteristics  The pipe outlet consists of an up stream head wall;
Structural and design characteristics
The pipe outlet consists of an up stream head wall;
a pipe and a down stream head wall. In a
submerged pipe outlet figure (2.19), the upstream
end is a little above or sometimes below the bed
level depending upon the designed silt drawn. The
other end of the pipe opens into the farm water
course below the water surface levels. The pipe can
be placed horizontally or sloping slightly up at 1 in
12 down streams. Both ends of the pipe are built

into masonry to present tampering and to guard against any leakage along the outer side of the pipe.

PIPE OUTLET (CONT…)  The free fall outlet may have a horizontal pipe with its downstream
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…)
The free fall outlet may have a horizontal pipe
with its downstream end about the water
surface level in the water course but in that
case it can not, usually draw its fair share of
silt. In an attempt to fix the pipe at the bed
level of the supply canal and yet obtain free fall
conditions
(where levels permit), some pipe
have been laid with their upstream ends at bed
level of supply canals and sloping upward
through the banks so that the downstream lips
reach a height 15 cm above the highest water
level in the water course. There are practical
limits to the amount of slope that can be given
and it should not generally be more than 1 in
12 (based on experience on the western

yamuna canal)

PIPE OUTLET (CONT…) Hydraulic characteristic  Silt drawing capacity No results of comprehensive experiments on the
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…)
Hydraulic characteristic
Silt drawing capacity
No results of comprehensive experiments
on the silt drawing capacity of pipe outlets
appear to have been reported, but such
experiments would be useful. On the
other hand, according to experience so far
canals fitted with pipe outlets at bed level
seldom give any silt trouble.
Efficiency
These can pass the required discharge
with a very small working head (2.5cm)
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…) Hydraulic characteristic
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…)
Hydraulic characteristic
 Design formula  Submerged pipe outlet  q = c.d ×A ×√2g h(wk)  Where
Design formula
Submerged pipe outlet
q = c.d ×A ×√2g h(wk)
Where
h(wk) = difference in water surface levels in
the supply cannel and water course
The value of c.d for ordinary cast iron pipe of
15 cm internal diameter has
found to be nearly 0.00074.
been
A simpler formula for this outlet is.
q = c. d ×A ×√h (wk)
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…) Hydraulic characteristic
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…)
Hydraulic characteristic
Where, c. d = 0.028 and 0.033 respectively for long (more than 600 cm ) and
Where, c. d = 0.028 and 0.033 respectively for long
(more than 600 cm ) and short (less than 600 cm )
pipes.
Free fall pipe outlet
q = c. d ×A×√H(cnt)
c. d = Coefficient of discharge = 0.0276
H (cnt) = head of upstream water surface over the
centre of the pipe.
The discharge is sensibly correct so long as H (cnt)
is greater than 2D(p)(inside diameter of the pipe
and is approximately correct for H(cnt) = D(p) but
is approximately correct for H(cnt) = D(p) but is
appreciably different from that given by the

formula for H (cnt)

less than D(p).

PIPE OUTLET (CONT…) Hydraulic characteristic  Adjustability  While appreciable adjustment of the design discharge would
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…)
Hydraulic characteristic
Adjustability
While appreciable adjustment of the
design discharge would require
dismantling and reconstruction of the
structure or part of it, small changes in
discharge can be affected by lowering, or
raising the bed level at the pipe outlet,
and this would change the working head.
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…) EXAMPLE  Numerical example Design an outlet for a discharge of 34 l/sec
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…)
EXAMPLE
Numerical example
Design an outlet for a discharge of 34 l/sec on
a distributing canal having a full supply depth
of 90 cm and with an available working head
of 6 cm.
Solution
q = 34 l/sec
D = 90 cm
H(wk) = 6 cm
The available working head of 6 cm is low and
the outlet must be submerged.
q = c. d× A× √2g h(wk)
34 = 0.00074× [A(p) × √2g.6]
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…) EXAMPLE  A (p) = 34/(0.00074× √2g.6)  A (p) = 423 Cm
PIPE OUTLET (CONT…)
EXAMPLE
A (p) = 34/(0.00074× √2g.6)
A (p) = 423 Cm 2
And D(p)=23.3
This may be rounded to the nearest
standard size of pipe available
Example  If in example 1 the available working head is75 cm , a wide choice
Example
If in example 1 the available working head
is75 cm , a wide choice would be possible
for the type of the outlet to use, if ,
however a pipe outlet is considered
desirable either from the point of view of
cost or if the outlet is required only
temporarily, it would be desirable to install
a free fall outlet so that it might work as a
semi-module. Assuming water level to be
200 m in the distributing canal, the water
level in the watercourse would be 200-
0.75 = 199.25m.
Example (Cont…)
Example (Cont…)
 As a trial assume a pipe of 15 cm diameter, then  q = c.d
As a trial assume a pipe of 15 cm
diameter, then
q = c.d × A ×√ H(cnt)
By putting all values in the above
formula
H(cnt) = 48.6 cm

The centre of 15 cm pipe should be thus at a level of 200 0.486

 = 199.515 m and the outlet would be
= 199.515 m and the outlet would be

semi-modular.

Problems in Outlets of Punjab
Problems in Outlets of Punjab
 Discharge Measurement Problem.  Theft Problem.  Silting Problem.  Proportional Distribution of water with
Discharge Measurement Problem.
Theft Problem.
Silting Problem.
Proportional Distribution of water with
varying discharges.
All these problems are due to
improper designed which is the main
cause of problem.
Discharge measurement problem  There is a lot of difference between authorized discharge and calibrated discharge.
Discharge measurement
problem
There is a lot of difference between
authorized discharge and calibrated
discharge.
Calibration of outlets (by Tin Flume) is a
good measure to check the accuracy of
outlets.
So, Defective outlets should be adjusted as
per their designed parameters.
Some of possibilities for discharge measurement
Some of possibilities for
discharge measurement
Some of possibilities for discharge measurement Figure NO. 4.2 Some of the Possibilities for Volumetric Discharge

Figure NO. 4.2

Some of the Possibilities for Volumetric Discharge

Measurement

Tin Flume for discharge measurement
Tin Flume for discharge
measurement
Tin Flume for discharge measurement Figure No. 4.1 Tin Flume

Figure No. 4.1

Tin Flume

Calibration of Outlet at 4-R Hakara Canal (Haroonabad) WC TYPE B Y Comm. c.d H u
Calibration of Outlet at 4-R
Hakara Canal (Haroonabad)
WC
TYPE
B
Y
Comm.
c.d
H u
Q. th
Q. ac
59100/R
PIPE
0.565
1.04
2.84
1.73
0.94
59130
A.O.S.M
0.3
1.368 2.06
5.4
3.46
0.64
60490
A.O.S.M
0.3
0.58
1.87
1.91
1.59
0.83
62500
PIPE
Closed
63910
A.O.S.M
0.32
0.66
2.24
2.52
1.89
0.75
63910
OF
0.28
Closed
62080
A.O.S.M
0.32
0.50
2.54
2.08
1.71
0.82
65080
A.O.S.M
0.32
0.51
2.54
2.08
1.65
0.79
66050
OF
0.25
2.43
3.8
2.2
0.57
67500
PIPE
0.47
Closed
69100
PIPE
0.661
Closed
69490
PIPE
0.23
1.27
0.118
0.144
1.22
70640
OF
0.24
2.17
3.185
1.8
0.56
71100
PIPE
Closed
71270
A.O.S.M
0.250
0.568
2.57
1.818
1.6
0.88
71735
A.O.S.M
0.457
0.310
2.13
1.09
1.09
1.00
71750
A.O.S.M
0.45
0.37
1.74
1.764
1.8
1.02
 
  • 73600 PIPE

             

Closed

 
  • 73600 PIPE

             

Closed

 
  • 75366 A.O.S.M

 

0.32

1.132

2.44

4.561

 

1.87

 

0.41

 
  • 78400 A.O.S.M

 

0.26

1.24

2.72

4.27

 

2.22

 

0.52

 
  • 79224 A.O.S.M

 

0.3

0.99

2.4

3.64

 

2.33

 

0.64

 
  • 79230 A.O.S.M

             

Closed

 
  • 81350 A.O.S.M

 

0.24

1.25

2.43

3.74

 

1.72

 

0.46

 
  • 86376 A.O.S.M

 

0.31

1.365

2.39

5.26

 

3.05

 

0.58

 
  • 87640 A.O.S.M

 

0.24

1.265

1.64

3.1

 

1.52

 

0.49

 
  • 88920 A.O.S.M

 

0.25

 
  • 0.61 2.14

3.025

   

1.71

   

0.8

 
 
  • 89179 A.O.S.M

 

0.38

 
  • 0.55 2.98

3.2

 

2.6

 

0.8

 
 
  • 91706 PIPE

 

0.250

   
  • 2.13 0.75

0.468

   

1.6

 
  • 92631 A.O.S.M

 

0.260

1.222

 
  • 2.66 2.86

3.85

   

0.69

 
  • 93870 A.O.S.M

 

0.27

1.14

 
  • 1.19 1.02

3.5

   

0.55

 
  • 94300 A.O.S.M

 

0.31

1.250

 
  • 2.33 2.33

2.7

   

0.86

 
  • 91102 OF

 

0.22

 
  • 1.77 2.36

 

1.4

 

0.59

 
  • 95920 PIPE

 

0.765

 

2.2

2.75

2.62

 

0.95

 
  • 96362 A.O.S.M

 
  • 0.42 1.23

 

2.691

6.75

4.051

 

0.6

 
  • 98729 A.O.S.M

 
  • 0.32 1.23

 

2.2

4.68

2.81

 

0.6

 
  • 101069 A.O.S.M

 
  • 0.38 1.05

 

1.79

4.3

2.31

 

0.54

 
  • 102214 OF

   
  • 0.45 2.25

 

2.31

1.4

 

0.6

  • 102234 A.O.S.M

 

0.49

0.82

1.526

3.98

2.15

 

0.54

  • 104520 A.O.S.M

 

0.44

0.97

2.244

5.09

3.156

 

0.82

  • 105634 OF

 

0.3

 

1.89

2.59

1.5

 

0.57

  • 107020 A.O.S.M

 

0.46

0.72

1.737

3.52

2.15

 

0.61

  • 107022 A.O.S.M

 

0.55

0.7

1.23

3.41

2.32

 

0.68

  • 107055 A.O.S.M

 

0.488

0.675

1.135

2.81

1.25

 

0.48

  • 109980 A.O.S.M

 

0.46

0.69

1.25

2.85

1.88

 

0.66

  • 112000 OF

 

0.43

 

1.21

1.33

0.7

 

0.52

  • 112050 OF

 

0.76

 

1.21

2.3

1.3

 

0.56

Analysis of data
Analysis of data
 Total number of outlets calibrated = 47  No. of A.O.S.M calibrated = 29 c.d
Total number of outlets calibrated = 47
No. of A.O.S.M calibrated = 29
c.d of maximum ranges (0.41- 0.86)
which is less than 0.9
No. of Open Flume calibrated
All has less c.d less than 0.62
= 6
No. of Pipe Outlets calibrated = 4
Which has c.d approximately 0.9
Conclusion
Conclusion
 Many A.O.S.M & Open Flume Outlet has less c.d because of the following reasons a-Radius
Many A.O.S.M & Open Flume Outlet has less
c.d because of the following reasons
a-Radius of upstream transition is not proper
b-Upstream face walls are not smooth.
c-Roof's block lower edge is not proper.
d-Turbulance is found out in control section.
e-Setting back is not proper
Setting Back is not proper
Setting Back is not proper
Face Walls are rough
Face Walls are rough
Distorted Out d/s of Outlet
Distorted Out d/s of Outlet
Discussion on discharge formula for A.O.S.M
Discussion on discharge
formula for A.O.S.M
 Formula used is small orifice formula Q=c.d×A×√2gHs But, when Hs < 2Y It is in
Formula used is small orifice formula
Q=c.d×A×√2gHs
But, when Hs < 2Y
It is in valid
Large orifice formula is
Q l =2/3 √2g
(H 2 3/2 – H s 3/2 ) b
Example
Example
 Let we observe the effect of both formulas on an outlet working under varying head
Let we observe the
effect of both
formulas on an
outlet working
under varying head
of water, over the
orifice.
B = 0.22 ft, y = 0.37 ft, A = 0.22 x 0.37 = 0.0814 ft2
B = 0.22 ft,
y = 0.37 ft,
A = 0.22 x 0.37 = 0.0814 ft2
B = 0.22 ft, y = 0.37 ft, A = 0.22 x 0.37 = 0.0814 ft2
Graph between Hs @ % Error
Graph between Hs @ % Error

35

E

Hs

  • 1
    0.5

  • 2
    1.5

  • 3
    2.5

  • 4
    3.5

  • 5
    4.5

R 2 = 0.8012

R 2 = 0.8012
R 2 = 0.8012
R 2 = 0.8012

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

E = 0.1176Hs 2 - 1.6109Hs + 6.178

Conclusion
Conclusion
 As we can see that by decreasing the Hs, % error goes on increase. So,
As we can see that by decreasing the
Hs, % error goes on increase. So, Hs
should be at least 3 times of orifice
opening in order to keep the error in
permissible limit.
Theft of canal Water
Theft of canal Water
 It is noticed that average 20% of canal water in Rabi season and 40% in
It is noticed that average 20% of canal
water in Rabi season and 40% in
Kharif season is snatched.
Means of theft water
Means of theft water
 By siphon pipes.  Fixing pipes in the bank.  Tampering of outlets  Cutting
By siphon pipes.
Fixing pipes in the bank.
Tampering of outlets
Cutting canal banks.
Putting hurdles down stream outlets.
Installing wrong types of outlets
Legalized Tampering
Remedial Measures
Remedial Measures
 Outlets should be tamper-proof and any tampering should be easily detectable  Preparation and processing
Outlets should be tamper-proof and
any tampering should be easily
detectable
Preparation and processing of Tawan
cases should be according to revenue
manual of Irrigation and Power
Department.
Silting problem in canals
Silting problem in canals
The silting in the parent channel is due to:  Faulty design of parent channel. 
The silting in the parent channel is due
to:
Faulty design of parent channel.
Defective head regulator.
Defective outlets
Control of silt through outlet
Control of silt through outlet
 Setting of outlet  Bend outlet  Pipe Semi-Module
Setting of outlet
Bend outlet
Pipe Semi-Module
Pipe Semi-Module
Pipe Semi-Module
Pipe Semi-Module
Control of silt in Punjab canals
Control of silt in Punjab canals
 Pipe Semi-Module offers a complete control over the silt induction by the outlet.  But,
Pipe Semi-Module offers a complete
control over the silt induction by the
outlet.
But, some points should be kept in
mind.
Setting of outlet for proportion al distribution of water.
Setting of outlet for proportion
al distribution of water.
 For normal irrigation system a higher setting is more desirable than proportional setting.  For
For normal irrigation system a higher setting
is more desirable than proportional setting.
For non- perennial system, it is essential to
have proportional setting so that an equal
amount of water is distributed at all times.
Suitability of adaptability of World types in Pakistan
Suitability of adaptability of
World types in Pakistan
Two types can be successfully used in Pakistan  Plastic Siphon outlet (Turkey)  P.V.C Pipe
Two types can be successfully used in
Pakistan
Plastic Siphon outlet (Turkey)
P.V.C Pipe Turn out (Korea)
Plastic Syphon Outlet
Plastic Syphon Outlet

P.V.C Pipe Turn Out

P.V.C Pipe Turn Out Figure No. 3.12 PVC Pipe Turnout

Figure No. 3.12

PVC Pipe Turnout

Conclusions and Recommendations
Conclusions and
Recommendations

Pipe Type Outlet of Pakistan can be successfully replaced by P.V.C. Pipe Turnout (Korea).
Pipe Type Outlet of Pakistan can be
successfully replaced by P.V.C. Pipe Turnout
(Korea).

Plastic Siphon Outlet can be successfully used in Potohar region of Pakistan where

slopes are so steep that dynamic velocity head can be successfully utilized for lift irrigation. Irrigation
slopes are so steep that dynamic velocity
head can be successfully utilized for lift
irrigation.
Irrigation efficiency of the Outlets can be
increased by proper designing of outlets.
 In order to keep percentage error within a permissible limit as in case of A.O.S.M
In order to keep percentage error
within a permissible limit as in case of
A.O.S.M it is advantageous to use the
water depth on the top edge of the
orifice more than three times the depth
of orifice.
The tail reaches of the canals should
closely monitored by the Irrigation
Department as these are indicators of
theft in the canal system.
Pipe Semi Module is the best choice if
we can not kept a lower setting of the
outlet for proper silt control.
 Higher setting of outlets should be preferred in perennial canals while proportional setting should be
Higher setting of outlets should be
preferred in perennial canals while
proportional setting should be
preferred in non perennial canals.
Thanks
Thanks

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